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Study of Hydrodynamic Causes on Multiple Cylinders in Waves


In the modern times, there were increase in demand of production in the just offshore industry. The wide market size of offshore structure business in oil and gas production draws in interest for buyers. Offshore constructions are stationary structures located in the marine environment for production of natural resources such as wind turbine for making electricity, FPSO (Floating Creation Storage area Offload) for crude engine oil removal and drilling for drillships. These offshore structures can be either fixed or widely floating. Floating offshore set ups/platforms will be using mooring system or powerful positioning solution to float and hold its position set up. Many obstacles are confronted to withstand the positioning of the offshore structures credited to seakeeping and influx fill problems.

As technology progress over the years, new implications and investigations are being completed for offshore buildings to to deal with seakeeping and influx insert problems. The implication of hydrodynamic drive acting on an offshore framework became important credited to various wave loads and connections might influence the results of hydrodynamic pushes greatly. The hydrodynamic pushes determine how structures float with varying wave frequencies, wave level and etc. Large just offshore buildings such as semi-submersibles, just offshore wind generators and SPAR tend to be being investigated to boost their efficiencies by changing their designs or sizes.

Large just offshore cylindrical structures would impact hydrodynamic results because of their influx diffraction and rays makes. Therefore, in this literature review, investigations of hydrodynamic forces on multiple cylinders are being examined. In order to know how the hydrodynamic results change, floating systems with differing distance are being located in ideal substance, where hydrodynamic interactions may cause the influence by the scattered waves and the wave load will vary greatly by the existence of the neighbouring cylinders. Thus, to obtain correct results, these hydrodynamic interactions are looked into from theoretical predictions, software simulation analysis and model evaluation.

The development of computer with storage area capacity and computational acceleration rises with the progress in technology. The usage of these software simulation research really helps to analyse the influx interactions between multiple floating body in an excellent fluid. The software will depend on the development of hydrodynamic theories. By using linear wave potential theory, the diffraction and rays causes could be calculated.

Hydrodynamic Connections phenomena

Studies of hydrodynamic interactions of multiple systems have been on going over the past few decades. Hydrodynamic connections created are anticipated to wave activities the presence of neighbouring buildings. A free of charge floating body may experience six DOF (Amount of Freedom) anticipated to adjoining condition, where three are translations (Surge, sway and heave) and three are rotations (Spin, pitch and yaw). Vertical and longitudinal movements are the main motions which are often experience by just offshore buildings. [1] The conversation phenomena is because of diffraction and rays forces acting on the buildings and causes created by the buildings. The speed components and the movement of each body can be obtain by the integration of formula of motion.

The discussion phenomena between two or more floating structures plays important role on the performance of floating structure systems. It is determined by the sepetration distance between your floating bodies and also on the way of flow with respect to the centerline of two floating physiques. [2] This phenomena can be investigated by using both theoretical and experimentally(Model Test). For experimental, utilizing a full size model checks are desired but there are limitations due to controlled conditions and the high cost of creation. Therefore, the necessity of associated computation tools for analysing these hydrodynamic pushes to achieve fast and accurate results. The intricacy of multiple bodies solution increases with the quantity of elements. (Research_3) Thus, the utilization of numerical method is strongly suggested in this studies.

http://www. ias. ac. in/sadhana/Pdf2004Dec/Pe1236. pdf [1]

http://www. dtic. mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a254627. pdf [2]

Potential Theory

The understanding of motion and influx induced forces of offshore mainly requires the structural design and its own operation. Offshore constructions in sea environment usually encounter environmental lots such as gravity, waves, breeze and current. These are the basic information needed to evaluate the connection of structures by using potential theory. (G. Moe, 1996)

Potential theory may use to determine the general aspect of fluid circulation problems in conjunction with Laplace formula. To satisfy the answer of the Laplace equations, boundary conditions of the fluid are establish. Hydrodynamic causes in waves contain radiation and diffraction causes where velocity probable is the key component to satisfy the Laplace formula.

Radiation and Diffraction Problem

Hydrodynamic forces is made up of diffraction and rays forces. These forces includes the 6 degree of freedom that comes from the connection of linear waves against any floating framework. In addition, these forces will provide information of hydrodynamic properties of floating constructions, such as damping coefficient, added mass and influx excitation forces. The substance must be assumed to be inviscid, incompressible and irrotational. Currently, there have been numerous theoretical and numerical studies on these problems. As the technology developments, researchers have obtained significant results on the phenomena, which made the study for these problems, such as composition and wave interactions, stableness of floating buildings aon heading research.

Diffraction Force

Diffraction push is the pressure pushes acting throughout the each structure, but due to multiple systems and relationship of several physiques, the scattering will have an effect on the results of incident influx.

For free surface problems with the Laplace equation as the governing equation, an initial order or a second-order boundary condition can be obtain using a linearized free surface boundary condition

Radiation Force

The motion response of an structure may cause the substance to oscillate, hence creating pressure areas in the substance. In order to capture the movement response and the surrounding pressure fields, velocity probable will be enforced. Furthermore, there are boundary conditions critition to be achieved. Drag forces aren't being considered in the radiation and diffraction problems as it only occurs in slim body phenomena.

With the assumption of experiencing the structure putting in an ideal smooth with zero forward speed. In an excellent smooth condition, the fluid is irrotational and incompressible. The radiation condition should also be satisfied as it is to ensure that the waves propagate away from the structure. Through the potential movement theory, it is manufactured known that the velocity potential must fulfill the Laplace equations. Thus, the 3 boundary conditions mention below must be satisfied.

