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Structure and Features of the Arabic Language

The Arabic dialect is a semantic terminology with an elaborate morphology, which is significantly different from the most popular languages, such as English, Spanish, People from france, and Chinese language. Arabic is an official language in over 22 countries. It is spoken as first language in North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Sudan), the Arabian Peninsula (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen), Middle East (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria), and other Arab countries (Mauritania, Comoros, Djibouti, Somalia). Since Arabic is the dialect of the Quran, the holy reserve of Islam, additionally it is spoken as another words by several Asian countries such as: Indonesia, Pakistan, Iran, Uzbekistan and Malay[52]. More than 422 million people are able to speak Arabic, which makes this terms the fifth most spoken terms on earth, regarding to[53].

This chapter give quick description about the relevant basic components of the Arabic language. This covers Arabic language framework, and the features of the Arabic writing system. The morphology of Arabic terminology and the Arabic term classes, i. e. nouns, verbs, and debris are offered in this chapter. The Arabic language troubles are also mentioned within the last portion of this chapter.

2. 1. Arabic Words Structure

The Arabic terminology is categorized into three varieties: Traditional Arabic (CA), Colloquial Arabic Dialects (CAD), and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). CA is completely vowelized and includes traditional historical liturgical content material and old literature texts. CAD includes predominantly spoken vernaculars, and each Arab country has its dialect. MSA is the state vocabulary and includes news, media, and established documents[16]. The direction of writing in the Arabic words is from right to still left. The alphabet of the Arabic terms contains 28 as shown in Desk 2-1.

Table 2˜1: The alphabet of the Arabic language

No.

Alone Form

Transliteration

Initial Form

Medial Form

End Form

1

˜

a

˜

˜

˜

2

˜Ё

b

˜Ё

˜Ё

˜Ё

3

˜Є

t

˜Є

˜Є

˜Є

4

˜

th

˜

˜

˜

5

˜

j

˜

˜

˜

6

˜

h

˜

˜

˜

7

˜

kh

˜

˜

˜

8

˜Ї

d

˜Ї

˜Ї

˜Ї

9

˜

th

˜

˜

˜

10

˜±

r

˜±

˜±

˜±

11

˜

z

˜

˜

˜

12

˜

s

˜

˜

˜

13

˜ґ

sh

˜ґ

˜ґ

˜ґ

14

˜

s

˜

˜

˜

15

˜¶

tha

˜¶

˜¶

˜¶

16

˜

ta

˜

˜

˜

17

˜ё

tha

˜ё

˜ё

˜ё

18

˜№

a'a

˜№

˜№

˜№

19

˜є

gh

˜є

˜є

˜є

20

 

f

     

21

 

q

     

22

Ж

k

Ж

Ж

Ж

23

 

l

     

24

. . .

m

. . .

. . .

. . .

25

 

n

 

 

 

26

 

h

     

27

Л†

w

Л†

Л†

Л†

28

 

y

 

 

 

The formulation and form are different for the same letter, depending on its position within the word [24]. For example, the letter (˜№) has the following styles: (˜№),

if this letter appears at the start of the word, such as with ˜№˜. . . that means basic; (˜№), if this letter appears in the middle of the term, such as in  ˜№˜± which means know; (˜№), if this notice appears at the end of the term, such as in  ˜. . . ˜№ which means hear. Finally, the notice (˜№) can show up as (˜№) if this letter appears by the end of a phrase but disconnected from the notice before it such such as ˜˜±˜№ which means fast see Number (2-1).

Figure 2-1: The Formulation and Shape for the Same Letter

Thus, a three-letter term may start with a notice in start form, accompanied by a letter in medial form and, finally, with a letter in an end form such as:

[˜№. . . ]

Instead of:

[˜№. . . ]

But the truth is a whole lot worse since a letter, in the center of a expression, may have the ultimate or the original form as in

[˜±˜]

Because some words do not connect with any figure that employs. They may have only two varieties: isolated (which is also used as first) and final (also used as midsection). These characters are (˜Ї˜ ˜˜ ˜±˜ ˜˜ Л†) for example:

[Л†˜±˜Ї˜]

For the goal of this thesis, we've defined our own transliteration design for Arabic alphabets, which is offered in Table 2. 1. Each Arabic letter in this program is mapped to only 1 English notice. Wherever in this thesis, any Arabic expression is annotated as a triple attribute to be more clear for a non-Arabic reader. The first feature for the Arabic phrase itself which is written in Arabic scripts between two rectangular brackets, the next attribute for an British transliteration which is written in italics, as the third one for British translation which is written between two quotation markings. Amount 2-2 shows a good example.

