Posted at 11.02.2018
The dispute between empiricism and rationalism starts within epistemology, the study of knowledge. Epistemology makes an attempt to answer the questions: what is knowledge?, what can we know?, and what is the difference between thoughts and opinions an knowledge? The study of knowledge started in Greece with the Pre-Socratic thinkers, dating back to the 6th and fifth hundreds of years B. C. E. Zeno, a Pre-Socratic, is the first thinker to bring about the two colleges of philosophy, rationalism and empiricism, which would expand to become a popular focus among other philosophers. Rationalism is defined as the epistemological view that true knowledge comes from reason and from within your brain. This school of thought is based from the a priori: truths that can be known independently of observations, and innate ideas: ideas believed to be present from labor and birth. Empiricism, on the other side, is the view that true knowledge comes from sense experience. Empiricists thought a priori and innate ideas were none existent, and rather all significant knowledge came from the a posteriori, the fact that truth is set up only through observation. Zeno chose to give attention to information produced from mathematics or rationalism, because he presumed this information to be sure. He thought that information produced from the senses, or empiricism, could be deceiving. After that, the way where we obtain knowledge continued to be argued over. Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, philosophers began to have sides as to what they assumed was the foundation of knowledge. They developed two categories: the Continental rationalists and the British empiricists.
In the Continental rationalist group were philosophers Rene Descartes and Baruch Spinoza. The philosophies of Descartes and Spinoza are similar because they are systematic, logical, and logical. Both Descartes and Spinoza sought a system of thought that possessed the certainty of mathematics and was free of Scholastic tradition, because they presumed scholasticism could not be respected. They thought that judgments must be made from a mathematical basis and assumed in a mechanistic worldview, the real world is not the earth as known by the senses but instead by mathematical physics. These were also both pantheists, which intended that they equated God with dynamics. Spinoza worked off of Descartes ideas from his Cartesian Method, that nothing is true unless it is clear and distinct. This idea of only believing what is certain was a concept brought up years ago by the Pre-Socratic thinker, Zeno and developed further by the Continental rationalists. The largest difference, however in Spinoza's viewpoint was his judgment on chemicals. Descartes defined compound as whatever can exist alone, without the aid of any other chemical. He divided the globe into two sorts of substances, considering substance (your brain) and extended substance (your body). Then divided thinking chemical in to the infinite thinking substance (God) and finite thinking chemicals. Although Descartes thought that there is only 1 infinite material (God), he presumed that there have been many finite thinking substances, so he was a pluralist. Spinoza turned down Descartes's divisions of substances and his plurality of finite substances. He didn't agree with Descartes's department of infinite and finite thinking substance. For Spinoza, there is only infinite product, and no thinking chemical and extended element. Spinoza claimed that there is only one material, infinite substance, which he equated with God. Spinoza also argued that the definition of substance helps it be impossible for your brain and the body to be specific substances. He said that mind and body are modes of this single material. So, Spinoza got Descartes notion of chemicals and built upon it, but Spinoza was a monist rather than a dualist like Descartes.
The other major philosophical group through the seventeenth and eighteenth century was the traditional British isles empiricists. The empiricists assumed that all knowledge comes from observation. Hume and other English empiricists rejected the intuition/deduction thesis and the thought of innate knowledge suggested by Descartes. Hume thought that true knowledge came from a posteriori, sense experience, rather than from a priori. A significant difference between Hume and Descartes is their take on the issue of God's life. When both applied their completely different theories to the topic of Gods presence, they attained different conclusions. In Descartes attempts to doubt everything, he understood that only 1 thing was certain, "I believe, therefore I exist". Descartes concluded that God is out there when he came to the realization that if he himself is at the mercy of doubt, he's imperfect, and cannot be the reason for his lifetime. Because he previously an idea of perfectness, this idea must result from a perfect being, or God. However, Hume was not able to confirm God's living. Hume built upon Leibniz's analytic synthetic distinction in creating his "Humean Method". He segregated ideas into three categories: analytic propositions, fabricated propositions, and nonsense. He created a couple of questions you can ask to come quickly to the conclusion in regards to what category a concept fell under. As opposed to Descartes conclusions about God's life, the Humean method shows that God should be placed under the "nonsense" category because it is not possible to track God back to sense data. Descartes, the rationalist and Hume, the empiricist possessed differing viewpoints. However, the two philosophers are similar because they both raise very skeptical issues. Descartes idea of the possibility of evil demon placing thoughts inside our mind and Hume's final result that the idea of God is "nonsense" brought on people to start questioning traditional teachings and what they had always regarded as true. New ideas like the methods offered by Descartes and Hume later triggered problems because as people became more alert to these ideas, more rebellion from power and religion began that occurs.
Part Two: Immanuel Kant
In the Preface to the next release of the "Critique of Pure Reason", Immanuel Kant compares his idea to the Copernican Revolution. It is stated that as Copernicus believed that all heavenly bodies shifted round the sunshine, Kant assumed he was the guts, and this everything migrated around his school of thought. The school of thought of Immanuel Kant was so groundbreaking because he helped bring together rationalism and empiricism. Because of Kant, the issue between rationalists and empiricists finished, and epistemology could move forward.
Kant was motivated to make his viewpoint after he experienced a copy of Hume's "Inquiry". He realized that he disagreed with lots of the issues Hume raised, and decided to refute them. In his publication, "The Critique of Pure Reason", he mixed the ideas of Hume and the ideas of rationalists. Kant agreed with the empiricist declare that sense experience is the source of all beliefs, but disagreed with the final outcome that those values may not automatically be true. He also disagreed with the rationalist idea that truths about what does or does not are present could be made the decision through reason by themselves. He taken away the question by saying that thinking and experiencing cannot tell us how things are really. Instead, Kant asked if it was possible that people have metaphysical knowledge. He stated that your brain analyzes the data it perceives in conditions of space and time. So, space and time are not features of external actuality, as the empiricists and rationalists before him assumed.
Kant said that in order for human beings to interpret the globe the human mind imposed certain structures on the incoming sense data. Kant described these set ups in terms of twelve categories: compound, cause/effect, reciprocity, necessity, opportunity, lifetime, totality, unity, plurality, restriction, fact and negation. These categories were characteristics of the appearance of any subject in general. However, these categories are related and then human language. When coming up with a assertion about an object, that person is making a wisdom. A general subject, that is, every object, has capabilities that are contained in Kant's list of Categories. Within a common sense, or verbal assertion, the Categories are the predicates that can be asserted of each object and everything objects.