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Studying The NEED FOR Sea Pollution Control Environmental Sciences Essay

By far the greatest sources of sea pollution are the ones that are land-based. For both pollution mitigation purposes and the conservation of marine biodiversity it is critical that international work to address land based resources of sea pollution are accelerated. In response to this pressing need and consequently of Plan 21, the Global Program of Action for the Security of the Sea Environment from Land-Based Activities (GPA) was used by over 100 government authorities, including Australia, in Washington D. C. on 3 November 1995.

The GPA is a non-legally binding tool, aimed at avoiding the degradation of the sea environment from land-based activities by facilitating the realisation of the work of State governments to protect and protect the marine environment. The sources of marine pollution it targets include sewage, persistent organic pollutants, radioactivity, metals, oils, nutrition, sediment mobilisation, litter and habitat devastation. It proposes action at generally the national and local levels with some coordination responsibilities at the global level. The GPA is designed to be a source of practical information to State governments in taking actions within their respective policies, priorities and resources.

Australia has been an active participant in meetings to go over the development, execution and overview of the GPA. The GPA in Australia.

Marine Pollution from Shipping

Examples of Australian initiatives to handle marine pollution from transport include:

Introduced Marine Pests Program

Marine Throw away Reception Facilities Program

Marine Pollution from Sea Dumping

Australia is a signatory to the Convention on the Prevention of Sea Pollution from Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) and the 1996 Protocol thereto.

The Office of the surroundings and Traditions prepares regular updates to provide industry generally with information about the London Convention and the Standard protocol, Australia's participation at London Convention conferences, and information on opportunities for industry involvement at such conferences.

London Convention Publication No 1, February 2002

London Convention Newsletter No 2, June 2002

London Convention Publication No 3, Dec 2002

Australia presently regulates the deliberate loading, dumping and incineration of waste materials at sea under the Environment Protection (Sea Dumping) Act 1981. The waters encircling Australia's coastline are more and more threatened by pollution from wastes dumped at sea. To reduce this risk, there are Australian Authorities laws that control dumping at sea.

Permits in the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts are required for all sea dumping procedures.

Print Version

The Global Programme of Action for the Coverage of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities

We are currently working with the UK-based Stakeholder Forum to examine and update this site with fascinating new additions. We ask that you return back often to learn more about how exactly you as well as your community can protect the marine environment.

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Welcome to the state Website of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Sea Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA-Marine). The GPA-Marine is the only real global intergovernmental effort directly addressing the hyperlink between watersheds, coastal waters and the wide open ocean.

The GPA-Marine enjoys almost common support, with repeated calls by the General Assembly and other multilateral fora to speed up its implementation. More and more the GPA-Marine is seen as a very important tool to increase the resilience of seaside and marine surroundings to the stresses of local climate change. The detailed, multi-sectoral and versatile procedure of the GPA-Marine reflects the desire of Governments to strengthen cooperation and coordination at nationwide, local and global scales.

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David Osborn, Planner, GPA-Marine

Waves of Change - Global Lessons to Inspire Local Action

UNEP and the Country wide Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are co-organizers of the Fifth International Sea Debris Conference that will take place March 20-25, 2011, in Honolulu, Hawai'i.

The conference, will bring together international marine debris research workers, natural resource professionals, policy makers, industry staff, and the nongovernmental community. This meeting will emphasize research advances, allow showing of strategies and best practices to determine, reduce, and stop the impacts of marine debris, and provide an opportunity for the development of specific bilateral or multi-country strategies.

For more info visit www. 5imdc. org

"Sick drinking water? The central role of wastewater management in ecological development" not only recognizes the hazards to individuals and ecological health insurance and the results of inaction, but also reveals opportunities, where appropriate policy and management reactions over the short and longer term can trigger occupation, support livelihoods, raise general public and ecosystem health and donate to more intelligent water management. "

Did you understand?

As much as 80% of the pollution insert in coastal waters and the profound oceans hails from land-based activities. This includes run-off and wastewater from farms, cities and factories, as well as the atmospheric deposition of pollutants from ability generation, heavy industry, cars, etc. The pollutants include heavy metals and Persistent Organic and natural Pollutants (POPs), litter, radioactive waste products, hydrocarbons and chemicals.

These contaminants, as well as changes to in a natural way occurirng loads of nutrition and sediments affect the most effective regions of the sea environment, including mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass meadows, coral reefs, estuaries and near-shore seaside waters. Of growing concern is the impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and the resultant acidification of the sea. Compounding these changes, the marine environment is progressively more threatened by physical alterations to the coastal zone, including the damage of habitats vital to maintain ecosystem health insurance and ecosystem services.