Figure 2-2: A good example of Annotated Arabic Word

Three words from the twenty-eight letters appear in several shapes, that are they:

  1. Hamza [˜]: This form can be: on Alef [˜], below Alef [˜Ґ], on Waaw [˜], on Alef Maqsura [˜], or isolated [˜].
  2. Taa-Marbuta [˜]: That is a particular form of the letter [˜Є], it always appears by the end of the word.
  3. Alef-Maqsura []: This is a particular form of the notice [˜], it always appears by the end of the term.

The above three letters pose some challenges when building morphological systems. Lots of the written Arabic text messages and Arabic web sites disregard the Hamza and both dots above the Taa-Marbuta. For example, the Arabic expression [. . . ˜Ї˜±˜˜] (mdrst, "university") can happen in many texts as [. . . ˜Ї˜±˜] (mdrsh) (this means "institution" or "his teacher") without two dots above the last letter. When comparing the last letter in both previous words, we found it was [˜] in the first word, while it was [] in the second word.

Twenty-five of Arabic alphabets signify consonants. The remaining three letters stand for the weak characters or the long vowels of Arabic (shortly vowels). These characters are: Alef[˜], Waaw[Л†] and Yaa[ ].

Moreover, diacritics are being used in the Arabic words, which are symbols located above or below the words to add unique pronunciation, grammatical formulation, and sometimes another interpretation to the whole phrase. Arabic diacritics include, dama (), fathah (), kasra (), sukon ('), dual dama (), two times fathah (№), double kasra () [54]. For example, Desk 2-2 presents different pronunciations of the notice (Sad) ((˜:

Table 2˜2: Presents different pronunciations of the notice (Sad) (˜)

˜'

˜

˜

˜№

˜

˜

˜

/s/

/sun/

/sin/

/san/

/si/

/sa/

/su/

In addition, Arabic has special tag rather than the prior diacritics. this tag is called gemination tag (shaddah (˜ґ˜Ї˜) or tashdeed). Gemination is a mark written above the notice (') to point a doubled consonant while pronouncing it. This is done when the first consonant gets the null diacritical tag skoon ('), and the second consonant has every other diacritical mark. For example, in the Arabic term (Ƙ'˜˜±) (kssr, "he smashed to pieces"), when the first syllable ends with (˜)(s) and the next begins with (˜) (s), both consonants are united and the gemination draw implies this union. So, the prior expression is written as (Ƙ'˜±), and it includes four letters Ж ˜ ˜ ˜±[55].

The Arabic dialect has two genders, feminine (. . . ˜ ˜) and masculine (. . . ˜Ж˜±); three figures, singular (. . . ˜±˜Ї), dual (. . . ˜ ), and plural (˜. . . ˜№); and three grammatical situations, nominative (˜˜±˜№), accusative (˜ ˜˜Ё), and genitive (˜˜˜±). Generally, Arabic words are classified as contaminants (˜˜ЇЛ†˜˜Є), nouns (˜˜. . . ˜˜), or verbs (˜˜№˜). Nouns in Arabic including adjectives (˜˜˜Є) and adverbs (˜ё˜±Л†) and can be produced from other nouns, verbs, or particles. Nouns in the Arabic words cover proper nouns (such as people, places, things, ideas, day and month names, etc. ). A noun gets the nominative case when it is the topic (˜˜№); accusative when it is the object of the verb (. . . ˜№Л†) and the genitive when it's the object of an preposition (. . . ˜˜±Л†˜± ˜Ё˜˜± ˜˜±) [56]. Verbs in Arabic are divided into perfect (˜ ˜є˜ ˜˜№ ˜˜Є˜. . . ), imperfect (˜ ˜є˜ ˜ ˜ ˜˜) and crucial (˜ ˜є˜ ˜˜. . . ˜±). Arabic particle category includes pronouns(˜˜¶. . . ˜˜˜±), adjectives(˜˜˜˜Є), adverbs(˜˜˜Л†˜), conjunctions(˜˜№˜), prepositions (˜˜±Л† ˜˜˜±), interjections (˜ ˜є˜ ˜˜Є˜№˜˜Ё) and interrogatives (˜№˜. . . ˜˜Є ˜˜˜˜Є˜. . . ) [57].

