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Study Of Electric power And Politics AT WORK Management Essay

Power is a function of dependency where one entity would depend upon another. It is segmented into multiple parts, each affecting the company in a unique way. "Bases of electricity" classifies the sources of electric power into multiple sections. "Dependency" Organizations worldwide all have many different ways of achieving power and your power leads to set up power manifests positively or negatively.

Leadership is a key factor to the success of a company. Successful market leaders have great awareness of using power to influence employees, in order to make commitments for the goals of the organization. This enables these to provide direction, use programs, and motivate employees, thus benefiting the well-being of any group. When influencing employees, innovator uses various tactics based on their personal traits. For example, an authoritative leader tends to make decisions unbiased of their employees and discourages group work, while a democratic leader embraces the idea of group work and stimulates employees to work widely and take part in goal decision making. Though each leader differs in ways of managing their employees, a typical factor that each head possesses is electricity. Power is the ability to command line and control others based on the dependency of each party. It really is a key factor in conditions of influencing employees to create results. The most important aspect of electricity is the function of dependency. For example, within an organization, the information technology office often has substantial ability because all related workers like the CEO are dependent on IT to assure that systems and networks are functioning frequently. Moreover, power comes from the five electric power bases, which allows leaders to possess impact over others. The bases of ability refers to the different types of methods leaders utilize in order to influence their employees. These bases include coercive electric power, reward power, authentic power, expert electricity, referent vitality, and information power. Each one of these bases is different in its way of influencing an organization's overall potential. To explain, coercive electric power is defined as power that is dependant on fear. It is determined by a leader's ability to force a worker to comply with a desired behaviour through the risk of punishment and failing. This typically leads to physical threats. Unfortunately, coercive electric power is most often used in real life. For example, at a cost-effective level, countries use military resources to intimidate nations and individuals utilize this power also to manipulate others. Within the workforce, coercive power is noticeable when authoritative market leaders threaten to dismiss or suspend an employee if indeed they do not follow the rules or tasks assigned. Coercive power has effects on both long and short term. For a while, employees pay attention to the commands based on fear. Over time however it causes dysfunctional behavior and reduced end result and satisfaction and ultimately contributes to turnover. Luckily, there are other electric power bases that can favorably effect employees and profit the wellness of a business. Let's get started with reward power which is the full total reverse of coercive. This power depends on the ability of a leader to give employees an incentive or benefit in trade for compliance. These rewards include money, performance appraisals, deals, and more suitable working conditions. Reward ability enables staff to work diligently and effectively. It allows for motivation and job satisfaction among employees, because of this creating a friendly and secure working environment. In some cases, however, excessive reward power can lead to corruption. To explain, employees may be tempted to respond unethically such as increasing sales volumes illegally in order to receive a appraisal from the administrator. Also, reward vitality will divert employee's attention from the duty at hand and target more on the satisfying result. This can lead to inefficiency and reduced probable of an organization. Moreover, legitimate electric power is concept that is a lot broader than coercive or incentive. This power symbolizes the fact that one person has the capacity to influence others as a result of their position of authority. A good example of this is really as follows, at the scene of a offense, people no matter position; people will usually comply with requests from the officer based on the fact that the authorities have a higher authoritative position. From a company viewpoint, employees will adhere to orders of an manager who depends on legitimate power based on the positioning in the organizational hierarchy that the administrator holds. With reputable electric power, employees may feel a lack of commitment and cooperation. Another power foundation is expert electricity which is affect based on experience, and knowledge. It is based on the belief that a person has an especially high level of knowledge will have the energy to influence others. People that possess expert power include computer engineers, chartered accountants, and economists. Each one of these individuals has expert electric power because each job requires exceptional knowledge and know-how. For example, your personal computer engineer can use several software packages proficiently and can get around the internet with ease. As a result, those who do not have the expert knowledge or experience need the expert's help and, therefore, are willing to be affected by the expert's electric power. Furthermore, expert electric power is not dependent on position of authority like a CEO; somewhat it is based on the knowledgeable positions. It relies on trust that all relevant information is given honestly and completely. Because of this, it permits full determination from all positions in the hierarchy of an organization. Nevertheless, very much like every power bottom, expert power does indeed have got a few weaknesses. The expert electric power of a person diminishes when knowledge is shared. For instance, whenever a computer expert clarifies the steps to function a software program, the quantity of expert power lessens because of the fact that the employees are actually knowledgeable of the experience. As a result, expert power can lead to manager's power diminishing or the manager intentionally deciding not to share competent skill models with their employees. This may weaken an organization's success over time. In addition, a similar concept is the energy of referent which is influence based on possession by a person of attractive resources or personal traits. To describe, employees have a tendency to be motivated if indeed they have aspire to model themselves in same manner of their leaders. With referent electric power, leaders must develop trust and business lead by example. In so doing, leaders are able to develop an important aspect that employees potentially may desire. Referent ability can be viewed in everyday occurrences such as super star testimonials in advertising for example, David Beckham in clothing advertisements for Emporio Armani. Finally, a power platform that originates from access to and control over information is named information ability. This power bottom part is similar to expert ability, however differs with techniques that it generally does not depend on skills knowledge somewhat it would depend on a person's ownership of valuable information. From a company setting, professionals have electric power of information because they have access to employee sales, business costs, salary, and income all of which is often used to influence employee performance and behaviour. For instance, when employees lack in revenue, a supervisor has information electric power over them because of the accessible sales quantities can influence their workers to increase work efficiency.