History in a Hurry:

The United Nations Convention on regulations of the Sea (UNCLOS) obliges governments to take methods to avoid, reduce and control pollution of the sea environment from land-based options (see especially Articles 194 and 207). In 1995, as much as 108 government authorities and the Western Commission declared their commitment to safeguard and maintain the sea environment from the adverse environmental effects of land-based activities by implementing the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) and the Washington Declaration. UNEP was tasked with the Secretariat function and founded the GPA Coordination Office. The first Intergovernmental Review happened in Montreal in 2001 and used the Montreal Declaration. The second Intergovernmental Review was held in Beijing in 2006 and used the Beijing Declaration.

Introduced sea pests

Introduced sea pests are species moved to an area outside their natural range generally by individual activities, which threaten individual health, economic principles or the surroundings.

Marine pests are released to Australian waters and translocated inside our waters by a variety of vectors, including ballast drinking water discharged by commercial shipping, bio-fouling on hulls and inside interior seawater pipes of commercial and recreational vessels, aquaculture functions (accidentally and intentionally), aquarium imports, as well as marine debris and sea currents.

Better known created marine species are the Dark Striped mussel, the Asian Green mussel and the Northern Pacific seastar. Reading more from the CSIRO Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests.

The Australian Federal response

An Intergovernmental Agreement on a Country wide System for the Reduction and Management of Sea Pest Incursions was authorized on 15 April 2005. The Australian Authorities and Victorian, Tasmanian, the North Territory and South Australian government authorities are signatories to this Contract. New South Wales, American Australia and Queensland are yet to sign.

Parties to this Agreement concur that the objective of the National System is to provide effective and cost efficient strategies for the avoidance, crisis response and ongoing management and control of sea pest incursions while providing a constant and cost effective approach to border control, compliance and development of legislation.

The Agreement is supposed to ensure that all areas whose activities can lead to the advantages and translocation of sea pests will deal with the associated sea pest risk and this measures executed under the framework of the Country wide System will be consistent with any current or future international contracts relating to introduced marine kinds.

Intergovernmental Agreement over a Country wide System for the Reduction and Management of Sea Pest Incursions

Australian Federal government funding

Now in its second phase (2002-2003 to 2006-2007), the Natural History Trust is funding a range of projects made to improve Introduced Marine Pest (IMP) elimination, control and management within the execution of the National System for Preventing and Handling Introduced Marine Pests.

Project financing is focusing on five important elements:

1. Development of frameworks for the establishment of Benchmarks, Best Practice and Codes of Practice to minimise the risks of entry and get spread around of sea pests in Australia;

2. Improvement of the capacity of companies, individuals and firms with a potential role in sea pests to participate;

3. Development of tools and the info and information infrastructure to aid the Country wide System;

4. Economic and Community assessment and evaluation of the impact of potential marine infestation incursions; and

5. Development and implementation of Control Designs for priority marine pests in Australia.

Some of the projects funded currently include:

Antifouling performance expectations for the Maritime industry: Development of a framework for assessment, endorsement and relevance of effective products

Biofouling of vessels, sea equipment, and structures is accepted as an important vector for introduced sea pests. This report produces antifouling performance expectations and proposes a four component framework for making certain vessels moving between seaside water zones have applied and maintained effective antifouling avoidance systems on the underwater hulls.

Feasibility analysis for genetic control of Caulerpa in SA and NSW

Caulerpa taxifolia is an invasive sea alga that varieties considerable meadows, dominating shallow seaside habitats, displacing local species and leading to remarkable declines in local biodiversity. This project was a pilot analysis to assess the feasibility of using hereditary ways to develop and deliver a species-specific, small molecule toxin into intrusive Caulerpa taxifolia colonies. The feasibly of the approach, as well as the time and resources necessary to make it functional in the field have been determined

Hereditary Markers for Determining New Zealand Screwshell Distribution

The New Zealand Screwshell has adapted well to Australian coastal conditions. This kinds forms thick populations which have potential to out-compete indigenous varieties, as well as alter sediment structure. The aim of this task was to build up genetic tools to recognize NZ Screwshell larvae in plankton and benthic examples. This technology is assisting to provide information about the life history of the species and how it might be carried around Australia's coastline.

Empirical Validation - Stage I: Small Vessel Translocation of Key Threatening Varieties - Asterias amurensis

This task quantifies the seaside translocation of the North Pacific seastar, Asterias amurensis, by angling and recreational vessels, as well as by aquaculture equipment off their main human population centers in the southeast of Australia to other presently uninfected localities. This information is designed to help out with future control and management approaches for this pest types.

Empirical Validation - Stage II: Small Vessel Translocation of Key Threatening Varieties - Asterias amurensis and Undaria pinnatifida

As part of this project a gene probe for Undaria pinnatifida is being developed that can be put on plankton and hull fouling samples to determine occurrence or lack. Although this level of the project essentially targets Undaria pinnatifida, the work performed on Asterias amurensis in Stage I is being continued. These details will be used to quantify the translocation potential of various inner and external spots and surfaces on fishing vessels, recreational vessels and aquaculture equipment. This information will then be utilized to inform contamination Modes and Effects Analysis which can then be applied to the development of bio-invasion and risk evaluation strategies.

