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Study on Humanistic Mindset and Abraham Maslow

Humanistic psychology also known as third force mindset developed in the 1960's and was led by Abraham Maslow who published "Toward a Mindset of Being" in 1962. The center perception of humanistic psychology is that humans are innately good and located emphasis on individual expansion and potential and personal actualization. The underpinnings of humanistic mindset can be traced to the philosophical viewpoints held by existentialist; in addition its development emerged as a result of disagreement with the present schools at the time. Therefore this article will discuss the association between humanistic psychology and existential viewpoint, the introduction of humanistic mindset in response to behaviorist and psychoanalytic mindset and the difference among these three universities.

Existential viewpoint and humanistic mindset are directly related and show some similar ideas in doing so they're usually grouped together. Both models talk about the belief that human nature is dependant on free will and are in charge of their activities, that humans must be examined all together, humans are unique and cannot be learned by learning animals. Moreover both believe humans seek significant lives through personal progress and both reject traditional clinical methodology in learning humans and the best method is through phenomenology which is the analysis of intact subjective experience (Hergenhahn, 1996).

Prior to the origin of third push psychology, both dominant schools at the time were first and second push psychology. First power psychology is the way led by theories of psycholoanalysis that was founded by Sigmund Freud in the 1880's who place focus on the unconscious wishes, instincts and years as a child experiences all inspired behaviour. Freud's therapy was aimed to uncovering repressed recollections, internal conflicts and anxieties from past childhood encounters through his research of dreams and free association. Second force psychology arose from 1930's to 1950's that as known as behaviourism, its development is mainly given to credit of B. F. Skinner however also included the work of Watson and Pavlov. Behaviourism targets objective and observable tendencies with no concern of internal mental states. Matching to Cherry (2005), behaviourism is based upon the idea that all actions are acquired through the relationship with the environment. Behaviorist therapy involved modifying maladaptive and undesirable behaviours to healthy behaviours through organized sensitization, shaping and behavioural deals.

With these two universities dominating the field of psychology, the humanistic psychology grew in opposition to these two academic institutions in the 1960's. Humanistic psychologists criticized behaviourists for positioning too much importance on study and research of the activities of folks as organisms. In addition they thought that too much work is put in in lab research reduced individual behaviour to its elements (Cherry, 2010). According to the humanist point of view behaviorist neglected the basic aspects of people as sense and considering individuals. Humanists criticized psychoanalysis for its deterministic position, which postulates that one's early on experiences and drives determine one's behavior. Furthermore both first and second drive schools held the fact that behavior was either motivate by unconscious thought or by the surroundings. Psychoanalysis believed that behavior was powered by unconscious motivations and for behaviorists behaviour resulted from condition and exterior factors. However humanistic psychology criticized both for being too deterministic and pessimistic since they failed to take into account the individuals personal choice.

Third force mindset in turn was different from the first and second force schools of mindset as they presumed in free will. Humanistic psychology is known as nondeterministic where they reject science as a way of studying humans. They assume that the most crucial causes of behaviour are self-generated and individuals are absolve to choose courses of action in which he or she alone is responsible for them (Hergenhahn, 1996). Therefore for humanist, behavior is independent of physical or psychical triggers which are presented by first and second drive psychology. Third force psychology was also different in their methods of dealing with patients, psychoanalysis goals to bring the individual past issues and repressed stories to the conscious level then change them in the positive components of the individual life where the psychologist or psychotherapist takes on a passive role and the patient plays and active role in talking about his / her past. In the same way in behaviourist therapy the patient performs an active role as she or he engages in research assignments. In addition the goal is to change maladaptive behaviours into healthy ones. Yet, in third force mindset the psychologist plays a more active role in the process, furthermore while the emphasis in psychoanalysis is relief from cognitive dissonance and changing of maladaptive behaviours in behaviourist, in humanistic mindset according to Cassel, 2001 the dynamics that serve as the basic for change are typically positive in characteristics. The principal role of the psychologist is to interpret set up personal designed plan or setting for action of an individual meets the requirements for third power psychology and not lead to the personal development or learning of person included (Cassel, 2001).

Humanistic psychology helped bring forward a fresh notion to the development of psychology, humanist put emphasis on the role of the individual in managing and identifying their state of mental health. Humanistic psychology has been acknowledged with the influence from both the environment and internal thoughts and needs however as we have seen the views of humanistic mindset is associated with existential viewpoint as they both believe that humans are good and nondeterministic. A significant contribution of Humanistic psychology was the removal of the stigma mounted on therapy and its affect on education and professional medical (Cherry, 2010) and the introduction of alternative remedy to psychoanalysis and behaviourist. Each school are different in their point of view towards understanding individual thoughts and behaviour and their view of human nature for illustration while humanist believe in free will, first and second make psychology believe the deterministic view. However all classes are highly influential in mindset and are applied to every day life.

