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Switch Cost Modulations in Bilingual Word Processing

Switch cost modulations in bilingual sentence processing: proof from shadowing

Sybrine Bultena, Ton Dijkstra & Janet G. vehicle Hell

Presented by Jessica Garcia

INTRODUCTION (200-400 words)

This study seeks to look for the cognitive costs of dialect switching in bilingual phrase processing. It also wants to investigate whether the cognitive cost differs depending on whether the move is from L1 to L2 or vice versa. Many reports have shown that there is a significant cognitive cost to transitioning languages, including slower response times plus more problems (Monsell 2003). Through assessments involving shadowing jobs, cognates are used to see if there is a decrease in cognitive cost due to the activation of systems from both languages. Past studies on bilingual subjects have already shown that code switching is more recurrent in cases where cognates are present; it is therefore hypothesized that because of the overlap of lexical representations, cognates not only increase regularity but also help in the switch. The amount of cognitive cost may possibly also be based upon which course the switch is happening. Data from past studies shows that the swap from L1 to L2 is more challenging than that of L2 to L1 (Proverbio, 2004). That is due to the idea that proficiency in a dialect plays a role in the ease of handling L2; the stronger the mental representation of an word is, the greater cognate facilitation occurs.

METHODS (150-300 words)

The research included fifty bilingual participants aged 18-41, which were Dutch natives who also spoke British as a second language. All were highly proficient in English having learned it in early stages in school and often taking university lessons in English.

The stimulus materials included forty different phrases. The sentences fluctuate in words (Dutch or British), sentence structure (SVO, XVSO, or VSO) as well as the presence of any cognate (Non-cognate vs. cognate). In case a cognate verb happened, a language change often followed it. Sample phrases are provided in Desk 1 and 2.

Participants were tested exclusively in a acoustics evidence room with your computer and headphones. These were instructed to hear sentences when a Dutch-English language change would occur and begin shadowing it as soon as they started experiencing syllables. Correct repetition of the phrases was pressured. Analysts were in the other room monitoring the performance. Between each collection, instructions in either Dutch or British were presented to cue the next language. After the experiment, then they performed the Simon process and the Procedure Span task to be able to asses their cognitive skills as well as another test to test their proficiency in the English language.

DISCUSSION (200-400 words)

The results showed that there surely is a definite cost of turning language, whatever the route; however, the transition from L1 to L2 is more costly. This is probably credited to language dominance and the switch cost might just be attributed to the fact that the baseline for L1 has already been quicker than L2. There is also a terms effect demonstrated; shadowing in L2 was slower and even more prone to problems than L1. However, this impact is not due to skills in L2 as the info showed that vocabulary proficiency was only significant in the starting point of the sentence. Unlike the hypothesis, there is not an aftereffect of cognate presence, no subject the language or syntax. Previous studies suggest that it is because the facilitated processing that typically occurs has been noun cognates, not verbs. The lack of facilitation is in line with many past studies of verb cognate results in sentences. In some cases, there was more turn cost when a verb cognate was present. It is possible that no coactivation of both languages happened because the participant suppressed one, rendering it harder to get in a swap. Additionally, the auditory effects of repeating the sentences out loud may have contributed to the lack of results. The phonological effect of shadowing may also donate to increased costs in terms turning; not only does the subject have to switch their lexical representations, there is also to change the manner of articulation (Phillip & Koch, 2011) In general, this study has shown that we now have no modulation ramifications of verb cognates in phrase context. It can however show the consequences of bilingualism in move cost. If terms is asymmetrical and one terminology is more powerful than the other, change costs are higher for the less efficient language as the more dominant dialect is processed with an increase of ease. These email address details are not new studies, nonetheless they provide additional support for earlier studies on verb cognates as well as language dominance.


Bultena, S. , Dijkstra, T. , & van Hell, J. G. (2015) Change cost modulations in bilingual phrase processing: data from shadowing, Terms, Cognition and Neuroscience, 30(5), 586-605, doi: 10. 1080/23273798. 2014. 964268

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