Evaluation of Country wide Control Plan Management Options for the Northern Pacific Seastar (PDF - 8. 52 MB)

This project aims to develop a software model you can use to determine best control and management strategies for this introduced species. The project is likely to deliver a report detailing believed costs and benefits of management and control options for the NPS.

National Concern Pests - Part II: Position of Australian Sea Pests

The primary target of this project was to provide a list of marine kinds in Australia, other than native types, whose participants do or may threaten biodiversity within Australian waters. The project report also includes those species that are regarded likely to threaten biodiversity in the foreseeable future. A priority list will be generated of varieties that could become the subject of national control plans.

Research activities under the Country wide System - Bureau of Rural Sciences

There are two activities within this project. The first contains outlining issues about the utilization of polymerase chain response (PCR) gene probes in ballast drinking water sampling and dock monitoring, including problems induced by phony positive and phony negative results and the boundaries for detection. The next involves developing a software model that will permit the estimation of costs to the shipping and delivery industry of alternative pieces of requirements for exchanging ships' ballast normal water on routes between Australian plug-ins.

Port Survey Data Integration into Australian Museums

Invertebrate samples gathered during port studies will be evaluated and distributed to State museums for integration into their established collection and will clearly see that the specimens were collected during a port survey. This information will be uploaded onto OZCAM (Online Zoological Series of Australian Museums) which is a dynamic database produced by Australian museums. Incorporation of the port survey samples into Australian museums will ensure that their long-term good care is guaranteed and that they are accessible for ongoing taxonomic work via a one online biodiversity database for national faunal selections. The OZCAM data source can be utilized at http://www. ozcam. gov. au

Development of gene probes for introduced marine pest species

The purpose of this task is to develop specific DNA primers and real-time polymerase string response format (PCR format) gene probes for the kinds Musculista senhousia, Corbula gibba and Sabella spallanzanii that can handle detecting larvae in ballast water.

Studies of the impact and dispersal of the presented New Zealand Screwshell (Maoricolpus Roseus) to accomplish the introduction of a management strategy

Objectives of the project include identifying characteristics of preferred habitat of M. roseus in inshore surroundings of the D'Entrecasteaux Channel; characterising nourishing strategies of M. roseus and relating nourishing behaviours to habitat and movement; quantifying the impact of accumulations of live M. roseus and bare M. roseus shells occupied by hermit crabs (Paguristes tuberculatus) on the community structure of gentle sediment surroundings; quantifying the result of screwshell aggregations on the population dynamics of the commercial scallop; and determining the timing of duplication patterns of larval development and determining morphogenic cues that lead to pay out and metamorphosis.

Development of real-time polymerase string reaction detection methods for harmful Alexandrium dinoflagellate species

This project will establish genetic options for detecting the occurrence of dangerous Alexandrium dinoflagellate kinds in ballast drinking water and the marine environment. Poisonous dinoflagellate kinds can cause severe real human health issues through paralytic shellfish poisoning and business lead to the closure of aquaculture companies and recreational harvesting of shellfish.

First phase of Natural Traditions Trust assignments:

Controlling the North Pacific Seastar (Asterias amurensis) in Australia

Eradicating and preventing the pass on of the invasive alga Caulerpa taxifolia in NSW

Minimising Influences of the North Pacific Seastar in Australia

The Australian pilot task for the treatment of ships' ballast normal water - 2004

London Convention

Australia is one of 78 Contracting People to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes along with other Subject, 1972 (the London Convention), and has been since 1985, when it formally acceded compared to that treaty.

Australia's accession to the London Convention occurred after commencement of the surroundings Cover (Sea Dumping) Work 1981 (the ocean Dumping Act), the Commonwealth legislative framework which, as actually enacted, integrated the London Convention.

The London Convention is aimed at promoting the effective control of pollution of the sea environment, by regulating the dumping of wastes and other matter1 that is liable to:

create dangers to human health;

harm living resources;

damage amenities; or

interfere with other authentic uses of the ocean.

It embodies a framework for regulating dumping into the sea from vessels, aircraft and platforms, predicated on a set of substances that dumping is prohibited and list of substances needing special care, and the incineration at sea based on incineration recommendations.

The London Convention does not apply, however, in relation to:

vessels and airplane entitled to sovereign immunity under international legislation (for example, vessels and aeroplanes of the Australian Defence Push2 or of the defence force of a foreign status);

the removal of wastes or other subject derived from, or incidental to, the standard operations of the vessel, plane or system (for example, sewage and food wastes generated on the vessel at sea); or

the removal of wastes or other subject directly due to, or related to, the exploration, exploitation and associated offshore handling of seabed mineral resources (for example, wastes generated by the offshore oil and gas industry).