Reference

Cassel, R. N. (2001). Assessing the energetic of second and third drive psychology. Retrieved

from http://findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_qa3673/is_1_122/ai_n28879480/?tag=content;col1

Cherry, K. (2005). What is behaviourism. Retrieved from

http://psychology. about. com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behaviorism. htm

Cherry, K. (2010). Humanistic psychology. Retrieved from

http://mindset. about. com/od/historyofpsychology/a/hist_humanistic. htm

Hergenhahn, B. R. (1996). An introduction to the annals of psychology (3rd ed).

Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks / Cole

Humanistic psychology. (2010). In Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved Dec 15, 2010, from

Encyclopdia Britannica Online: http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/276011/humanistic-psychology

Question 2

The development of psychology commenced with the postulations of philosophers and physiologist and advanced into thoughts of twentieth century modern psychological universities that are applied in several fields today. No college is considered the perfect model in the history of mindset however this newspaper will discuss the psychoanalytic college being the best & most outstanding university in psychology based on the concepts proposed, succeeding research, applicability and analysis of the characteristics that produce a good theory.

Psychoanalysis was founder by Sigmund Freud in the 1880's and started out with Freud collaborating with neurologist Breuer and Charcot in treating patients who experienced hysteria. Freud found out that patient problems began from their years as a child stress and was effectively cared for through free association in which they were encouraged to talk about their traumatic experience. Freud's proposed a number of concepts on wish, development, personality, your brain, instincts and protection mechanism which were all found in the ideas of past Greek philosophers, Romanticism, Existentialism and German viewpoint. These ideas were appropriate to Freud's time and remain applied today demonstrating the noteworthy paradigm of psychoanalysis.

Psychoanalytic theory variety to analyzes and interprets ideas and fantasies by watching the manner in which these are being indicated and acted out in culture (WordIQ. com n. d. ). Freud developed a theory which stated that normal and unusual habit and development was formed by unconscious motivations. Freud's theory has stimulated research and has been applied personality, developmental and irregular psychology, he proposed that an individual's personality is the end product of its history; that past acquisitions continue to effect further mental development; that analysis of the development of every aspect of the personality can provide information about man that cannot be obtained in virtually any other way; which personality develops in particular five psychosexual periods. His theory also states that in both normal and excessive development, the major characteristics of personality are permanently established in early youth, through each child's pleasures and frustrations in a variety of developmental stages where they may develop fixations (Tharney, 2010). These ideas were found in this principles of id, ego, superego, instincts, unconscious, fixations and regression.

Psychoanalytic theory as we have seen suggested a diverse range of concepts, all ideas allow us to arrange, understand and monitor a phenomenon which helps us make predictions and increase the phenomenon detected. Scientific ideas are differentiated from intuitive and irrational ideas; a good theory is seen as a possessing: heuristic value, interior consistency, parsimony, comprehensiveness, useful value, applicability and verifiability. We can evaluate psychoanalysis based on there characteristic that will demonstrate its value and paramount theory in mindset. A high ranking indicates a theory fulfills the criterion in question well, a moderate indicates that the theory fulfills the criterion to come acceptable degree and low rating suggest that theory failed or barely meet the criterion.

On the criterion of heuristic value which is the degree a theory has straight stimulated research rather than used in a worldwide sense to handle the question of how well a theory has captured the public's attention, psychoanalysis rate as high. Psychoanalysis have affects lots of subsequent experts such as Jung, Adler, his little princess Anna Freud, Horney and Erickson who've all branched out as neo-psychoanalysis and developed Analytical mindset, Individual psychology and Ego psychology. In the criterion of Parsimonious theory which includes a few and simple ideas, Freud rates moderate since some of his concepts were complicated in nature as it cases to provide explanations for all of human personality and that his theory also got heavy emphasis on sex and aggression as the only real motivators of behavior. The criterion of efficient significance refers to the range and diversity of phenomena encompassed by way of a theory. Freud rates high since his psychodynamics' ideas such as repression, ego, Oedipus and Electra issues have become area of the vocabulary of educated laypersons, countless individuals have been influenced by some form of psychoanalytically structured theory. Furthermore his theory has been applied to different disciplines such as economics, books, history, anthropology and psychoanalysis has reshaped individual mother nature n 20th hundred years. Freud also rates high on comprehensiveness which is the number and variety of phenomena encompassed with a theory. Freud's theory was most detailed as he developed a system of thought that covered a massive range and diversity of behavioural phenomena such as mental health disorders, dreams, laughter, unconscious, motivation, loss of life, creativity, war, forgetfulness and communal taboos. An additional characteristic is internal consistency; this requires the theory to be constant with itself, the idea must take into account whatever phenomena it includes in a reasonable and coherent fashion. Freud rates average since the mother nature of his theory permits essentially reverse behaviours to be accounted for by the same concept of the same behavior to be described by different concepts. Around the criterion of on verifiability which requires the ideas of an theory to be obviously and explicitly identified related one to the other and can be empirically looked into. Freud rates low since his concepts lacked operational specificity, so empirical evaluation happens to be difficult if not impossible. Yet, in the view of applicability, Frued's theory is rated high as his theory after fifty years continues to be being applied today in much self-discipline such as child rearing, treatment of disorders, personality, counselling, therapy and treatment of cravings. Overall Freud's theory rates high on the qualities of why is a good theory which therefore illustrate its merit as the best model offered in mindset.