Overall, management is important aspect of any company. Leaders dictate the direction of an company's potential to complete their goals. In order to do so, head must be able to escort and guide their workers in the most efficient manner to be able to maximize the health of the business. When getting close to this, leaders have various methods which derive from their capabilities and use of electric power. As shown above, vitality is an essential aspect when influencing employees to produce results for just about any company. However, each electricity includes a responsibility, and if used excessively can negatively have an effect on a company's efficiency over time. Each power basic brings about a respond of commitment, compliance or resistance from employees. To explain, coercive power tends to lead to resistance, reduced satisfaction and increased mistrust. Reward electricity tends to result in conformity if the rewards are regular with staff needs. Legitimate vitality also ends up with compliance but will not promote dedication nor inspire employees on a basic level. Lastly, expert and referent powers are likely to increase conformity and commitment. To summarize, effective power does not indicate control, somewhat it depends upon the goals of an organization. Successful market leaders use ability ethically, successfully, and effectively by writing it. When vitality influences employees to perform in ways that are not related to the business's image then that ability is abused. The main element to electricity is dependency, where understanding the concept of dependency allows leaders to work with bases of electricity more effectively causing the benefit for his or her company.

Influence practices are strategies that personnel can use to attain certain benefits. (Judge, Langton, Robbins, 2009, p. 306). Impact tactics are important because they essentially, are ways users of a business can persuade others in order to accomplish what they want. There are multiple tactics seen inside organizations such as logical persuasion, inspirational appeals, consultation, ingratiation, personal appeals, exchange, coalitions, pressure and legitimacy (Judge, Langton, Robbins, 2009, p. 307). Many of these influence tactics can be classified as either hard tactics or soft practices. These influence tactics are then seen through the upward-influence styles in many companies. Also, in the current growing global community, affect tactics is seen cross-culturally. Influence practices are important to comprehend for many reasons.

Influence tactics take numerous forms and can be utilized in many different situations. Influence tactics are about individuals hoping to reach a certain final result. Judge, Langton, Robbins (2009), talk about multiple methods as detailed. Rational persuasion is the ability to use facts and data to provide your opinions (p. 307). This tactic can be utilized by all levels within an corporation (p. 307). Inspirational appeals are ways individuals use prices, ideals and goals when coming up with a demand (p. 307). Consultation is the way people get others engaged to support one's aims (p. 307). Ingratiation is just how people use flattery and being friendly to others to effect a certain results (p. 307). Personal appeals, is using a friendly relationship and commitment to get something (p. 307). Exchange is the offering of favours in trade for support (p. 307). Coalitions will be the grouping of individuals to provide support when making a submission. Pressure is using needs and threats in order to effect people (p. 307). Legitimacy is the professing the specialist or to make a need (p. 307). These affect tactics are located in all organizations worldwide, and are a means of achieving ones desired outcomes.

