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Suicide in Northern Canada: A Sociological Perspective

Suicide in North Canada: A Sociological Point of view from Two Contrasting Views

Joel Ontiveros

I. Introduction

A growing suicide problem has plagued an indigenous community in north Canada. Different indigenous communities have had a spike in suicide and attempted suicide scheduled to many interpersonal and economical issues. In this essay, I try to contrast two sociological perspectives of Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx with regards to how and why the native populace in north Canada is having a suicide turmoil.

II. Suicide in Northern Canada

In the Pimicikamak Cree Nation in north Canada there have been six deaths from suicide within the first weeks of 2016. In addition to these there have been one hundred and forty attempted suicides within the same indigenous community. Based on the New York Times article, "[a] Wave of Indigenous Suicides Leaves Canadian Town Appealing for Help, " creator Liam Stack remarks that this wave of suicides is related to a faulty romance between your Canadian federal government and the local community. The area residents stay in extreme poverty and have an unemployment rate of eighty-five percent. In addition, the native communities' poverty brings about a sense of alienation from the non-native southern Canadians who live a far more comfortable life. The city and other indigenous communities in northern Canada get no government purchases and do not get access to employment. Furthermore, there are no clinics and mental health organizations for hundreds of miles from the communities. The city, "only [has one] fill-time mental health staff member [who] does not have any medical or psychological training, just a bachelor's level in public work. "[1] Stack says that the lack of government co-operation with the communities and injury from colonialism is what led up to this epidemic. In retrospect, the natives were required into an alien culture and were stripped of their early culture.

III. Solidarity and Anomic Suicide

From a historical point of view, Emile Durkheim would argue that the spike in suicides in north Canada is because "the historical change from a far more primitive mechanical society to [a] more organic modern culture. "[2] Durkheim stated that a mechanical society is fastened together by the normal duty that everybody merely will the same type of things. In the mechanical world, all individuals could have a job to satisfy, such as hunting or gathering. This mechanised solidarity would bring about individuals having a place in culture and feeling a feeling of belonging. It really is evident that prior to the Americas were colonized, the natives lived in a mechanised solidarity system that consisted in every individual having a job. These determined roles focused on the collective and did not emphasize individualism. In contrast, once a population has a more substantial amount of men and women with more connection, what Durkheim termed strong density, then that modern culture will convert to an organic and natural solidarity, Also, a department of labor is a factor in this social paradigm. The society becomes better in development because the department of labor needs that the majority of individuals become specialized at a certain task. He assumed that anomie happens within an organic culture, which is defined as"

A sense associated with organic solidarity, of being unsure of what is expected to do; of being adrift in modern culture without any clear and secure moorings. [3]

Indeed, the native population in northern Canada has become a victim of organic solidarity. Having less administration resources and careers leads individuals to feel alienated. They do not have a location in society as a result of lack of jobs and the incorrect assimilation that was inhumane to begin with, and didn't fully incorporate the natives in to the European Canadian society. In Durkheim's booklet Suicide, "he argued that people a more likely to destroy themselves when they do not know very well what is expected of these. "[4] He created types of suicide that make clear why suicide happens. One of is own four types of suicide is termed anomic suicide, which he defined as:

People will eliminate themselves when they do not know very well what is expected of them, where rules is low, and they're largely free to run crazy. This mad pursuit will probably establish unsatisfying and, because of this, a higher ratio of people in such a situation are likely to commit this type of suicide. [5]

It is visible that the overall suicides in northern Canada can be linked to anomic suicide. The individuals do not have access to careers or resources and stay in a modern culture that constantly encourages individualism. Having less not knowing what to do with oneself, could lead to many existential dilemmas that repressed societies must confront.

IV. Class Conflict

In a contrasting sociological view, one could link a spike of suicides in north Canada to the alienation of individuals from class discord. Karl Marx argued that under capitalism, individuals become alienated from other family, friends, and coworkers, due to a constant conflict between your personnel and capitalists. The employees or proletariat have a subsistent wage that merely lets them endure, nearly all natives surviving in north Canada do not even have jobs because of 85% unemployment rate. The natives could be called the lumpenproletariat, or individuals that are below the personnel, who may be constantly unemployed. As the lumpenproletariat is below the personnel, they still are damaged by the clash between your proletariat and bourgeoisie. The capitalists are constantly seeking ways to use benefit of surplus wages, which causes a conflict between the staff. The exploitation of surplus value causes less resources for communities including the northern local Canadians. The lack of resources anticipated to exploitation can be compounded with Durkheim's organic solidarity, and anomic suicide to emphasize the spike in suicides. On top of that, bourgeoisie dominating ideology dictates what norms/mores are to be assimilated by way of a community. These assimilations have created a ethnic genocide for the indigenous inhabitants.

V. Conclusion

The indigenous of northern Canada have seen a spike in suicide because of anomic suicide and the sense of not owed or knowing how to proceed in an organic solidarity paradigm. The go up in suicide can even be linked to the class conflict between your capitalists and the workers. Although, the majority of the natives are unemployed, they still are influenced by the dominant ideology which dictates the norms that these were obligated to assimilate.

[1] Cite article pg 2

[2] Reserve pg 15

[3] Booklet pg 20

[4] Pg 22

[5] Pg 22

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