Freud has been criticized for lack of verifiability, approach to collection and over emphasis on gender however he has pioneered in the introduction of therapy and guidance, and has meet all the conditions for a good scientific theory. Overall his theory is one of the very most useful theories applied today and is seen predicated on its applicability, useful relevance, parsimonious, comprehensives and heuristic value as the best paradigm offered in psychology.

Reference

Tharney, T. R. (2010). Overview of psychoanalytic theory. Retrieved from

http://www. scribd. com/doc/4384612/Handout-4-Overview-of-Psychoanalytic-Theory

Question 3

The contemplation of human existence goes back to Greek philosophy and still is out there in the modern world. Philosophers, psychologist, spiritual leaders as well as individuals have asked and mirrored on just what a satisfying life encompasses. Responses change from our behaviours, adherence to culture organizations and specifications, achievements, behavior and even observance of any supreme being. It ought to be noted that these responses depended on the zeitgeist therefore the context where the theorist lived affected their classification and suggestion of the individual existence. This paper will concentrate on two psychologist; Rogers and Freud and their classification of any "satisfying" life and how such life is attained by individuals.

Sigmund Freud, the daddy of psychoanalysis is well known for his pessimistic view of human characteristics, Freud assume that tendencies is determine by unconscious motivations, irrational forces and natural and instinctual drives as they progress through five psychosexual stages which take place in the first five many years of life. Despite Freud's pessimist view of human character, Freud proposed his characterization of any satisfying and happy life. Freud identified satisfaction in terms of pleasure, in which stated is carried out by the id that people are born with and it is handled by the pleasure theory that continuously seeks pleasure and satisfaction. Freud mentioned that pleasure and pleasure was the main goals of humans According to Freud, all humans "strive after pleasure; they would like to become happy and remain so". Satisfaction for Freud was humans wanting to experience pleasure and steer clear of pain where this pleasure rule dominated life and was common in human at all times. According to Freud (1920, as cited by Raab, 2009) the "principle dominates the operation of the mental equipment from the start", from the time we are born, the pleasure rule is working inside of us for case crying as a newborn to satisfy a need such as cravings for food.

However Freud mentioned that satisfaction can't be completely achieved since we constantly seek pleasure or gratification from something. In Freud's reserve "The Pleasure Principle and the truth Principle", Freud advises that people concur that the only goal in life is usually to be happy, which he stated can only be performed by the pleasure process. However since this is constant, Frued proposed the truth basic principle which is motivated by the ego that performs an important role in gratifying the individuals wishes within reality. Once we can see Freud observed satisfaction as gratifying the individual wants and not to a specific need but whatever the average person desired. In reaching satisfaction within the realm of reality, Freud stated that human hire the defense device such as sublimation that was a concept suggested by philosopher Arnold Schopenhauer who Freud acknowledged and displacement. Displacement according to Freud is upgrading an stress and anxiety provoking goals with one which does not and sublimation is the process in which we replace and intimate goal that provokes anxiety with a nonsexual one (Hergenhahn, 1996). Matching to Bullock, n. b. , individuals sublimate the energy that comes from desires that they are unable to gratify by expending that energy in creating works of art or intellect. Therefore though sublimation and displacement people may find delight however not everyone has the ability to do this and such individuals may repress their needs. Fried saw religious beliefs as a mass delusion in which he stated that faith is a protecting mass delusion in this section where he talks about various types of contentment. According to Freud, religious beliefs is situated in the theory that the truth is the opponent (Bullock, n. d. ). Freud believe satisfaction may be accomplished by two ways; first individuals can stay away from all the complexities that bring unhappiness, from the other experience a strong, but short, feeling of happiness and secondly the most crucial goal is never to get used to our happiness because it might go away (Bullock, n. d. ). Satisfaction for Freud was constant in all individual and involved satisfying our desired however satisfaction matching to Freud was short-lived.

