Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (13 May 1717 - 29 November 1780) was the only feminine ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the previous of the home of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands, and Parma. By matrimony, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, and Holy Roman Empress.
She began her 40-yr reign when her daddy, Emperor Charles VI, perished in October 1740. Charles VI paved the way on her behalf accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, as the Habsburg lands were bound by Salic regulation which prevented feminine succession. Upon the loss of life of her father, Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria and France repudiated the sanction that they had accepted during his life span. Prussia proceeded to invade the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia, sparking a nine-year discord known as the Warfare of the Austrian Succession. Maria Theresa would later unsuccessfully make an effort to reconquer Silesia during theSeven YearsHYPERLINK "http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Seven_Years'_War"'HYPERLINK "http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Seven_Years'_War" Conflict.
She wedded Francis Stephen of Lorraine and acquired sixteen children, including Queen Marie Antoinette of France, Queen Maria HYPERLINK "http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Maria_Carolina_of_Austria"Carolina of Naples, DuchessMaria Amalia of Parma and two Holy Roman Emperors, Joseph II and Leopold II. Though she was expected to cede power to Francis and Joseph, both of whom were officially her co-rulers in Austria and Bohemia. Maria Theresa was the total sovereign who ruled by the counsel of her advisers. She criticised and disapproved of many of Joseph's actions. Although she actually is considered to have been intellectually inferior compared to both Joseph and Leopold. Maria Theresa comprehended the value of her public persona and could concurrently evoke both esteem and passion from her content.
Maria Theresa promulgated financial and educational reforms, with the help of Count number Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz and Gottfried vehicle Swieten, promoted business and the introduction of agriculture, and reorganised Austria's ramshackle armed forces, all of which strengthened Austria's international status. However, she refused to allow religious toleration and modern day tourists thought her regime was bigoted and superstitious. As a monarch who fought two dynastic wars, she assumed that her cause should be the reason behind her subjects, but in her later years she came to the realization that their cause must be hers.
The second but eldest surviving child of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick, Archduchess Maria Theresa was created early each day of 13 May 1717 at the Hofburg Palace, Vienna, shortly after the death of her elder brother, Archduke Leopold. She was baptised at night that day. Her aunt and her grandmother, Empress Wilhelmine Amalia and Empress Eleanor Magdalene, were her godmothers. Most information of her baptism stress that the newborn was carried before her cousins, Archduchesses Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia, the daughters of Charles VI's elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, before the sight of Joseph's widow, Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lјneburg. It was clear that Maria Theresa would outrank them, even though their grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, experienced his sons sign the decree which offered precedence to the daughters of the elder sibling. Her daddy was the only surviving male member of the home of Habsburg and hoped for a son who prevent the extinction of his dynasty and succeed him. Thus, the labor and birth of Maria Theresa was a great disappointment to him and the people of Vienna; Charles never were able to overcome this sense.
Archduchess Maria Theresa in 1727, by Andreas Muller. The
flowers which she provides in the uplifted folds of her dress signify her fertility and expectations to carry children in adulthood.
Maria Theresa replaced Maria Josepha as heiress presumptive to the Habsburg realms as soon as she was born; Charles VI experienced released the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 which acquired located his nieces behind his own daughters in the type of succession. Charles searched for the other Western european powers' approval for disinheriting his nieces. They exacted harsh terms: in the Treaty of Vienna (1731), Great Britain demanded that Austria abolish the Ostend Company in return for its reputation of the Pragmatic Sanction. In total, THE UK, France, Saxony-Poland, United Provinces, Spain, Venice, Says of the Church, Prussia, Russia, Denmark, Savoy-Sardinia, Bavaria and the dietary plan of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction. France, Spain, Saxony-Poland, Bavaria and Prussia later reneged.
Little more than a year after her birth, Maria Theresa was became a member of with a sister, Archduchess Maria Anna, and a different one, known as Maria Amalia, was created in 1724. The portraits of the imperial family show that Maria Theresa resembled Empress Elisabeth Christine and Archduchess Maria Anna. The Prussian ambassador noted that she had large blue eye, fair scalp with hook tinge of red, a broad mouth and a notably strong body. Neither her parents nor her grandparents were closely related to each other, making Maria Theresa one of few members of the House of Habsburg who weren't inbred.
Maria Theresa was a serious and reserved child who liked singing and archery. She was barred from horseback riding by her daddy, but she would later learn the basics with regard to her Hungarian coronation service. The imperial family staged opera productions, often conducted by Charles VI, where she relished participating. Her education was overseen by Jesuits. Contemporaries thought her Latin to be quite good, but in all else, the Jesuits didn't teach her well. Her spelling and punctuation were unconventional and she lacked the formal manner and speech which experienced characterised her Habsburg predecessors. Maria Theresa developed a close romantic relationship with Countess Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard, who trained her etiquette. She was informed in drawing, painting, music and dancing - the disciplines which would have ready her for the role of queen consort. Her dad allowed her to wait meetings of the council from the age of 14 but never mentioned the affairs of condition with her. Despite the fact that he had spent the last ages of his life obtaining Maria Theresa's inheritance, Charles always expected a son and never had his daughter ready on her behalf future role as sovereign.