Upward-influence styles are the normal routine reporting romance that exists in every organizations (Kipnis et al. , 1988). For example, maybe it's a worker (subordinate) speaking with a supervisor. Within organizations as recently noted, individuals have different impact styles and therefore can be classified according to their styles (Kipnis, 1988). In this article Upward-Influence Styles: Marriage with Performance Assessments, Salary, and Stress; Kipnis and Schmidt (1988), identified five clusters of employees. The first cluster involves people who use multiple impact strategies in order to get what they sought. The next cluster deals with those who use expert knowledge in order to impact others, the 3rd cluster consisted of individuals who used friendly tactics, the fourth cluster was made up of those who used their positions in the business and the fifth cluster contains employees who did not use effect of any kind, these people were known as non-influencers. With this said management also falls into three different categories in the ways that they impact subordinates (Kipnis, 1988). Some managers use shotgun styles of influence. These managers use the most effect and emphasized assertiveness and bargaining, they are simply classified as multiple influencers. The next type is Tactician influence styles. These professionals use an average amount of affect and emphasized reason; they are simply classified as skills users. The very last style is bystander; these managers used little influence and are grouped as noninfluencers (Kipnis 1988). They are important principles for management to comprehend because CEOS and professionals of companies may use these styles to be most effective when communicating to lessen levels.

Moving from the inter-organizational aspect, influence tactics can be employed on a larger global scale. There are many different cultures about the world, which give countries some other design of use of the influence tactics. The different influence styles cultures value place a huge significance in the business environment. If different civilizations doing business with one another do not understand the way the other negotiates then failed opportunities will be unavoidable. In a study conducted by Fu & Taber (1998), they identified that Chinese managers prefer indirect types of influence; they value trust and use personal associations. The China also value collectivism and electricity distance more and assertiveness less. Fu & Taber (1998), also seen that the American and Swiss cultures are more willing to confrontation to solve problems. With a number of companies starting to offshore their businesses, management needs to recognize differences in cultures in order to promote a wholesome work place and ensure the success of their companies.

There are many companies that have failed sooner or later or another when dealing with different affect methods. Wal-Mart for example depicts the error between two different cultured varieties of business. In 1997 Wal-Mart started widening into Germany with the acquisition of Wertkauf (Kottolli, 2006). Wertkauf was a respected retail chain in Germany; it includes 21 chains and 4, 900 workers and sales of $1. 4 billion (The New York Times, 1997). In August 2006 Wal-Mart was required to leave this market (Kottolli, 2006). Wal-Mart obviously had a lack of managerial skills which resulted in many problems with its employees and customers (Kottolli, 2006). When employees tried out to communicate with upper level management about the faults they were making coping with the clients, management simply dismissed them (Kottolli, 2006). For instance, store time are shorter in Germany, and had no shopping on Sundays, which eventually means customers do not spend a lot of time shopping and also Germans do nothing like to be aided by the store assistants; they like to do their own great buy shopping (Kottolli, 2006). Wal-Mart should have researched the German culture prior to the acquisition and should have listened to the employees when they complained about what Wal-Mart was doing incorrect. The employees must have used a shot-gun design of influence towards these managers and displayed all the reality to possibly make their arguments more strong.

Empowerment in the Workplace

In the business enterprise environment, power is typically something that is performed by professionals and used during their relationships with employees. In the modern workplace however, there is a growing craze as more electric power is starting to be placed in the hands of employees. Through position in more self-employed teams, and even more responsibility for decisions regarding their jobs, employees are finding themselves much more empowered.

Empowerment can be explained as: "the flexibility and the power of employees to make decisions and commitments" (Judge, Langton, Robbins, 2009, p. 308). However, this meaning is not always agreed upon, particularly by managers and researchers. During their consultation work with a Fortune 50 creation company, Robert E. Quinn and Gretchen M. Spreitzer found out that professionals were split in two regarding the classification. One group maintained that "empowerment was about delegating decision making within a set of clear boundaries", while the other group insisted that empowerment was "a process of risk taking and personal development" (Quinn & Spreitzer, 1997, p. 38). The first group's description designed for empowerment to get started on at the top, with specific goals, responsibilities and duties being assigned, and those people given tasks being responsible for their own results. Conversely, the next group's definition got empowerment starting in the bottom, considering the needs of the employee, leading by example, creating clubs, promoting risk-taking and exhibiting trust in the employee's competency.

The empowerment of employees has generally been positively received, with professionals and employees impressed with the latter's capacity to make important decisions. However, the trend has met with its share of criticism, as some believe that the conversation of empowerment is insincere. These people discover that while organizations inform their employees they have decision-making responsibility, the employees aren't given the required authority to carry out said decisions. A fully empowered staff only occurs when the staff has full access to the necessary information to make decisions, whenever there are rewards for performing in an properly responsible manner so when they may have the authority to help make the necessary decisions.