Carl Rogers, a humanistic psychologist view of human being nature was opposite compared to that of Freud as his perspective was optimistic as he seen humans as innately good. Satisfaction regarding to Rogers was observed in the concept of the fully working person also called his theory of maximum development. Rogers presumed that satisfaction is achieved when a person achieved their full probable. Rogers similarly to Maslow believed in sef-acutualization; the ability to be open to experience and embraces the higher values of individuals existence, matching to Rogers by using this actualizing propensity, individuals will live satisfying lives and finally reach their full potential (Hergenhahn, 1996). Rogers detailed reaching satisfaction as an organismic valuing process where the individual is motivated by his / her own true thoughts and rather than mores, beliefs, traditions, ideals, or conventions enforced by others (Hergenhahn, 1996), a thought observed in existential philosophy.

Rogers posted a publication "One Becoming a Person" in 1961 which he detailed the nice life and fully functioning person as a process, not a condition to be and listed a number of characteristics of such person. Relating to Rogers satisfaction is reaching one full probable and to carry out so one must have the following attributes; an evergrowing openness to see, living each moment completely, increasing organismic trust, independence of choice, ingenuity, stability and constructiveness. Corresponding to Rogers, 1961 life of the completely functioning specific as rich, full and enjoyable and shows that they experience enjoyment and pain, love and heartbreak, dread and courage more intensely. Rogers presumed that only somebody who experience unconditional positive respect can become a fully performing person, which is when one individual is completely taking toward someone else and is also not only a show of approval, but is an attitude that is then proven through habit (Psychology Glossary, 2010). Rogers found satisfactions as an activity in attaining one's full potential in life.

Satisfaction is grouped differently to each individual, what is satisfaction for one person will mean something else for another. Where Freud saw satisfaction as natural and driven, Rogers noticed satisfaction was ongoing and of free will. Moreover while Freud defined satisfaction as attaining pleasure and preventing pain, for Rogers satisfaction was achieving one's potential in life. Freud thought that satisfaction was temporary and may be accomplished by keeping away from things that bring unhappiness and knowing that happiness can disappear however Rogers presumed that satisfaction is attained by possessing lots of characteristics and most essentially embodying unconditional positive respect. As we can see specific seek satisfaction in several way whether to meet physiological needs, intellectual need or attain one's full probable, obtaining satisfaction as agreed upon by both Freud and Rogers is found in everyone.

Reference

Bullock. (n. d). Sigmund Freud. Retrieved from

http://faculty. fullerton. edu/abullock/305/Freud%20study%20guide. htm

Hergenhahn, B. R. (1996). An advantages to the annals of mindset (3rd ed).

Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks / Cole

Psychology Glossary. (2010). Unconditional Positive Respect. Retrieved from

http://www. alleydog. com/glossary/definition. cfm?term=Unconditional%20Positive%20Regard

Raab, D. (2009). Trying for Enjoyment. Retrieved from

http://blogit. colgate. edu/mt/mtsearch. cgi?search=Life&IncludeBlogs=183&limit=10&page=4

Rogers, C. (1961). On Learning to be a Person. Retrieved from

http://www. panarchy. org/rogers/person. html

Question 4

Psychoanalytic and behaviourist psychology were the two main makes in psychology in the 20th century, both classes were founded in the 20th century and pioneered in treating individuals who go through some psychological crisis to be able to help them lead a healthy and normal life. As a result of their fulfillment and value in developing mindset, each school made copious research by a sizable number of investigators, who then become popular theorist that developed the own branch of psychology. This newspaper will examine the notion of both psychoanalytic and behaviourist universities and the arguments by subsequent analysts that resulted in the development of neo-psychoanalysis and neo-behaviourist. It is important to understand such expansion as it aided in the development of mindset.

Sigmund Freud was the creator of psychoanalytic theory which focused on unconscious pushes, repression of youth encounters and includes principles section of the psyche in to the id; the pleasure seek part of the psyche, the ego; the logical part of the psyche and the superego, the moral part of the psyche which all interact along and cause behavior. Behaviours is encouraged by intuition that are broken down into life instinct (Eros) whose goal is to preserve life through pleasure, satisfying appetite, thirst and duplication, and is motivated by energy he called the libido and the death instinct (Thanatos) that is the unconscious desire to expire that is portrayed through self-destructive manners such as conflict. Freud used techniques such as free relationship, wish interpretation, and evaluation of resistance and transference to be able to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and inside conflicts caused by the psyche.