2. 2. Arabic Morphology

The Arabic terminology is one of the highly complex natural languages that includes a very rich and complicated morphology. Morphology' is the part of linguistics that package with the inner structure and creation processes of words. A morpheme is often defined as the smallest meaningful and significant device of dialect, which can't be broken down into smaller parts[58]. So, for example, the word apple consists of an individual morpheme (the morpheme apple), while the word apples consist of two morphemes: the morpheme apple and the morpheme -s (indicator of plural). In Arabic language for example, the word (˜˜. . . , "he asked them") consists also of two morphemes the verb (˜˜, "he ask") and the pronoun (. . . , "them"). Based on the previous good examples, there are two types of morphemes: roots and affixes. The root is the primary morpheme of the word, supplying the main meaning, as the affixes are added in the beginning, middle or end of the root to set-up new words that add additional so this means of various types. In more standard morphemes could be labeled as: (1) origins morphemes and (2) affixes morphemes, Figure 2. 3 illustrated this classification.

Figure 2-3: Morpheme Classification

Root is the original morpheme of the term before any change processes that comprises the most crucial area of the word and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. Quite simply, it is the primary device of the family of the same phrase after taking away all inflectional and derivational affixes which can stand on their own as

words (indie words). The main morphemes divided into two categories. The first category is called lexical morphemes, which addresses the words in the terms carrying this content of the meaning. Cases from English terminology: booklet, compute, and write, while samples from Arabic language: (˜±˜, "read"), (˜№˜Ё, "play"), and (ƘЄ˜Ё, "write"). The next category is called stop words morphemes, which addresses the function words in the vocabulary. The stop words include adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, and prepositions. Cases from English dialect: on, that, the, and above. Examples from Arabic words: ( , "in"), (Л†, "above"), and (˜Є˜˜Є, "under").

Affixes morphemes are also products of so this means; however, they can not take place as words independently; they have to be mounted on something such as main morphemes. You can find three types of affixes in Arabic vocabulary: prefixes, infixes, and suffixes. In some instances, all of these affixes can be found in one word as in the term[Л†˜. . . ˜˜˜±˜ЁЛ† ] ("and the warriors"). This expression has ten characters, three of them are root-letters, as the others are affixes. The root of this phrase is [˜˜±˜Ё] ("war"). The example in Physique 2. 4 can evidently deduce the differences between your three main conditions used in computational linguistics: roots, stems and affixes.

Figure 2-4: The Decomposition of the term [Л†˜. . . ˜˜˜±˜ЁЛ† ].

2. 3. Arabic Language Challenges

Arabic is a challenging dialect in comparison to other languages such as English for a number of reasons:

  1. In English, prefixes and suffixes are put into the start or end of the root to generate new words. In Arabic, as well as the prefixes and suffixes there are infixes that may be added inside the term to build new words that have the same interpretation. For instance, in English, the term write is the root of word writer. In Arabic, the term writer (Ƙ˜Є˜Ё) is derived from the root write (ƘЄ˜Ё) by adding the letter Alef (˜) inside the main. In these cases, it is difficult to distinguish between infix letters and the root letters.
  2. he Arabic terminology has a rich and sophisticated morphology in comparison with English. Its richness is related to the fact the particular one root can make several hundreds of words having different meanings. Table 2-4 presents different morphological kinds of root review (˜Ї˜±˜).

Table 2˜3: Different morphological varieties of word research (˜Ї˜±˜).