As a result, cynicism is rolling out in many work environments regarding staff empowerment. In addition to employees sensing they lack the power necessary to make decisions, many professionals are hesitant to empower their employees. This is certainly due to the manager's worries of showing or sacrificing their own ability. Other managers believe that empowered employees may begin working on tasks not fully from the goals of the business itself. Some professionals do not even fully comprehend the way in which in which to empower their workers.

In order to comprehend the examples of empowerment, one must go through the job's content, the responsibilities and procedures necessary to perform the job, and context, the explanation for doing the job. Employees are empowered when given decision-making authority over some aspect of their job, and there are three general examples of staff power based on job framework and content. Relating to R. C. Ford and M. D. Fottler these good examples are: No Discretion, Participatory Empowerment, and Self-Management (Ford & Fottler, 1995, p. 24). No discretion is the typical assembly-line job. The worker is assigned a task and most likely monitored with a supervisor. An employee in such a job is likely to be unsatisfied because of the lack of vitality, and less successful due to a lack of initiative. Participatory empowerment contains autonomous work teams given more decision-making power over job content and framework. Individuals in these work organizations are more likely to have higher degrees of job satisfaction and productivity than those in no discretion jobs. Finally, self-management is when an employee has complete decision-making electricity over job content and framework. Managers who offer a worker such a level of power must have a considerable amount of trust in the average person, and therefore self-management is generally reserved for top-management or high-level salespeople.

Empowerment bears with it a strong psychological element. Matching to Gary A. Yukl and Wendy S. Becker, there are four defining factors that must definitely be considered. These factors are meaningfulness, competence, choice, and impact (Becker & Yukl, 2006, p. 211). Meaningfulness can be defined as "the value of the task goal or purpose, judged with regards to the individual's own ideals or specifications; the individual's intrinsic caring about a given task" (Thomas & Velthouse, 1990, p. 672). Empowered employees who find meaningfulness in their work care about what they do and discover that their work is very important to them. Choice "identifies the causal responsibility for someone's activities and whether behavior is perceived as self-determined" (Becker & Yukl, 2006, p. 211). The word is inter-changeable with self-determination and means that empowered employees are able to choose how to do their work, clear of being micromanaged by supervisors. Impact is "the degree to which behavior is seen as "making a difference" in terms of accomplishing the goal of the duty, that is, producing planned results in one's job environment" (Thomas & Velthouse, 1990, p. 672). An empowered employee would believe they may have an effect over their work, and this others are open to their ideas. A good example of empowered employees having a direct effect in their work is the South Korean centered Good People Company. The clothing company supports a monthly "Pyjama Day" where each day employees where clothing designed by the business itself. Professionals of the nice People Company then hold meetings with employees in order to gain responses and inspirations. Because of this, employees for the business believe that as individuals they can impact on the work, actively contributing to the design process of products. Last but not least, competence is "the degree to which a person can perform activity activities skilfully when she or he tries" (Thomas & Velthouse, 1990, p. 672). Empowered employees who've a degree of competence in their work feel self-confident in their functions to perform any required jobs. An example of a business that has considered this aspect of empowerment to center is Durabelt Inc. The company specializes in customized conveyor belts for harvesting vegetables & fruits, and employees have to be highly attentive to customer requests. Professionals at the Prince Edward Island structured company identified that in order for their employees to have a sense of empowerment, they required a higher degree of competence to take care of their tasks. Subsequently, the business created Duraschool, a training program for its employees, in order to better teach them and increase company-wide competence.

Despite the issues that can happen with employee empowerment, research has shown that efficiency has increased at both a team and an individual level due to the growing trend. While not everyone is damaged by empowerment the same way, those who are empowered often work with an ownership mentality. They have a clear definition of the organization's objectives. The empowered individual tends to find their work recognized and has a higher amount of skill in what they actually. Finally, an empowered employee will find that proper decisions are backed by management, rather than criticized when planning on taking the effort.