In 1993, Contracting Get-togethers implemented amendments to the London Convention to cycle out the dumping of commercial throw away by 1 January 1996, prohibit incineration at sea of commercial misuse and sewage sludge, and prohibit dumping of radioactive waste materials.

Each of the amendments were subsequently adopted by Australia, apart from the phasing from the dumping of commercial waste products, which Australia didn't achieve until past due 19973.

The Process to the London Convention

In 1996, Contracting Functions to the London Convention, including Australia, followed the 1996 Standard protocol to the London Convention (the Process), which, when it gets into into pressure, will supersede the London Convention.

Under the Process, Contracting Functions are obliged for taking effective measures, according to their methodical, technical and financial capabilities, to lessen and where practicable eliminate pollution triggered by dumping in to the sea.

The Protocol embodies a more simplified, modern and extensive regulatory framework than the London Convention that is supposed to provide increased security to the sea environment.

Unlike the London Convention, the Process prohibits the dumping of most wastes or other matter in to the sea, other than seven recognized categories (Annex 1), subject to specific criteria being found (Annex 2). These wastes or other matter are:

dredged material;

sewage sludge;

fish waste products, or material caused by industrial fish handling operations;

vessels and websites or other man-made set ups at sea;

inert, inorganic geological material;

organic materials of natural source; and

huge items primarily composed of iron, steel, concrete and similarly unharmful materials for which the concern is physical impact, and limited by those circumstances where such wastes are produced at locations, such as small islands with isolated communities, having no practicable usage of disposal options other than dumping.

Under Annex 2, allow applicants are required to conduct a waste material protection audit; formulate substitute waste management strategies; display screen all candidate wastes against a contaminant thresholds determined by each get together (that is, an 'action list'); determine the impact of dumping on the marine environment and keep an eye on the results. Advice is also given on dumpsite selection.

The Process also prohibits incineration at sea and the export of substances for dumping into the sea or incineration at sea, though it is important to note that there is a crisis situation exemption in respect of these dumping and incineration rules.

The sovereign immunity, normal procedures and seabed mining exemptions provided by the London Convention, as defined above, are also included into the Process.

Australia agreed upon the Process on 25 March 1998, in doing so expressing its intention to be bound by that arrangement, and on 19 July 2000, amendments to the Sea Dumping Action were handed down4 by the Commonwealth Parliament to put into action the Protocol.

On 4 Dec 2000, Australia formally ratified the Standard protocol by lodging a musical instrument of ratification with the Secretary General of the International Maritime Firm.

Under international laws, Australia continues to be destined by the London Convention, until entrance into make of the Protocol. Domestically, however, we now implement the Standard protocol, and, consequently, dumping plans are at the mercy of that framework, as applied under the Sea Dumping Function5.

Industry Participation - Australian Federal government and Industry Partnership

At the 23rd Scientific Group Appointment, which was managed by Australia in Townsville in May 2000, with the 24th Scientific Group Conference organised in London in-may 2001, the Australian Delegation included representatives of Australian Plug-ins (specifically, Ms Caryn Anderson, formerly of Townsville Interface Authority, and Dr Rick Morton, of the Interface of Brisbane Company).

This collaborative arrangement for Scientific CONFERENCES was an initiative agreed between administration and industry to better permit Australia to showcase its regulatory construction and environmental requirements, and its riches of technical knowledge.

Given the success of these arrangements, and the benefits and opportunities it provides to both federal and industry, EA is keen to keep industry representation on the Australian Delegation at future meetings of the Scientific Group.

In particular, EA is enthusiastic about sponsoring opportunities for Australian Industry associates to showcase their know-how highly relevant to this forum, including significant marine monitoring and research programs that ports in this country have undertaken.

To this end, Australia is keen to provide to the Jamaica Workshop, that may precede the 25th Scientific Group Conference in May 2002, home elevators dredging and dumping, and marine environment monitoring, with a particular focus on information which may be appealing to the Caribbean region.

Equally, EA would like to be able to present one or more Australian case studies at the 25th Scientific Group Reaching on environmental monitoring in relation to dredging and dumping programs.

Through AAPMA, EA wish to listen to from Australian industry representatives who may be considering taking part in the Jamaica Workshop.

Further details, including an agenda, according of both the Jamaica Workshop and the 25th Scientific Group Reaching can be acquired from Mr Edward Kleverlaan, Sea and International Section, Team of the surroundings and History (email: , tel: (02) 6274 1750, fax: (02) 6274 1006.

Any other enquiries regards the London Convention or the Standard protocol can be aimed to Edward Kleverlaan.

1 Wastes or other matter is identified broadly in both the London Convention and the Protocol, in order to effectively encompass all matter.