Freud was criticized for his approach to data collection since he developed the majority of his concepts by watching himself and his patients. He was also criticized for his the inability to test his concepts including the unconscious, Oedipal complex, penis envy and psychic energy and for putting too much focus on sex and did not tolerate anyone who ideas that were in opposition of his. Through the development of psychoanalytic mindset, Freud collaborated with a number of psychologists who later disagreed with a few of his concepts and proposed their own theory. In addition other psychologist who surfaced from Freud's psychoanalysis also disagreed with a few of his ideas and offered option, which are now referred to as neo-psychoanalysis. Neo-psychoanalysis are people who relate to any psychoanalytic system predicated on but changing Freudian doctrine by emphasizing sociable factors, interpersonal relationships, or other cultural affects in personality development or in causation of mental symptoms and conditions (Dictionary. com, 2010).

Freud and Jung proved helpful together in the first 1900's, Jung's focus on schizophrenia resulted in his collaboration with Freud. Jung became critical of Freud's emphasis on sexuality as the dominating factor in unconscious motivations, along with Freud's values on the psychosexual origins of neuroses and Freud's concept of the sex drive. Jung believed that Freud placed too much focus on sexuality and his ideas were negative, he also assumed that real human behaviours were molded not only by earlier incidents but as well as the future. Jung found the sex drive as a creative force that might be applied to individual expansion whereas Freud found it as intimate energy that drove personality (Hergenhahn, 1996). Jung also minimized the role of the unconscious and developed his approach known as Analytical Psychology, an in depth theory of personality types and full explanation of the general, primordial images known as archetypes deriving from the deepest tiers of the unconscious psyche (Edinger, 2008). Freud caused Adler in creating psychological treatments for patients who experienced neuroses. Adler broke from Freud and founded an independent university of psychotherapy known as Specific Psychology which centered on the uniqueness of every person. Adler disagreed with Freud's emphasis on the role of gender and rejected that universality of natural motives and goals ascribed by Freud for penis envy by women in so doing he minimized the affect of making love on personality and he centered on the conscious rather than the unconscious. Adler suggested that inferiority feelings are a motivating make in someone's habit in his idea of inferiority organic.

Another psychologist who disagreed with Freud was Karen Horney who criticized Freud's view of women and his perception that men and women were given birth to with inherent variations in their personality and put much more focus on the social environment for example the mother or father - child relationship. Furthermore she proposed the introduction of the womb envy which is the men's envy of womb capability to bear children in relationships to Freud's male organ envy that took place that the phallic level of psychosexual development. Freud was also criticized by Erik Erikson for inserting too much emphasis on sexuality; Erikson disagreed with Freud's idea that almost all of human development takes place in youth and he suggested eight phases of psychosexual development in which humans develop throughout their life expectancy based on the social wish to affiliate with other people.

Not only were there neo-psychoanalysis, but there is also neo-behaviourist that contain psychologists who followed the type of thinking and strategy of Watson, but were delivered or functioned after Watson (Wordpress. com, n. d. ). John B Watson is credited for the founding of behaviorism who that that psychology's goal be the prediction and control of tendencies (Hergenhahn, 1996). Watson targeted only on observable habit and rejected the idea of studying the mind, his work was predicated on the tests of Pavlov who analyzed conditioning process in family pets and found through paired associations of any neutral stimulus and conditioned stimulus, and behavior can be learned. Watson's exhibited that through conditioning, an individual can learn dread which he revealed in the Little Albert test. Watson theory proposed that mentalistic principles were irrelevant, he turned down the idea of individual distinctions, he thought that the surroundings was the most crucial aspect of learning and behaviours; he used contiguity to clarify learning and explored the strength of learning.

One of the first neo-behaviorist was Clark Hull who developed the idea of hypothetico-deductive of learning which states that if experimentation helps the deductions from this theory, the idea gains strength; if not, the area of the theory on which the deductions were based is modified or declined. Hull defined behavior strength as the amount of strengthened pairings between a stimulus and a response. He saw response potential as a function of the amount of habit strength and drive present (Hergenhahn, 1996). Tolman suggested purposive behaviour where he believed that behaviour has an objective and was directed in achieving a goal. He assumed that psychology should; target only on overt behaviours rather than internal mental claims and therefore is known as a neo-behaviourist. Edward Guthrie also submit an alternative solution view of behaviourism, Guthrie like Watson focused on observable tendencies however Guthrie have confidence in one trail learning which suggests that the association between a structure of stimuli and a reply evolves at full durability after just one single pairing of both. Guthrie's also proposed that learning was predicated on the law of contiguity where there is an association between a stimuli and response occurring together. Guthrie's notion on behaviorism shared with Watson that learned patterns resulted from stimulus and replies.

In summation, the enlargement of both psychoanalytic mindset and behaviourist psychology through the introduction of neo-psychoanalysis and neo-behaviourist have all provided commendable and essential alternates to the original notion proposed by Freud and Watson that stimulated to development of psychology. These alternatives are also wide appropriate in understanding personality, human being development, behaviour adjustment, education and child rearing.