The Misuse of Vitality: Harassment in the Workplace

The harassment at work is one of the main element segments in illustrating the misuse of power. Harassment occurs when one individuals has a electricity over another. This may arise in two situations. The first one handles manager-employee relationships at work. A director has control over many different aspects that directly affect employee such as performance review and financial rewards, subsequently placing power in the hands of the administrator. Due to that electricity, a administrator can ask for employees to engage in acts that they would not otherwise be involved in. The second situation handles co-worker relationships. This isn't as clear as the manager-employee romance; however it is the the one which is mostly linked to erotic harassment. The power of 1 co-worker over another is exhibited when there is a need for information, co-operation or support. In this situation, one staff might persuade another to execute tasks in trade for receiving the needed information, co-operation and support (Langton, 2010, p. 313). Two of the most prominent types of harassment at work are bullying and intimate harassment which will be the results of misuse of electric power in the aforementioned situations.

Although there is no clear explanation for office bullying, it can be best defined as "Systematic aggressive communication, manipulation of work, and operates aimed at humiliating or degrading a number of man or woman who create an harmful and unprofessional electric power imbalance between bully and target(s), cause psychological consequences for goals and co-workers, and cost enormous monetary damage to an organization's bottom line" (Mattice, 2010). Bullying occurs atlanta divorce attorneys type of firm from general public to private industries, in income and non-for-profit organizations. While anyone can be bullied, minorities tend to experience work place bullying the most. Relating to one of the studies, 97% of obvious minority respondents accepted to experiencing work environment bullying (Martin, 2010, p. 4). Looking at the global picture, one research suggested that work area bullying is most widespread in the U. S. because of the cultural prices such as personality, assertiveness, masculinity, and success. Exactly the same research indicates that US conditions tend to be common between a administrator and an employee rather than in between co-workers (Martin, 2010, p. 5). Furthermore, a study shows that, individuals within an individualistic culture might see bullying as more harmful than individuals in collectivistic civilizations due to a lack of recognition with the group or a corporation. (Giorgi, 2009, p. 3). Because of many studies done in the last years, there is a strong correlation between work area bullying and physiological and subconscious consequences. The most frequent effects of work environment bullying are major depression, burnout, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcoholic beverages misuse and suicide. It is more likely that folks with poor social skills or with certain characteristics will become subjects of bullying (Martin, 2010, p. 6)

Sexual harassment can be explained as an "unwelcome behavior of a erotic nature in the workplace that negatively impacts the work environment or causes adverse job-related repercussions for the staff" (Langton, 2009, p. 314). Fitzgerald's research areas that the word sexual harassment signifies two types of behavior. A "hostile work environment" in conditions of intimate harassment as a behaviour that is sex-related making individuals uneasy; and a "Quid pro quo" which refers to individual's sexual demands or advances in exchange for a increase or a campaign (Hunt, 2007, p. 3). The study also identifies physiological proportions such as gender harassment and unwanted erotic attention. Kohlman claims that erotic harassment is not gender-dominant based (Hunt, 2007, p. 5). In other words, sexual harassment can occur if the company consists of mostly women or men. Additionally it is important to state that the companies with substantial power difference between men and women are more likely to experience sexual harassment. A study by Pryor suggests that the repeated sexual harassment is the effect of a combo of personal factors (such as self-esteem) as well as situational factors (such as permissive culture)(Hunt, 2007, p. 5). Gutek's research shows that an environment that openly allows intimate behaviour is more likely to experience a case of sexual harassment. Authority style can also impact the probability of harassment occurrence which means company must carefully choose the command way (Hunt, 2007, p. 5)

One approach in working with work area harassment is through an involvement model. The model separates interventions into three levels: principal, supplementary, tertiary (Hunt, 2007, p. 11). At the principal level, organizations need to build up effective strategies as well an efficient way of execution. In order to achieve this, the business must teach employees on the actual harassment is and how to deal with it. Through the design of plans, it is very important to contribute each level of organization into the planning process. In order for the employees to find this approach useful, an organization must ensure that each employee feels empowered and safe in the event that an event should be reported (Hunt, 2007, p. 13). During the supplementary level, organizations need to recognize an effective complaints procedure. That is one of the most important steps because if a worker will not feel comfortable that the problem will solve a concern, it is most probably that staff will fix to other alternatives or even extreme cases such as alcoholic beverages maltreatment or even suicide. To be able to meet this level, an organization may employ staff specifically for controlling claims. By hiring trained staff, the organization can create an wide open communication for employees to work with without feeling dread or discomfort (Hunt, 2007, p. 14). At the final rehabilitation stage, the business develops a best answer that will support both a victim as well as a business. In order to help victim manage the harassment, counselling is a best different. It is very important for a business never to only immediately dwelling address any harassment issues, but try to prevent it from developing in the first place (Hunt, 2007, p. 14).