2 Word, whilst there is an exemption under the Sea Dumping Act according of vessels and aircraft of the Australian Defence Make, this exemption is narrower than is provided under the London Convention and the Process. Alternatively, the ADF exemption only is applicable in relation to a situation of armed discord, or another emergency situation. In every other circumstances, the ADF must comply with the London Convention and the Standard protocol, as applied by the ocean Dumping Function.

3 Australia sustained to permit Pasminco to dump jarosite made from its Tasmanian herb until October 1997.

4 Subsequently commencing to obtain influence on 16 August 2000

5 By complying with the Process, Australia satisfies its responsibilities under the London Convention.

London Convention Newsletter

Number 2

Environment Australia, June 2002

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Outcomes Through the 25th Program of the Scientific Group to the London Convention and the LC/IMO/UNEP Workshop On Marine Pollution Prevention And Environmental Management In Plug-ins WITHIN THE Wider Caribbean Region

Introduction

The 25th Time of the Scientific Group

Development of Waste Assessment Guidance

Monitoring of the Sea Environment

Long-term strategy for Technical Assistance and Assistance

Future Work Program

Science Day on Design and Program of Bioassays

Industry Representation

Introduction

Environment Australia (EA) has ready this newsletter to provide AAPMA members and industry generally with information about Australia's contribution at London Convention conferences. A short qualifications to the London Convention and the 1996 Standard protocol are available in the previous Publication - the first in this series.

The 25th Treatment of the Scientific Group

The 25th Procedure of the Scientific Group to the Consultative Appointment of the Contracting Functions to the Convention on preventing Marine Air pollution by Dumping of Wastes as well as other Subject, 1972 (the London Convention), happened in Ocho Rios, Jamaica, from 27 to 31 May 2002.

The reaching was went to by delegations from 17 contracting Parties, one associate person in the International Maritime Organization, three non-contracting parties and several international NGOs like the International Connection of Slots and Harbours, World Company of Dredging Associations, the Everlasting International Relationship of Navigation Congress.

Major issues for Australia included:

Development of Waste Assessment Advice (sampling guidelines and selection and examination rules);

Monitoring of the sea environment;

Long term technique for Technical Cooperation and Assistance;

Research day on Design and Application of Bioassays.

Australia undertook to provide information on the just lately released National Ocean Disposal Rules for Dredged Materials and on its use of bioassays to look for the suitability of dredged material for removal at sea. Australia also contributed, through the working teams, to the development of the Guidance documents and provided its encounters on the period out of dumping at sea of the professional residue "Jarosite".

The conference was well run and provided an excellent forum to boost considering on the characterisation of dredged materials particularly those predicated on bioassays. Conversations also focused on Action Levels used around the globe and it was evident that this needs to be further produced by the group in the foreseeable future if the harmonized approach is usually to be pursued.

The outcomes of the getting together with are lay out below.

Development of Misuse Assessment Guidance

The Scientific Group approved the draft Waste material Assessment Help with Sampling for dredged material that was well prepared jointly by Canada and the United States with suggestions from Australia. The Assistance report will be forwarded for adoption to the 24th program of the CM, which is performed in London, 11-15 November 2002.

The Scientific Group also considered the draft Universal Guidelines for selecting Physical, Chemical substance and Biological Parameters for the Assessment Dredged Material prepared by Intersessional Correspondence Group led by Germany. Australia provided source to many chapters in the doc. Further development of the text will be carried out by the Intersessional Correspondence Group which is intended that a last draft be submitted for thought at the 26TH time of the Scientific Group.

Both advice documents are designed for people that have limited experience in sampling and analysis of dredged material. That is of critical importance for compliance activities with both the Convention and the 1996 Standard protocol, and according of technological co-operation issues under the Convention. Once adopted by the Consultative Appointment, the documents will be amalgamated and become offered on the London Convention Web-Site.

Monitoring of the Marine Environment

There was considerable discussion on the continuing dumping of bauxite residue by Japan. The Scientific Group had not been convinced by proof offered, however, and matter was expressed about the origin, the fate and environmental impact of pollutants in the material. The Scientific Group consequently requested Japan to help expand conduct a variety of physical and natural impact assessments also to report these leads to the next conference of the SG. In agreeing to these requests, Japan established its intention to lessen volumes and eventually eliminate the need for ocean disposal.

Long-term technique for Technical Assistance and Assistance

The Scientific Group recognized that, despite carrying on funding constraints, any office of the London Convention had achieved a considerable amount in delivering specialized assistance and assistance before years, specifically, through four successful biannual regional workshops, several country specific projects and the introduction of training and advice documents. However it was decided that more necessary work could be achieved if any office was better resourced.

Future Work Program

In the framework into the future work plan, the Scientific Group proven much future work program with a series of time bound goals. The program includes the development of guidance on Action Levels; a Regional Workshop either in Africa (Kenya) or Asia (Japan) and more discussions on monitoring in the sea environment through a Technology Day.