  1. Body surface

The normal component of the smooth velocity is equal to the normal element of the heave pressure velocity

  1. Seafloor

The normal element of the fluid speed add up to zero

  1. Water surface

The smooth pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure and liquid particles will usually stick to the free-surface. Pressure will be continuous over the free surface.

These equations talk about below will show the regulating equation enforced on rays and diffraction problems. (Site 44)

The speed potential, along each component(x, y and z) satisfies the Laplace equation in the substance domain,



The free-surface condition,

0 on


Boundary condition on the ocean floor,

for finite drinking water


for infinite normal water


Boundary condition on body surface,



Where k is will depend on the action (six DOF) that the body surface is expose to and nis the machine vector normal to the body surface.

Solving Boundary Value Problem

The boundary conditions are all set in conjunction with speed potential. The expression of linear hydrodynamic pushes is derived from direct integration of the fluid pressure in the boundary of any body. By using the Green's theorem, area of the forces can be acquired with the solving the scattering potential. Determining the field point at any point and the foundation point for flow, rotation and vorticity, the Green funtion will be presented in the form,










Equation 7 expresses the source potential as a summation of an source in the finite smooth and an image source above the free surface condition where. This demonstrates there will at.

Equation 8 expresses the foundation potential is a summation of your source in infinite fluid and an image sink above free surface when. This gratify the free surface condition where speed potential equal no on. Therefore, the solution of the velocity potential for a problem (e. g. make heave) can be written as



This source function is given for infinite normal water depth problem where is called the Green function.

By using the Bernoulli's equation, the total pressure could be totally derived by using velocity potential and the body motion amplitudes. Therefore, linear causes and occasions are obtain from,





We can consider component potentials such that the summation of hydrodynamic pushes and occasions are

Where it is put into two components: the wave excitation force scheduled to diffraction and makes due to rays force(In terms of added mass and damping coefficients).

Given you want to find the drive at mode j. The linear pushes, also known as the first order wave excitation force, the force for function j is denote as

From Green's theorem, applying it to and a component of the radiation potential, we have

It is show that those integrals on the seabed, above the free surface and at the significantly field disappeared due to the boundary conditions for and on these floors. Therefore, after substituting the formula of boundary conditions, the Haskind relationship follows in the form of

By using the equation of motion, the diffraction and radiation problem will be fixed.

Calculation of Hydrodynamic forces

The boundary value problem is solve, which means forces and occasions can be evaluate. Panel method is use to resolve the boundary value problem which is based on potential theory. Assumptions such that the influx amplitudes of the liquid is small when compared with the cross-sectional measurements of the body are created. The panelling of the framework is performed by aircraft quadrilateral elements in 3d problems.

http://www. academia. edu/6937922/Computation_of_Ship_Hydrodynamic_Interaction_Forces_in_Restricted_Waters_using_Potential_Theory

The solution treatment can be generalized to any modes of action, where added mass and damping matrix could be found. Handling the diffraction problem can be carried out utilizing the boundary condition (formula 5) where is the incident wave potential. From these alternatives, we are able to derive the influx excitation loads such as wave excitation causes (surge, sway, heave) and influx excitation occasions (spin, pitch, yaw). Therefore, dealing with the equation of action and calculating the move details such as hydrodynamic makes, by using the expression for velocity potential in conditions of your three-dimensional source syndication.

Past Researches Overview


Wamit software is a diffraction/radiation -panel program developed to analyse the linear conversation of surface waves with several different types of submerged and floating set ups. For this analysis of relationship, WAMIT uses a three-dimensional panel method and also following some theoretical method. Employing this software, it can help to define the conditions of the interactions such as, finite or infinite normal water depth, set ups location on the free surface, attached to the seabed or submerged and whether the structures are fixed or easily floating with the motion of six degree of freedom.

The fluid move is assumed to be ideal and time harmonic. WAMIT is able to offer with both first order and linearize analysis which includes second order makes. WAMIT can give attention to the hydrodynamic conversation of multiple body with any limitation of condition of liquid environment. The use of integral formula obtained by Green's theorem can help solve the diffraction and rays velocity potentials on the body wetted surface.

WAMIT will be able to evaluate the following quantities:

  • Hydrostatic coefficients
  • Added-mass and damping coefficients for everyone modes
  • Wave excitation makes and moments using the Haskind relations, or immediately by pressure integration from the alternatives of diffraction or scattering problems.
  • Motion amplitudes and stages for a freely floating body
  • Forces restraining a body which is easily floating in a few but not all modes
  • Hydrodynamic pressure and liquid velocity on the body surface/smooth domain
  • Free-surface elevation
  • All element of the drift make and second by momentum integration over the control surface
  • Horizontal drift pushes and imply yaw moment in time by momentum integration in the field
  • All the different parts of the drift push and moment in time by local pressure integration over body surface
  • Drift push and instant in bidirectional waves

Theoretical Method

The method use by WAMIT is a panel program designed to solve boundary-value problem for the connection of waves phenomena with the pre-defining the systems in finite or infinite drinking water depth. Viscosity will never be considered. Enough time harmonic solutions are being fixed for a given steady state incident influx field which is assumed to be represented by way of a superposition of a specific occurrence components in the absence of the body. The boundary value problem will be utilized in conjunction with the integral formula using Green's theorem. These crucial equation will be solved by panel method for the unknown speed potential or power source of the body surface. These vital equations of theoretical method could be found in.

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