One of the best cases that display the issue of intimate harassment as well as its solution is a lawsuit against a Mitsubishi creation place in Normal, Illinois in 1996. At the time of the lawsuit, the company hired 4200 employees (MacNeil, 1996). After lots of female employees approached Patricia Benassi, civil rights attorney at law, with the tales of erotic harassment women acquired to undergo at the herb, Benassi registered a lawsuit Equal Employment Opportunity Fee. Relating to Benassi, women were subjected to rude name-calling, erotic innuendos, grubby jokes and pornographic images. What is surprising is that these women weren't aware that what they are subjected to is considered erotic harassment. Instead, they thought that it was due to the fact "women did not belong there". A number of female employees explained that that they had to engage in sexual serves in order to get a advertising (MacNeil, 1996). The lawsuit was finally resolved in 1998 when Mitsubishi and EEOC come to a $34 million arrangement (EEOC, 1998). The company has also created a third-party Decree Displays who'll oversee the re-design of intimate harassment plan as well as make sure that the insurance plan is executed within the business (EEOC, 1998). This example illustrates both types of behaviour, as recognized by Fitzgerald. It really is a "hostile work environment" because the majority of females felt extremely uncomfortable working for the company due to reasons mentioned previously. It is also a "quid pro quo" credited to situations where women needed to be involved in erotic acts for the purpose of receiving promotion. At the time of a lawsuit, about 70% of employees were male (MacNeil, 1996), indicating a solid gender dominance in the labor force, which matches Kohlman's research. As evident from the lawsuit, sexual harassment cost Mitsubishi $34 million which could have been averted if the right guidelines and types of procedures were set in place. The intervention model also applies to this situation. The company has designed a new set of plans and procedures in order to remove any harassment events from taking place again. To complement the new coverage, the company has also developed an exercise and information course for most of employees on the topic of harassment at work. The new insurance policy works well as it is a zero-tolerance insurance policy, thus removing any "gray area"(EEOC, 1998). By employing third-party staff for working with development of regulations as well as monitoring the execution, the company has created both an unbiased policy and a safe and sound environment for employees to record any of the harassment occurrences. As a personal conclusion, this example has been very bad for Mitsubishi. It offers cost company a lot more than the total of the negotiation because of its damage in reputation. It really is most likely that lots of customers and future employees are permanently lost for this reason incident. Fortunately, the business's redesigned policy has changed the environment completely, which allowed company to restore a few of its reputation. As long as the business prioritizes the insurance plan effectiveness, there shouldn't be some other reoccurrences of such proportion.


As companies make an effort to achieve increasingly more power, they turn to sell products and services that people are reliant on. Dependency is one of the key factors to reaching power. If people are dependent upon your service or product the chances of your business faltering are significantly lower. A lot more reliant people are on your business, or the more they need your service or product, the more vitality you will maintain. People become reliant on products that are a life requirement, or that they have a strong wish to possess because it is a luxury or a tendency. A corporation can gain ability through dependency in towns, provinces, or throughout the whole country. The bigger the population is the fact depends on a particular company, the more powerful that company will be.

Dependency on a product or service is created when that product is important, scarce, or can't be substituted. It must be important because if no person feels a have to have your product or service then nobody will buy it. If people feel just like they can live without a product they'll not be dependent on it, rather than purchase it. An example of a very important product is hydro. It really is a service that people cannot live without and they require it every day for multiple purposes. In Ontario people rely on Ontario Hydro to supply them with this service. This ends up with Ontario Hydro being extremely powerful. Hydro is not at all something that can be bought anywhere and therefore Ontario Hydro can established the prices, and fee what they like and never have to worry about competition that might put them out of business.

