Study FOR THE Concentric Castles Record Essay

Unlike square keep castles, concentric castles had no central keep. In lots of senses, that they had no centre either as all elements of the castle would have been considered to be a strong point. Each concentric castle possessed a very closely defended entrance and the central key was defended by a series of curtain walls. The furthest of the curtain walls could have been the tiniest in height to allow the defenders to see an getting close to opponent. The curtain wall structure nearest to the castle could have been the best to give the defenders the maximum height gain over those attempting to dominate the castle.

Towers in castles such as Beaumaris and Caernarvon were not rectangular such as those found in rock keep castles. The towers at Beaumaris are round while Caernarvon Castle has a variety of shapes (mainly polygonal) - but none of Caernarvon's are square. Round towers were problematic for the adversary to dig under with the prospect of collapsing them (called sapping) and engineers/architects from the time found that a circular condition gave towers far more strength than the original rectangular ones. At Caernarvon, towers possessed towers built within them making them a formidable defensive feature.

However, concentric castles possessed two major weaknesses. They were massively expensive to build and when an attacking army decided to dismiss them, troops within concentric castles possessed the decision of either being where they were and not affecting themselves in battle or departing their host to safety and fighting on open surface. That stated, concentric castles were built-in highly strategic areas and an invading army would will often have possessed no choice but to strike. Most of Edward's castles were built by the ocean which allowed ships as large as 300 tons to get up to the castles to allow these to be offered. This recommended that the original way of defeating a castle - by besieging it - was no more a practical option for attackers. To supply Rhuddlan Castle, Edward purchased that technical engineers divert the River Clywd. Information show that 968 diggers/ditchers straightened the river so that his watercraft could sail in the Clywd to provide the castle. This anatomist feat would be a formidable process now, but Edward experienced it done in only three summers.

One of the finest exemplory case of a concentric castle is at Caernarvon in Wales. Here the wall space are, in fact, two walls with the hollow middle between them filled in with rubble. The blocks of natural stone needed to be immense and strong to handle the huge pressure placed on them when the rubble was devote. This, among a great many other issues, provides some idea as to the importance Edward I placed on Caernarvon. When this castle was completed it possessed cost Edward 27, 000 (regarded as about 35 million or more at today's prices). This was about his income for one year - spent into just one single castle. The wars against the Welsh experienced already cost Edward 100, 000 and help purchase all of this he raised taxes. Edward maintained very detailed records that show how much the castles cost. Caernarvon, Harlech and Conway cost between them 50, 000 - this is at a time when a skilled worker acquired between 3p and 4p a day. Caernarvon and the other north Welsh castles were designed by Master James of St George, an architect from Savoy. It really is possible that Edward met Master Wayne as he delivered from the Crusades as we realize that he ended off in Savoy and he was also related to the family that ruled Savoy.

Castles as homes

Edward passed on in 1307 and Expert Adam in 1309. With these two fatalities - one a ruler who sought strong well-built fortifications, the other a superb architect - castle building in Great britain and Wales faltered. By 1327, castle building in Wales ended forever. That they had simply cost too much and kings after Edward were more interested in palaces instead of castles.

Large stone castles were built-in European countries from about the 1100's to about the 1500's. These huge buildings served not and then defend the united states from international invaders but as the basic tool in protecting the king's and the nobles' vitality above the land. The public system was very rigid in the Middle Ages.

Under Feudalism, the basic social composition in this time, all land was held by the ruler. The king provided pieces of this land to various high nobles, in return for their help in fighting his wars or in adding down rebellions. Not only did the higher nobles have to struggle for the king themselves, that they had to supply a certain volume of smaller lords and other knights to help fight also. These higher nobles then provided a few of their land to less knights, in return for their help in fight. Below all the knights were the serfs, who actually farmed the land. They offered a portion with their crops every year to the lord who ruled over them, in substitution for use of the land and cover.

The king cannot be everywhere in the country, especially with the indegent streets and the limited travelling of the Middle Age ranges. The king's vassals, the lords, however, could be all over the country, with their castles as icons of their electric power for all those to see.

A man's boy inherited his lands and his obligations to fight. As time continued, inheritances became complicated, because there have been lords who had no living children, who acquired only daughters as heiresses, and who divided their inheritances amongst their sons (almost never daughters). Once the daughter of any lord married the child of another lord, the young few inherited land from both individuals. If the overlord from whom they acquired one piece goes to war with the overlord from whom they got the other piece-on which area did they fight? If there are two possible heirs to the throne itself, for whom do they battle? If a higher lord rebels up against the king, does indeed his vassal deal with for god, the father, or for the ruler? Who is closer, and much more likely to eliminate his castle and his land? What will the other knights do? Which family members is he allied to, by marriage or other bonds?

The castle was both a house for god, the father and his family, and a fortification. It was a solid place for god, the father to defend himself against his foes (and the king's enemies, and his overlord's enemies), a safe place for him and his knights to return to, and a place to live which emphasized his electricity. A few seriously armed knights could control a sizable area, if there was no organized army to go against them. Not only did knights fight foreign foes, they fought a great deal against one another, and they deposit rebellions one of the peasants. Showing you had a lot of power sometimes made actual fighting unneeded. In Britain, many of the castles are along borders, to avoid raids by the Welsh and the Scots, so when a basis for raiding in return.

Natural stone and wood were about the only building materials available. Slate and thatch (bundles of reeds or other plant life in a heavy bundle) were used for roofs, but not for walls. Fortunately, northern Europe had huge amounts of both solid wood and stone. Wood didn't last for as long, but, worse, maybe it's set burning by the other aspect. Stone is quite strong in compression (stone can take up a great deal of weight). Mortar and gravity held the stones in place. Once a rock building is constructed, it needs hardly any maintenance and continues a long time. It isn't, however, very enjoyable to live a life in-a stone castle is frigid, moist and dark. Many bits were added to increase the castle as a dwelling.

Castles were created to keep out opponents. When an invasion was expected, the drawbridge was raised, the gates and portcullis were closed, and archers were stationed on the towers. The wall space were not only high, in a well-planned castle, nonetheless they were arranged whenever you can so that anyone climbing the wall surfaces could be taken at from two guidelines. Many castles have strange designs because the castle was made to accommodate the landscape, and to capture attackers in a crossfire.

The castle's defenses invited a great deal of ingenuity from the attackers. Rolling wooden towers, protected with thick hides to stop arrows and held wet so they could not be set burning, were brought up to the wall space in an invasion. Sometimes they even worked well. Catapults threw heavy stones at the wall space to make a breach or loads of rocks (or diseased livestock, or open fire bombs) within the wall space. The battering ram-generally used against a door-was a vintage favorite.

Thoughts of the different 'siege motors' were always on the thoughts of the castles' designers. The castle was often built on a raised platform. Highways to the castle angled and sloped to limit the simple use of battering rams and so on. There is often also the traditional moat (left behind from digging out the earth to help make the raised platform for the castle) and drawbridge, just to keep things interesting.

Another approach to defeating a castle was laying siege to it, by wanting to starve out the inhabitants, or longing until they ran out of normal water. If their drinking water could be poisoned, they had to surrender. An excellent well was vitally important to a castle.

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