Maria Theresa was as conventional in manners of point out just as those of religion, but applied significant reforms to enhance Austria's armed forces and bureaucratic efficiency. She employed Matter HYPERLINK "http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Count_Friedrich_Wilhelm_von_Haugwitz"Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz, who modernised the empire by creating a standing army of 108, 000 men, payed for with 14 million guldenextracted from each crown-land. The central federal was responsible for the army, although Haugwitz instituted taxation of the nobility, who nothing you've seen prior needed to pay taxes. Maria Theresa oversaw the unification of the Austrian and Bohemian chancellories in May 1749.
Maria Theresa doubled the state of hawaii revenue between 1754 and 1764, though her attempt to taxes clergy and nobility was only partially successful. These financial reforms greatly better the economy.
In 1760, Maria Theresa created the council of condition, composed of the state of hawaii chancellor, three customers of the high nobility and three knights, which dished up as a committee of experienced people who suggested her. The council of condition lacked exec or legislative expert, but nevertheless confirmed the difference between the form of government employed by Frederick II of Prussia. Unlike the second option, Maria Theresa had not been an autocrat who acted as her own minister. Prussia would choose this form of federal government only after 1807.
In 1771, she and Joseph granted the Automatic robot Patent, a reform that regulated a serf's labor repayments in her lands, which provided some pain relief. Economically, in 1775, the Monarchy's budget was balanced for the first time in history.
Maria Theresa having a theatre mask(1744), by Martin van Meytens. She deemed the theater as a source of amusement and nationwide pride and insisted after observing special rules to achieve a higher moral shade.
Gerard vehicle Swieten, whom Maria Theresa experienced recruited following the fatality of her sister, Archduchess Maria Anna, founded the Vienna Standard Medical center, revamped Austria's educational system and offered as the Empress's personal doctor.
After getting in touch with in vehicle Swieten, Maria Theresa asked him to study the situation of infant mortality in Austria. Following his recommendation, she made a decree that autopsies would be mandatory for all medical center deaths in the location of Graz, Austria's second major city. This legislation - still in place today - combined with relatively stable people of Graz, led to one of the most crucial and complete autopsy details on the planet. Her decision to own her children inoculated after the smallpox epidemic of 1767 was responsible for changing Austrian physicians' negative view of inoculation. The empress herself inaugurated inoculation in Austria by web host a supper for the first sixty-five inoculated children in Sch¶nbrunn Palace, waiting around on the children herself.
Among other reforms was the Codex Theresianus, begun in 1752 and finished in 1766, that defined civil protection under the law. In 1776, Austria outlawed witch burningsand torture, and, for the very first time in Austrian record, took capital consequence off the penal code, as it was replaced with required labor. It was later reintroduced, but the progressive nature of the reforms remains mentioned. Much unlike Joseph, but with the support of spiritual government bodies, Maria Theresa was against the abolition of torture. Given birth to and brought up between Baroque and Rococo eras, she found it hard to match in to the intellectual sphere of the Enlightenment, which is why she only slowly and gradually used humanitarian reforms on the continent.
Main reforms concerning the Roman Catholic Chapel were initiated and carried out under Maria Theresa, while the reforms under her son worried their non-Catholic things. The ecclesiastic plans of Maria Theresa, like those of her devout predecessors, were predicated on primacy of authorities control in the relations between the Church and the state of hawaii, but not of organization of the Chapel. Maria Theresa prohibited the creation of new burial grounds without the prior permission of the federal government, thus deploring the wasteful and unhygienic burial customs.
Maria Theresa as widow in 1773, by Anton von Maron. Serenity keeps the olive crown above her head, reaffirming Maria Theresa's monarchical position. This is the previous commissioned state family portrait of Maria Theresa.
Aware of the inadequacy of bureaucracy in Austria and, in order to improve it, Maria Theresa reformed education in 1775. In a fresh school system predicated on the Prussian one, all children of both genders from the age ranges of six to twelve had to attend institution. Education reform was fulfilled with hostility from many villages; Maria Theresa crushed the dissent by buying the arrest of all those compared. Although the theory possessed merit, the reforms weren't as successful as they were expected to be; in some elements of Austria, 50 % of the populace was illiterate well into the 19th century.
The empress allowed non-Catholics to attend university and allowed the advantages of secular things (such as laws), which inspired the drop of theology as the key foundation of university or college education.