Also, the scarcer something or service is the more people depend on the companies that actually source it. If one company offers something, or contains knowledge that no one else has, then everyone will rely upon any particular one company, resulting in that company being very powerful. If the product or knowledge is quite typical and comes in many places then no one will depend on a definite company, and nothing of the companies selling that product or service will be very powerful. A good example of this might be Canada Post. There are very few places that provide a mail service. In Canada it is either Canada post, or UPS, & most people want to use Canada Post. Without Canada Post many businesses wouldn't normally have the ability to function, as well as people would not be able to mail important letters or parcels. 85% of Canadians still choose to receive their expenses or invoices by notice mail (http://www. canadapost. ca/cpo/mc/business/productsservices/lettermail. jsf). Which means that most of Canada is very dependent on Canada Post regardless or e-mail or any other method of technology. Another exemplory case of a scarce service in Canada is the LCBO. It's the only company that provides liquor to Canada, and for that reason holds all the energy. It models all the prices, without the be anxious of competition. People won't stop buying alcohol, and since the LCBO is the sole spot to buy it, it'll never go out of business.

If something cannot be substituted it also results the company transporting it to be very powerful. When a company gives a product that cannot be replaced by anything else then they will hold a great deal of electric power. Also, if the business supplies a brand that everyone would like they will carry more ability because people will never be willing to settle for anything less than that name brand. A good example of this is Apple. Apple is always being one step ahead of other companies supplying technology. They come out with the latest products first, and for that reason everyone desires to buy from Apple. Also, since Apple is undoubtedly a favorite brand, even after other companies come out with similar products they still choose the buy from Apple. This leaves Apple with the majority of the power as it pertains to establishing prices, providing extra services, and getting to customers first. Another good exemplory case of this is Google. People have become very reliant on search engines for business, school, or personal uses. According to "Search Engines" by Ross Shannon, in 2009 2009 Google was preferred by 85. 35% of individuals who used search engines (http://www. yourhtmlsource. com/promotion/searchengines. html). Which means that Google holds the power in the market. They set the standards for all your other se's.

Obviously discovering and delivering products and services that people are dependent on are extremely important to a company because they determine the quantity of power you can take and exactly how successful your business can be.

A good example of how a company can either achieve success or fail by dependency is Google vs. Bing. They show all aspects of dependency from a view of a very powerful company compared to a not powerful company.

In this example, Google is the more dominate company, managing the market for many years. Google was founded in 1998 and started quickly growing in to the post popular search engine on earth. In December of 2009, 85. 35% of search engine users used Google (http://www. yourhtmlsource. com/promotion/searchengines. html). This put the vast majority of the energy into Google's hands. People needed Google for their each day responsibilities. People used it because of their jobs, for school work, as well as for personal use. It could be used to find any information that you needed in moments. It became extremely important to them to truly have a search engine that was quick to make use of, simple to understand, and gave them the most reliable information. Yahoo really acquired no competition, because no one got the technology to maintain with Google. There were no other se's that were as reliable, and understandable as Yahoo. Google had all three areas of dependency needed to be an extremely powerful company. It was important, scarce, with hardly any substitutes. This persisted for many years until other search engines started capturing onto Google's ways, and people began to utilize them instead. Among the bigger se's used was Bing. During the same survey in December of 2009 Bing got 3. 27% of the marketplace deploying it as their number one internet search engine (http://www. yourhtmlsource. com/promotion/searchengines. html). Although this quantity doesn't seem very high, it is growing as more people understand Bing. Bing is a good example of a company that doesn't hold a whole lot of power in the internet search engine market because people do not yet depend on it like they have with Yahoo. Bing is important, because it is utilized to find information quickly and effectively, but it is not scarce, and it has a substitute. People are not as familiar with Bing, and are comfortable using Google, so there is absolutely no reason for Google users to change. If Bing wishes to become more powerful, and have its customers become more dependent on it, it will have to create some technology that Yahoo has not considered yet, and advertise it to as many folks as is feasible. Bing acquired many good ideas to try and compete with Yahoo, such as instant answers, filter systems, unrestricted scrolling, etc, but it didn't take long for Google to capture onto Bing's technology, and incorporate it into their own search engine.

This is a good exemplory case of how dependency can either give your company capacity to lead the market, or leave your small business trying to compete with the most notable company on the market. Because more and more people were dependent on Google for so long, without any other available choices, it will be very difficult, if not impossible for another internet search engine to gain ability over Yahoo. This applies to any business, because in order to gain the power on the market, your company needs to have nearly all consumers dependent on its product or service. When you have a product that is unique, and that individuals feel that they can not live without, then your company will contain the power in the market.

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