Reference

Dictionary. com. (2010). Neo-freudian. Retrieved from

http://dictionary. reference. com/medical/neo-freudian

Edinger, E. R. (2001). Analytical mindset - Jung. Retrieved from

http://www. iloveulove. com/psychology/jung/analypsych. htm

Hergenhahn, B. R. (1996). An launch to the history of psychology (3rd ed).

Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks / Cole

Wordpress. com. (n. d. ). Neo-behaviourist. Retrieved from

http://free-books-online. org/psychology/history-systems-of-psychology/neo-behaviourists/

Question 5

The development of psychology comprises of different schools where each school suggested a theory describing individual thoughts and behavior. The mainstream classes contain Psychoanalysis, Behaviourist, Humanistic and Gestalt mindset, each college is widely influential not only the development of psychology but in its application. This paper will compare the viewpoint of the schools; firstly I'll compare behaviourism of Tolman and Watson, then the Behaviourist institution to Gestalt institution, Gestalt school to Psychoanalytic and Behaviorist institution to Psychoanalytic. Lastly I am going to discuss how Gestalt psychology is similar to Humanistic / Third make psychology.

The founding of behaviorism is acknowledged to John B Watson who explained that behaviour can only just by researched through studying over behaviour and not mental thoughts. Watson is well-known for his test out Little Albert in which he showed the conditioned psychological response. Watson later shown the desensitization of an phobia in another little boy known as Peter by little by little exposing him to his fear subject until he was able to touch it. Watson's theory targets environmentally friendly as the central aspect of learning and used contiguity to describe learning and explored the strength of learning. Tolman a neo-behaviourist also believe psychology should give attention to overt behaviours rather than your brain. Tolman gave reputation to Watson's behaviorism however he differed as he didn't believe that behaviour is reduced to stimuli and muscular reactions rather he suggested that the training could not be divided into individual elements rather it ought to be looked at as a complete. While Watson identified learning as a stimulus and response marriage, while Tolman looked at learning as a stimulus to stimulus romance. Furthermore Tolman suggested that that organisms possess a cognitive map which signifies the surroundings and suggested the concept of latent learning which is learning that occurs but not yet moved into behaviour where as Watson turned down any idea of mental forces. The main difference between Watson and Tolman was the view the learning relationship and approval of mental happenings.

Behaviourism did not only differ within their school nonetheless it shared a number of dissimilarities with Gestalt psychology which focuses on whole aspect of behaviour and cognitive experience. Gestalt psychology argued that behaviorism centered on specific problems and not the whole, the main difference between Behavioursit and Gestalt psychology is that while behaviorism view observable behavior and even though some neo-behaviourist acknowledged mental makes, Gestalt mindset views behaviours and head all together. According to Utmost Wertheimer as cited by Cherry, 2005 "A couple of wholes, the behavior which is not dependant on that of their individual elements, but where in fact the part-processes are themselves determined by the intrinsic character of the whole". Second of all Gestalt mindset is a feeling based while behaviorism is dependant on behaviour in which Gestalt focus on the average person, their understanding and environment however behaviourist emphasize nurture. Which means techniques employed by Gestalt psychology require noticing the individual feelings while behaviorist observe tendencies for example Gestalt therapy involves developing the customers knowing of their environment and themselves while behavioural therapy think that disturbances are learnt and involve modifying behavior through shaping and vulnerability. Lastly behaviorist make clear human behaviour in conditions of stimulus and response romance where as Gestalt make clear behaviour as a combination of the individual perception, environment, psychological and mental.

Not only does Gestalt psychology change from behaviourist nevertheless they differ from, psychoanalytic mindset which places focus on unconscious forces and childhood experiences as motivating behaviour. Gestalt psychologist as stated before view the individual as a whole system through the acknowledgement of the environment and individual understanding whereas in psychoanalytic mindset the target is on unconscious pushes and biological drives in deciding behavior. In Gestalt therapy involves self awareness while psychoanalysis is situated free association in which the patient uncovers unconscious pushes in order to cope with the illness. In Gestalt remedy the individual seeking help is referred to as the client whereas in Psychoanalysis the individual is known as the individual, in addition in Gestalt remedy the client is prompted in self awareness and finding whereas in psychoanalysis the individual unconsciously contains the interpretation of analyst. Lastly Gestalt therapist contrives experiments that lead the client to greater consciousness and fuller connection with his or her alternatives (Yontef, 208) whereas psychoanalysis is more interpretive.

