The Kikuyu are mainly located in the central province of Kenya in East Africa. They are the largest indigenous and populous ethnic population found in Kenya. Kikuyu people make up roughly 22 percent of the Kenya's total populace. The word Kikuyu can be used as an over-all term to describe the dialect spoken by the Kikuyu people. Kikuyu belong to the Bantu speaking language of the Niger Congo family.
Oral tradition got it that the Kikuyu were founded by a guy named Gikuyu. It really is believed on the list of people that the Kikuyu god popularly known as Ngai had taken Gikuyu to the top of a hill called Kirinyaga. The god of the mountain told him to remain and build his house there. Gikuyu possessed a wife known as Mumbi. That they had nine daughters whose names later created the nine Kikuyu clans found in Kenya. These clans includes Achera, Agachiku, Airimu, Ambui, Angare, Anjiru, Angui, Aithaga, and Aitherandu were created (Miruiki, 1974). Other dental traditions suggests that the ancestors of the Kikuyu originated from the North around the spot of Nyambene hills to the north East of Support Kenya normally known as kiriyaga. This is thought to be the initial home of most cenral Bantu speaking individuals such as the Meru, Embu, Chuka, Kambu and Mberre. The folks are generally thought to have found its way to their present location since the thirteenth century. It is generally agreed one of the Kikuyu that they migrated from Axum in present day Ethiopia to Kenya as the other mythological report stated that folks migrated from 'Shungwaya' in Somalia (Miruiki, 1974).
The folks of Kikuyu rely greatly on agriculture as their main form of occupation. They grow bananas, millet, maize, black beans and a number of other fruit and vegetables. Besides, in addition they raise cattle, sheep and goat. They use the hides from the cattles to make comforter sets, sandals, and having straps and the goats and sheep which were used for spiritual sacrifice and purification (Lambert, 1956). Generally, the Kikuyu people have a reputation of being very hard workers. A lot of them are now involved in business. Most of them go on small family plots while some of them have transferred to urban centers and different areas to work. The folks have a strong desire for knowledge, children are raised to work in the farms and have access to western education. The Kikuyus are well informed. Their capabilities to change new realities have resulted in many people in the rural areas implementing many areas of modern cultures (Mwakikagile, 2008).
The Kikuyu traditionally worshipped an individual god Known as Ngai, who's known one of the people as the service provider of the city living at the top of the mountain. Besides the indigenous values, there are a lot of Kikuyus who are Christians and Muslims. About 45 percent of Kikuyus are Religious, 10 % Islam, ten percent traditional, two percent Hindu, and two percent Buddhist. Geographically, the individuals were found in the Ngong hills to the south, the Nyandarua Hill to the western world and the Support Kenya to the northeast (CIA Factbook).
The political firm of the Kikuyu through the pre-colonial time was closely linked to the family system. The family was the basis of political specialist in the city. Teenagers were usually initiated in to the national council of junior warrior (Njama ya Anake a Muno) after 82 moons or twelve rain seasons after the circumcision service the junior warrior was advertised to the council of older warriors (Njama ya Ita). These councils are usually called upon to protect individuals in case there is external aggression. The council of mature warriors was in addition an important decision making organ of the political system. These councils comprises of people between age groups twenty to forty years (Miruiki, 1974).
Upon relationship, the husband is set up into a council called (Kiama Kia Kiamatimo). This is the first grade of eldership. These elders were also called warriors. The warriors helped in undertaking proceedings of menial jobs like skinning animals, being messengers, having ceremonial articles or light fires among other tasks. Furthermore, It really is believed among the people that when a man had son or daughter old enough for circumcision, he is elevated to some other council called the council of peacefulness (Kiama Kia Mataathi). On going into this council, the man is now seen as a man of serenity and no much longer of the warrior school. He assumed the duty peace maker in the community when a man had pretty much all is children circumcised, and his wife or wives had passed child bearing age group, he has already reached the last & most honored position. This council is known as spiritual and sacrificial council (Kiama Kia Maturanguru) (Miruki, 1974). At this time, the father slaughtered and offered an animal as sacrifice to the Ngai god. The person is then invested with power to lead sacrificial ceremony at the sacred tree known as (Magumu Muti Wa Igongona). The elders of this quality assumed the role of "holy men" They were high priests. All spiritual and ethical ceremonies were in their hands. Among the Kikuyu, the elders dealt with the spiritual, governance, and the legal functions within the community. Both men and women usually perform the initiation service into the various councils. Most importantly, the daddy of different family mind in the town makes up the political composition of the city. The most mature elder of the district heads this. The most advanced in age was elected as the head of the judge (Tate, 1904).
Kinship structure is also an important feature among the Kikuyu sets of East Africa. THE TOP of the family who is the man is recognized as Muthuuri that is (somebody who can discern evil from good) while the Woman is called Mutumia (person who retains family secret and procedures). The polygamous system of family is extensively practiced on the list of people. The family units in Kikuyu resided in several huts in the culture. These huts were produced so that during frigid seasons the inside would be very warm while in the hot conditions the hut would be cool (Lambert, 1956). By traditions, the first boy of the family is known as following the grand father, as the second son is known as following the mother's father. This is actually the same with women, whom the first child would be called after her father's mom and the second girl after her mother's mother. Perhaps the reason behind this according to the people's belief is usually that the spirit of the deceased grand parent or guardian would keep on to the child (Miruiki, 1974). This ethnic practice is no longer common among people since life time became much longer with the development of modern methodical medicine to cure diseases. The Kikuyu people have an affinity for ceremonies. They have a culturally diverse background of how people live during the pre-colonial period. During festive periods, individuals usually entertain visitors with sonorous melodies and dancing display whenever there exists marriage, naming service and joyous spiritual festivals of the city (Tate, 1904).
The Kikuyu groupings were one of the most popular ethnic organizations that hastened the Kenyan Freedom in 1963. The uprising of the Kikuyu created a rift between your white colonial neighborhoods in Kenya and the home office in London. Under colonial guideline, the United kingdom colonial masters displaced the Kikuyu sets of their land (Newsweinger, 1981). The inability of the colonial supervision to develop device by which African grievances from the white settlers might be settled in terms of equity and fairness served to accelerate a growing disaffection with the colonial regulators in Kenya. This as a result led to the climb of revolt and the nurture of the seed of a growing African Nationalism (Wunyabari, 1998). The Kikuyu conceived militant nationalism from the British authorities. The worsening aftereffect of poverty, starvation, unemployment and over inhabitants placed the Kikuyu to level of what serves as a by the British as the Mau Mau revolution contrary to the colonial experts (Newswinger, 1981). The Mau Mau revolt is one of the most prominent world revolutions in East African history. The word Mau-Mau was coined by the colonial specialists to describe the rebel activity against colonial masters in the control of their land (Corfield, 1960). The Kikuyu communities who are members of the motion detailed themselves as the "Muingi" meaning The Movements (John, 1981). The deprivation of the Kikuyu against land ownership made those to revolt against the colonial government. The colonial masters made the Kikuyu to be tenant farmers who experienced no land of their own and also protesting against more days and nights of labor in the colonial plantation without satisfactory remuneration (Wunyabari, 1998).