Science Day on Design and Application of Bioassays

The Scientific Group conference included an informal day of medical presentations on the look and software of bioassays for the characterisation of dredged material. The presentations outlined the strengths and weaknesses of screening regimes found in several countries and caution must be exercised in interpreting results.

A similar "Knowledge Day" will be specialized in monitoring of the marine environment at another Scientific Group assembly.

Industry Representation

Australian industry was unfortunately unable to sign up for this conference. However Environment Australia is willing to keep industry representation on the Australian Delegation at future meetings of the Scientific Group.

The next appointment of the Scientific Group will be performed in London in-may 2003.

LC/IMO/UNEP Workshop On Marine Pollution Avoidance And Environmental Management In Plug-ins INSIDE THE Wider Caribbean Region

As you may well be aware a Workshop on Marine Pollution Protection and Environmental Management in Slots in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) happened in the week prior to the Scientific Group Getting together with. The Workshop was also placed in Ocho Rios and was went to by some 87 associates /individuals from 22 countries.

There was a strong occurrence from the UNEP Regional Environment Program, which is situated in Kingston, Jamaica and it is the secretariat for the Cartagena Convention, an environmental contract developed by and then for countries in the Wider Caribbean Region.

The program for the week began with a series scene establishing keynote addresses. Paperwork focused on the legal platform for marine air pollution management (London Convention, MARPOL 73/78, UNEP/GPA, Cartagena Convention), Environmental Management in Slots and Throw away Management in the Wider Caribbean Region. Australia's demonstration on contaminants and management of TBT's in ports was well received.

The second day was spent almost completely on Waste Examination Guidance, while the fourth day was spent on various areas of dredged materials management, dumping of cumbersome materials and industrial misuse, and, sewage management. On the third day a field visit to Kingston Harbour was performed. The Harbour was undergoing a major dredge operation using the major dredge in the world and included visits to several reclamation areas and the box slot facilities.

The Workshop programme then provided opportunities for countries in the WCR to provide circumstance studies of particular relevance to the spot. Countries were enthusiastic and studies were shown throughout the remaining days and nights of the Workshop with some scheduled items giving way to interesting ad-hoc discussions that comes from within the plenary lessons and sustained on into the night.

These ad-hoc discussions led to the creation of very helpful recommendations for the spot. A backup of the draft advice can be obtained from the writer of this Publication, refer below. Another ad-hoc group reviewed ballast water in the WCR and the upcoming negotiations on the draft International Convention for the Control and Management of Boats' Ballast Normal water and Sediments that is slated for completion at the end of 2003.

London Convention Newsletter

Number 3

Environment Australia, December 2002

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Introduction

The Getting together with of Parties

Compliance

Administrative and Financial Arrangements

Interpretation of the London Convention

Review of Conclusions of WSSD

London Convention Long-Term Work Programme

Election of Seat and Vice-Chairs

Introduction

Environment Australia (EA) has ready this publication to provide the Relationship of Australian Slots and Marine Specialists (AAPMA) participants and industry generally, with information about Australia's participation at London Convention conferences. A short backdrop to the London Convention and the 1996 Protocol can be found in Newsletter Number 1 1 - the first in this series.

The Appointment of Parties

The 24th Consultative Appointment (CM) of the Contracting Get-togethers to the Convention on preventing Marine Air pollution by Dumping of Wastes as well as other Subject, 1972 (the London Convention (LC)), was held in London from 11 - 15 November 2002 under the chairmanship of John Karau (Canada).

The getting together with was went to by delegations from 32 contracting gatherings (Argentina; Australia; Belgium; Bolivia, Brazil; Canada; Chile; China; Cyprus; Denmark; Egypt; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Iran; Italy; Japan; Malta; Netherlands; Norway; Panama; Philippines; Poland; Republic of Korea; Russian Federation; South Africa; Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom; USA and Vanuatu) one associate member of the International Maritime Group (Hong Kong, China) nine non-contracting people (Bangladesh; Colombia; Democratic Individuals Republic of Korea; Liberia; Marshal Islands; Singapore Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela), authorities and non-government organisations (International Atomic Energy Organization; International Association of Ports and Harbours; Greenpeace International; Everlasting International Association of Navigation Congress; Advisory Committee on Safety of the Sea and World Business of Dredging Organizations) and an intergovernmental company (Environmental Crime Prevention Program).

Below can be an overview of outcomes that may be of interest to industry or other interested people.

Compliance

The Meeting arranged to start the introduction of "compliance techniques and mechanisms" under article 11 of the 1996 Process also to convene an intersessional Correspondence Group led by Canada to analyse responses from Contracting Parties to a questionnaire targeted at setting the level for discourse and drafting of conformity mechanisms and procedures at the 25th CM. It was also agreed to require the Secretariat to get ready a submission on compliance information relating to other Multilateral Environmental Contracts.