Word

Tense

Pluralities

Meaning

Gender

˜Ї˜±˜

Past

Single

He studied

Masculine

˜Ї˜±˜˜Є

Past

Single

She studied

Feminine

 ˜Ї˜±˜

Present

Single

He studies

Masculine

˜Є˜Ї˜±˜

Present

Single

She studied

Feminine

˜Ї˜±˜˜

Past

Dual

They studied

Masculine

˜Ї˜±˜˜Є˜

Past

Dual

They studied

Feminine

 ˜Ї˜±˜˜ 

Present

Dual

They study

Masculine

˜Є˜Ї˜±˜˜ 

Present

Dual

They study

Feminine

 ˜Ї˜±˜˜

Present

Dual

They study

Masculine

˜Є˜Ї˜±˜˜

Present

Dual

They study

Feminine

˜Ї˜±˜Л†˜

Past

Plural

They studied

Masculine

˜Ї˜±˜ 

Past

Plural

They studied

Feminine

˜Є˜Ї˜±˜ 

Present

Plural

They study

Feminine

˜ ˜Ї˜±˜

Future

Single

They will study

Masculine

˜˜Є˜Ї˜±˜

Future

Single

They will study

Feminine

˜ ˜Ї˜±˜˜

Future

Dual

They will study

Masculine

˜˜Є˜Ї˜±˜˜

Future

Dual

They will study

Feminine

˜ ˜Ї˜±˜Л† 

Future

Plural

They will study

Masculine

˜˜Є˜Ї˜±˜Л† 

Future

Plural

They will study

Feminine

  1. Some Arabic words have different meanings based on their appearance in the context. Particularly when diacritics aren't used, the proper so this means of the Arabic term can be determined based on the context. For example, the term (˜№. . . ) could be Science (˜№'. . . ), Teach (˜№'. . . ') or Flag (˜№. . . ') depending on diacritics [46].
  2. Unfortunately, Arabic people do not explicitly discuss the gemination draw in their writing. They depend on their knowledge of the language to provide the missing letter and write what without it. In effect, this is make the morphology procedure for such words is not an easy activity [55].
  3. Another problem of automated Arabic text handling is that proper nouns in Arabic do not start with a capital notice just as English, and Arabic characters don't have lower and top case, making identifying proper names, acronyms, and abbreviations difficult.
  4. In English terms, a term is an individual entity. It might be a noun, a verb, a preposition, articles, . . . , etc. While in Arabic terminology a single word could be a complete sentence. For example, Desk 2. 4 shows some sole Arabic words and their comparable English translations.

Table 2˜4: Example: An Arabic Expression is actually a Complete English Sentence

Arabic Word

English Sentences

˜˜Ё˜Є

She go

˜˜˜±˜

I will read it

˜. . . ˜№ ˜

We hear him

˜˜˜Ё˜±  

He advised me

˜є˜˜Ї˜±

Then he departed

  1. There are several free benchmarking English datasets used for report categorization, such as 20 Newsgroup, which is made up of around 20, 000 documents distributed almost uniformly into 20 classes; Reuters 21, 578, which consists of 21, 578 documents belonging to 17 classes; and RCV1 (Reuters Corpus Quantity 1), which has 806, 791 documents categorised into four main classes. Regrettably, there is absolutely no free benchmarking dataset for Arabic file classification.
  2. In the Arabic language, the situation of synonyms and destroyed plural forms are widespread. Types of synonyms in Arabic are (˜Є˜Ї. . . , ˜Є˜№˜, ˜˜Ё, . . . ) this means (Come), and (. . .  ˜, ˜Ї˜˜±, ˜Ё ˜Є, ˜Ж ) which means (house).
  3. In the Arabic words, the problem of cracked plural forms occurs when some unusual nouns in the Arabic vocabulary in plural will take another morphological form not the same as its original form in singular. For instance, the word (Doctors, " ˜˜˜Ё˜˜") is a destroyed plural of the masculine singular (Doctor, " ˜˜Ё ˜Ё").
  4. In the Arabic terminology, one word may have significantly more than lexical category (noun, verb, adjective, etc. ) in various contexts such as (wellspring, "˜№   ˜. . . ˜˜"), (Eyeball, "˜№   ˜˜ ˜˜ "), (was appointed, "˜№  . . . ˜Ї ˜±˜ ˜ґ˜±Ж").
  5. In addition to the different varieties of the Arabic phrase that derive from the derivational process, there are some words lack real Arabic roots like Arabized words that are translated from other languages, such as (programs, " ˜Ё˜±˜. . . ˜ "), (geography, "˜˜є˜±˜ ˜"), (internet, ˜˜Ґ ˜Є˜± ˜Є" "), etc. or titles, places such as (countries, "˜˜Ё˜Ї˜ "), (locations, "˜. . . ˜Ї "), (rivers, "˜˜ ˜˜±"), (mountains, "˜˜˜Ё˜"), (deserts, " ˜˜˜˜˜±"), etc.

2. 4. Summary

Arabic language is an international language owned by the Semitic languages family (not the same as Indo-European languages in a few respects). The Arabic alphabet includes twenty-eight letters in addition to some variants of existing characters. Each notice can appear in up to four different forms, depending on the position of the notice in the Arabic phrase. Twenty-five of Arabic letters represent consonants. The rest of the three letters symbolize the long vowels of Arabic. The Arabic writing system should go from to left & most words in Arabic words are signed up with together.

Arabic has a rich and sophisticated morphology. In many cases, one orthographic term is comprising many semantic and syntactic words. Usually there are two types of morphology in Arabic terms: roots morphemes and affixes morphemes. The main morphemes divided into two categories. The first category is called lexical morphemes, which protects the words in the vocabulary carrying the content of the message. The next category is called stop words morphemes, which covers the function words such as adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, and prepositions. Affixes morphemes cannot arise as words independently; they have to be attached to something such as main morphemes. You will discover three types of affixes in Arabic terminology: prefixes, infixes, and suffixes.

All Arabic words could be categorized into three main categories based on the part-of-speech: noun, verb, and particle. The noun and verb in Arabic might be further divided relating to: number (singular, dual and plural), and case (nominative, genitive and accusative). Arabic. The Arabic vocabulary is a challenging vocabulary in comparison to other languages and has a complicated morphological framework. Therefore, the Arabic terminology needs a group of preprocessing exercises to be suited to cl

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