Gestalt mindset is viewed an alternative to Behaviourism and psychoanalysis which are the two dominant schools in psychology, however they are hugely different. Behaviorist mindset place heavy focus on the environment and observable behaviour disregarding unconscious forces whereas psychoanalytic psychology believed the cause of all behavior was due to instinctual biological causes and unconscious motivations. The work of behaviorism was based on observing occasions whereas psychoanalytic mindset was predicated on individual who suffered with anxiousness and neurosis therefore behaviorism symbolized a more methodical method. The principles proposed by psychoanalysis are difficult to test and demonstrate whereas since behaviourism check out measurable behaviour may easily examined and proven. Psychoanalysis was thinking about dream analysis, free relationship, mental says and desires that drive the individual behaviour whereas behaviourist looked at the relationship between stimulus and response and discarded cognition.

As we can see each power in psychology contributed to its development and differ in a number of ways, another major university is the Humanistic / Third Pressure Psychology which closely resembles Gestalt psychology. Both Humanistic and Gestalt psychology were inspired by existentialism which pressured the meaning of human life, freedom of preference, and the uniqueness of people. For the existentialists, the most important areas of humans are their personal, subjective interpretations of life and the choices they make in light of these interpretations (Hergenhahn, 1996). Gestalt and Humanistic mindset both show similar method of therapy, the Gestalt procedure encourages self consciousness where the client describes his / her world through experience and belief of the world likewise in your client Centered approach used by Humanistic psychologist your client as well is encourage to describe his / her world. Gestalt and humanistic mindset and can be associated as they both require your client to simplify and filter his or her information of the world and becomes clear thereby increasing the likelihood for expansion. Another similarity among these two schools of mindset is the fact both give attention to the present problems and the goals of both are rooted in the client's encounters. As we can see this two institutions of psychology are closely associated.

The field of psychology offers a variety of concepts, theories and research in detailing human mother nature, thoughts and behavior. Each university has added to the development and growth of mindset is currently applied in education, organizations, legislation, medical, forensic and dependency in improving individuals life. No university is definitely the perfect model of understanding human behavior and thoughts, each university offers a concept that is applied nowadays and continues to create further research.

Reference

Cherry, K. (2005). What is gestalt mindset. Retrieved from

http://psychology. about. com/od/schoolsofthought/f/gestalt_faq. htm

Hergenhahn, B. R. (1996). An intro to the annals of mindset (3rd ed).

Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks / Cole

Yontef, G. (2008). The gestalt remedy network. Retrieved from http://www. gestalt. org/yontef. htm

Question 6

Functionalism surfaced as a reaction to Structuralism which centered on the structure of the mind and instead centered on the purpose of your brain and behaviours. Functionalism was affected by the Charles Darwin evolutionary theory and was pioneered by William Adam and Wilhelm Wundt, in addition Edward Thorndike was a major proponent of Functionalist who's well-known for his puzzle box. Functionalism can also be tracked to philosophers such as Aristotle and Hobbes and has affects behaviourism and education. This newspaper will discuss three social sources of functionalism and its contribution to the practical perspective of psychology. In addition this paper will discuss the contract and disagreement between Adam' and Freud's conceptualisations. Finally this newspaper will discuss how psychoanalytic psychology is more dominant in psychology and our culture than functionalism.

Functionalism was effect by lots of cultural resources American world. Functionalism can be followed to Aristotle's theory of the heart and soul where Aristotle argued that the heart and soul is inseparable from your body, and includes whichever capacities are required for a body to have, understand, reason, and act. The effect of Hobbes's account of reasoning as a kind of computation that proceeds by mechanistic principles comparable to the guidelines of arithmetic is also observed in Functionalism. Matching to Hergenhan, (2006) Hobbes shows that reasoning along with imagining, sensing, and deliberating about action, all of which proceed according to mechanistic principles can be performed by systems of various physical types. Thirdly a lot of functionalist was affected by Darwin's theory of evolution for illustration both prominent mindset William Adam and John Dewey were both inspired by Darwin. Each preceding theorist postulated their theory predicated on the zeitgeist; the soul of the time and was then observed in the school of functionalism in the United States.

The publication of William James book "The Ideas of Mindset" is viewed by some as the start of functionalism, similarly Sigmund Freud publication of "Interpretation of Dreams" can be regarded as the early beginning of his development of psychoanalysis. Both Adam and Freud are named "fathered" functionalist and psychoanalytic mindset respectively, although both have pioneered in the development of each model, prior psychologist explored the concepts of both model. Wayne is can be viewed as the daddy of functionalism for just two reasons; in the 1800's through the U. S Renaissance, psychology had not been only dominated by beliefs and religion however the emergence of structuralism. In the late 1800's, James publicized The Guidelines of Mindset which corresponding to Hergenhahn, 2006 marked the start of a psychology as it was compatible with evolutionary theory and functionalism emphasized individual differences, version to the environment, and practicality that have been all observed in evolutionary theory. Furthermore Adam theory was influenced by Darwin and subsequent functionalist theorist were affected by Adam therefore James is definitely the dad of functionalism. In addition Adam argued against structuralist position and emphasized that mental life is ongoing, personal and could not be divided up directly into parts which he explained in his principle, stream of awareness. James also discussed habits, feelings, ideo-motor theory and pragmatism which were all later. Regarding to Hergenhahn, 2006 Wayne contributed to psychology through his incorporation of evolutionary theory, his departure from structuralism, and pragmatism which led to the introduction of applied psychology.