The conference also decided to the Scientific Group suggestion to streamline and reduce the reporting requirements relating to permits.

Administrative and Financial Plans: Survey of the International Maritime Organisation-LC Working Group

The Conference endorsed three core tips of the Record of the IMO-LC Working Group. The Working group was create to streamline administrative and financial plans between IMO and LC. It had been arranged that current organisational arrangements and the provision of secretariat services to the LC should be retained which, pending forthcoming discussions of the Long-term Technique for the LC, it was premature to make any tips on the integration of the Tech Co-operation and Assistance Programme (TCAP) under the LC with IMO's Integrated Complex Co-operation Programme (ITCP). Exploiting linkages and partnering would go after further cooperation between the two programs.

The Getting together with also decided to seek central services from the IMO for:

Secretariat support and meeting services for CM and conferences of the Scientific Group, including intersessional work and, in the future, for Meetings of Contracting Gatherings under the 1996 Protocol;

implementation of the TCAP under the LC, including support for capacity building in producing countries; preparatory work for entry into force of the 1996 Process; and

Secretariat support for execution of the LC and the 1996 Standard protocol, including the amount of transition from the Convention to the Protocol.

Interpretation of the London Convention

Following a lengthy discussion on the operation of the Lihir Silver Mine (in Papua New Guinea, PNG) it was chosen that the Secretariat would write to the PNG Government seeking clarification on operations and dumping issues. The Secretariat was also wanted to review environmental guidelines relating to the dumping of wastes in to the sea set down by World Loan provider and other companies working in the same sector.

The extended dumping of bauxite residue from the coast of Japan was also evaluated. This activity is looked at by a large variety of delegations as dumping of commercial wastes, which is not allowed under the 1996 Process. Japan is working with lots of countries to find a land-based solution and is also also studying the environmental effects of the residue on the sea environment.

Following a display by the IMO-legal Department, it was mentioned that the IMO happens to be creating a draft Convention on Wreck Removal (DCWR) at the initiative of the US, Germany and The Netherlands. Under the DCWR, coastal Says vulnerable would be eligible for require the documented owner of the wreck to eliminate or pay for removing the wreck where it poses a danger to navigation or is a risk to the marine environment. Any wreck in question must be the result of a recent a maritime incident (casualty).

Review of Conclusions of the World Summit on Lasting Development (WSSD)

The Meeting researched the program of Execution and the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development. Guide was also made to the UN Informal Consultative Process on Oceans, UNEP Regional Seas Programs, UNEP/GPA, the united states Type 2 initiatives (White Drinking water to Blue Normal water Effort) and the European union Sea Strategy (in preparation) as is possible avenues to promote the ratification and accession to the 1996 Protocol including implementation of its complex co-operation activities.

Commitments to Type 2 "partnerships" were made at the WSSD and are targeted at attaining on-the-ground and functional outcomes.

Australia provided the meeting with home elevators its Type 2 initiatives and in particular, on the High Seas Biodiversity Workshop planned to occur in Cairns from 17 to 20 June 2003. There was much interest in these initiatives.

It was agreed that the LC would play an important role in the standard global reporting process (by 2004), the UNEP/GPA discussion in 2006 and the forthcoming UNEP Basic Council assembly (2003).

London Convention Long-Term Work Programme

The Getting together with considered three coverage options on future tactical objectives: position quo, status quo plus a moderate expansion to a far more holistic construction for marine environmental coverage, and, increasing the framework ambitiously to address all land-based sources of marine pollution.

The Meeting decided that the immediate goal of the Long-term Work Programme was the execution of the LC and the advertising of the 1996 Process. Australia favours a closer working relationship with the UNEP/GPA and Regional Seas Programs and supported movements to explore better collaboration with other UN Businesses and international and local organizations/programmes. The Meeting agreed that this should be strengthened for better implementation of the Long-term Work Programme in order to make on the procedures of the WSSD Plan of Execution.

Marine pollution

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Sea dumping

Marine debris

Land based marine pollution

Maritime pollution

Sea dumping

Australia currently regulates the deliberate launching, dumping and incineration of waste material at sea under the surroundings Safety (Sea Dumping) Act 1981 and the Environment Safety (Sea Dumping) Amendment Act 1986. The waters bordering Australia's coastline are more and more threatened by pollution from wastes dumped at sea. To lessen this risk, there are Australian Government laws and regulations that control dumping at sea.

Sea dumping web site

Dumping permits

Permits from the Team of the Environment, Water, History and the Arts are necessary for all sea dumping businesses. Currently, about 30 permits are granted in Australia per season, mainly for the dumping of uncontaminated dredge spoil. Applications can be acquired from the Department of the surroundings, Water, Heritage and the Arts or the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Specialist (if the dumping is to occur within the fantastic Barrier Reef Marine Recreation area).