Although James is definitely the daddy of functionalism some disagree, corresponding to Hergenhahn, 2006 if the publication of James, The Guidelines of Mindset was the start of functionalism then functionalism predated the institution of structuralism and ran parallel to it. Hergenhahn, 2006 went on to convey that Sahakian, 1975 indicates the origin of functionalism at 1896, with the publication of John Dewey's article "The Reflex Arc in Psychology. ". This paper is usually considered the first assertion in founding functionalism. Furthermore Dewey like Wayne was influenced by Darwin's evolutionary theory and disagreed with Titchener and Wundt for basing subconscious theories on stimulus - replies research which he considered flawed since it ignored both the continuity of individuals behavior and its own significance in conditions of adaptation whereas matching to Mindset Journal, 2010 functionalism centered on the organism all together as it functions in the surroundings, an active perceiver rather than passive device of stimuli. Dewey printed Psychology in 1886 which was the first psychology textbook in 1886 and pioneered in Educational psychology. Both Wayne and Dewey were aided in the advancement of functionalism.

Throughout record Freud is definitely the dad of psychoanalysis because Freud after working with Charcot and Breur, Freud developed successful techniques in dealing with mental patients that for example his approach to free association that was applied in assisting people. Secondly Freud developed a comprehensive theory for example his theory the psychosexual periods of development that all child progresses through and failure to do so brings about a fixation which explained for his or her personality. This again was later explored by succeeding research workers and applied in understanding mindset and individual development. Thirdly Frued thoroughly talks about the idea of the unconscious where he elaborated on more than any earlier philosopher which his iceberg and topography principles. Lastly Freud theory influenced subsequent researchers, today known as neo-psychoanalyses such as Jung and Adler who then made their own ideas.

Like Wayne, although Freud is considered the father of mindset, psychologist before can be credited for the ideas where they both broadened on. Charcot was a well known a neurologist and director of the La Salpetriere Organization in 1862, examined paralysis, anesthesia, and symptoms he regarded as "hysterical, " and attempted to demonstrate their practical rather than anatomical (Mijolla, 2006). Charcot's just work at the Salpetriere involved observation patients who he termed to be enduring for neurosis. His work among these patients provided the construction in assisting these patients recover which was later utilized by Freud. Charcot released the technique of hypnosis in which he used to take care of his patients. Charcot thought that hypnosis removed the symptoms of hysteria, which relating to Mijolla, 2006 demonstrated they were not connected to organic and natural lesions, unlike true neurological disorders and was a step towards a "psychological" conception of the foundation of hysterical symptoms. Charcot was important in the development of psychoanalysis but Josef Breur was most significant with his focus on Anna O, a hysterical woman. Breuer was the first to recognize that symptoms of hysteria completely disappeared when, under hypnotherapy, the individual would remember and at exactly the same time relive emotional circumstances bringing about the symptoms. It was thus that cathartic therapy was born (Chiriac, 2002). Freud worked alongside Breur which affected the introduction of psychoanalysis. Both men ignited the notion of psychoanalysis offering different positions and key ideas in psychoanalysis.

Although functionalist was the make of mindset in US, it soon dropped and was assimilated by behaviourism. Additionally the psychoanalytic methodology although controversial was vastly multiply in america and became dominant in the world of psychology. Of the two perspectives, psychoanalytic mindset has had the lasting effect on the willpower of mindset and our culture. Psychoanalytic mindset has immensely contributed to the growth of mindset by its approach in dealing with mental disorders, understanding both normal and unnatural behaviour and development of psychology domains by it parsimonious principles such as psychosexual developmental levels, intuition, dreams and unconscious. Psychoanalyst major contribution was it applicability to other areas such as child rearing, personality, disorders, habit and politics. Furthermore psychoanalytic psychology stimulated research by other psychologist who then separated into their own institution of mindset such as Jung, Alder and Erickson. Psychoanalytic theory has even disperse to culture, including the jargon is trusted in the media, business, politics, medication and society; concepts including the Freudian slide, phallic male, sex drive and anal personality are used by the average person.

Psychoanalytic mindset is one of the dominant perspective seen today, however although functionalism has declined, it had contributed to the progression of mindset especially in the institution of behaviourism. Both Wayne and Freud have led the establishment of functionalism and psychoanalytic psychology respectively and also other prominent people such as Dewey and Charcot in which their work totally remains significant in understanding each point of view.

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