Dumping permit applications

Artificial reefs

Artificial Reefs are controlled under the Environment Cover (Sea Dumping) Function 1981. A credit card applicatoin for a permit to make an manufactured reef must be from the Team of the surroundings, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Additional permits may also be required under relevant Express legislation.

Sea dumping - unnatural reefs

An software for a permit to make an man-made reef

Land based sea pollution

Poor normal water quality and sediment quality are the most serious known pollution issues impacting on Australia's coastal and marine environments. The 1995 Express of the Marine Environment Report found that pollution from the land contributes up to 80 percent of all marine pollution and is a major risk to the long-term health of nearshore sea systems. It influences ecological processes, public health and cultural and commercial use of marine resources. For more information visit the Point out of the Environment, Coasts and Oceans Reporting. The next links are previous and present Australian Authorities initiatives that promotes tackling marine pollution at source.

The Australian Government's current activities are:

Australia's National Programme of Action for the Cover of the Sea Environment from Land-Based Activities

Integrated Coastal Zone Management

Reef Drinking water Quality Safeguard Plan

Great Barrier Reef Coastal Wetlands Protection Program

Queensland Wetlands Program

Coastal acid sulfate soils

Acid sulfate soils (ASS) is the term usually directed at soils or sand that contain iron sulfides (pyrite). In an undisturbed state, seaside acid sulfate soils are relatively safe. However, when exposed to oxygen, through drainage or excavation, sulfuric acid is stated in large quantities. After rain, particularly following prolonged dry out durations, this acid is mobilised in the dirt profile, taking with it other liberated contaminants such as heavy metals. This harmful cocktail eventually moves into adjoining waterways significantly lowering drinking water quality.

National Coastal Acid Sulfate Soils

Maritime pollution

The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts works co-operatively with other Australian Administration and State firms on domestic and international maritime pollution policy and its implementation. This includes involvement in the International Maritime Company and the local ANZECC Maritime Incidents and Pollution Implementation Group (MAPIG). Current issues include ballast water, toxic anti-foulants, unveiled sea pests, pollution from shipping and delivery operations and marine debris.

International Maritime Organisation

Ballast water and introduced sea pests

Ballast drinking water is a significant way to obtain Introduced Marine Pests. Australia's Oceans Insurance plan includes a dedication to establish a fresh comprehensive nationwide management system for incursions of introduced sea pests (IMPs). The establishment of the new national system will take place through the execution of the Dec 1999 statement of the Country wide Taskforce on the Prevention and Management of Marine Infestation Incursions.

Australia's Oceans Policy

Introduced Sea Pests

Anti fouling

The Division of the surroundings, Water, Traditions and the Arts has worked towards home and international bans on antifouling paints for ships that contain the toxic substance Tributlytin (TBT). In addition, it supports a future global ban on TBT now being developed through the International Maritime Company (IMO). Beneath the Natural Traditions Trust, the Antifouling Program, funded assignments that recognized research into ideal alternatives to TBT based mostly antifoulants, monitoring of the impacts, and community education.

For more information read about days gone by Anti fouling Program under Australia's Oceans Plan of the Natural Heritage Trust

Marine waste material reception facilities

Under the Natural History Trust, the Sea Waste materials Reception Facilities Program funded assignments that demonstrated the establishment of best practice facilities for the management and treatment of marine waste at slots, marinas and fishing boat harbours around Australia. Funding is no longer available for the program.

Integrated Coastal Area Management

The coastal area is one of Australia's ideal assets. The essential goal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is to keep, restore or improve the quality of seaside zone ecosystems and the societies they support. National cooperation is required to achieve ecologically lasting development through ICZM.

The Platform for a Country wide Cooperative Approach to Integrated Coastal Area Management, endorsed in Oct 2003, addresses both development and conservation issues for coastal Australia that are of countrywide scale and scope. It recognises the need for governments to aid ongoing economic, interpersonal and environmental well-being in the seaside zone. It sets the world for national cooperation in managing seaside issues and ensuring effective and complementary plans within and across jurisdictions, and to better indicate the passions of coastal stakeholders.

The six goal areas tackled in the Platform are:

integration over the catchment coast sea continuum

land and sea based resources of pollution

climate change

pest plants and animals

planning for human population change

capacity building

While jurisdictions have different legislative and administrative frameworks for handling the coastal zone, adopting a national cooperative approach looks for to address cross boundary and sectoral issues, harmonise joint action towards management of common issues, and encourage investment funds from all jurisdictions.

An implementation plan that looks for nationally cooperative outcomes within nominated timeframes has now been released. The National Cooperative Approach to Integrated Coastal Zone Management - Platform and Implementation Plan packages out, under the strategic priority areas, execution objectives and activities required to solve seaside management issues. Activities identified in the implementation plan will build on existing coastal management initiatives whatsoever levels of government and, where possible, will be achieved through the efficient allocation of existing resources.

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