Posted at 11.27.2018
The theory of Structuration maintains that "all individuals action is performed within theframework of an existing social framework governed by a set of rules which are very not the same as other existing sociable strata. However as you African proverb says 'noting is everlasting in life, so will the human being action which is not everlasting and external but it is generally a subject of reflexive responses. The methodology does not rely on the individual or societal totality but a mixture of social practices described by both space and time. It endeavors to reconcile the theoretical opinions eg company vs. framework, subjective vs. objective thoughts micro vs. the macro aims. Social structure is employed to make reference to arrangements or habits which constitute a world all together and also to ascertain ratio as established above determine the behavioral facet of the human being. In defining both the macro and the micro size, macro sociology may make reference to the analysis of the communal system by and populations on an enormous scale. It could also revolve around individuals and other constituent aspects of modern culture but on a larger social system which they are an integral part of. Microsociology refers to individual social interactions which is more of any interpretative approach alternatively than an empirical observation Organization may refer to the capability of the individual to act independently on the background of their own free will while composition refers to the repeated patterned agreements which inhibit the choices and opportunities that individuals process. The assumptions of the theory are that 1) communal interactions aren't about micro -activity level and on the other palm cannot be explained from a macro perspective. 2) repetitive activities of people recur the societal structure3) they can be neither permanent or unchangeable 4) they inhibit the activities of individuals5) their actions and framework constrain the other person in an ever changing way
James Samuel Coleman was an American sociologist and came up with the foundations of cultural theory developed from his comprehensive research of development of communal capital through education whereby he previously come up with the sociology of education concerning how public institutions of learning and individual experiences affect education and its own outcomes and also had undertaken to execute a study on the Equality of Educational opportunity whereby he explained that school funding had little effect on the student success rather it would be prudent for the government to enhance institution to determine scholar background and communal economic status somewhat than identifying educational results by the school resources. The research also discovered that socially disadvantaged dark-colored students performed better in built in college thus advocated for equivalent opportunities in the institution system, also he identified that the upper black students scored higher levels than the same white students in the same selection of points and therefore there was very little evidence to aid racist quarrels. These tests were inculcated not to test the amount of intelligence rather to determine the ability to learn in the American environment
Education therefore is known as a means of betterment and overcoming difficulties to acquire communal status and riches and also where students engage in expanding their wholesome self according with their potential and needs. As time improved and the world had valid experiences e. g. warfare and industrialization it proved with no doubt that there is dependence on technologically-skilled labour and this it was very important to one to acquire education to permit this no matter once social position but research proved otherwise that education could only achieve limited public mobility and that schooling systems only emphasized on school stratification and discrimination
Pierre Bourdieu, a cultural theorist who came up with the idea of social production which identifies processes that create and maintain features of a given sociable structure over a period. He researched on the collision between composition and company put applied it almost in a class setting in that he seen that objective set ups determine once chances through patterns where they allow for this structures thus once class position does not determine once life s chances. He used the idea of non financial interpersonal assets to look for the differences in pupil benefits for different classes and motivated that tension among conservative reproduction and innovative development of knowledge and experience is accelerated by things to consider of which cultural past is to be replicated in institution. He figured it is the culture of the dominant organizations that is inculcated in academic institutions and hence cultural reproduction. He concluded that those who processed this culture would obtain educational capital and the huge benefits that adopted this in form of skills it was therefore difficult for children to achieve success since they possessed to attain education as a transformed being which was against their instinct and expectations
In realization Bourdieu s conclusion proven how objective buildings play in obtaining individual achievement in college but permits individual firm to overcome barriers
In merging both Coleman ideas and Bourdie is that the faster a person or a student can integrate in to the dominant system the more he/she is able to produce the mandatory results instead of going against the machine as characterized by the research done by Coleman whereby the black students were able to produce better results by the virtue to the fact that they were in a position to integrate in to the dominant white system and dominate with ease. The white individuals would not stand up to this and for that reason had to copy their children to other schools
The backgrounds of the three freelance writers is comparable in the sense that they undertook research to ascertain consistent problem and phenomena and come up with theory that is proved on the period of time though these are in several locations and time where some of the theorists were in britain, US and France.
Antony giddens theory of structure and agency was initially based on the micro sociology that created a basis for the macrosociology. He started out by looking at the average person behavior of any person and exactly how his everyday alternatives are characterized by the overall societal environment. This is more the key reason why he said of security in conformation since one is only living in tried and tested waters and will not want to go from the existing/the interpersonal framework he inhibits to a different or try a totally new experience He didn't go into the working experience of the theory as we will analyse. Also it might be difficult to determine whether we use either macro or micro viewpoint as social relationships are not all about micro -activity level and on the other hands cannot be described from a macro perspective.
In both theorists Coleman and Pierre we note they did a study on a human population of students commencing a common common education and for that reason for them it would be difficult to use a micro sociology point of view since an individual situation varies due to many unsimilar factors but as we group lots of the students bound by a similar factor eg color we are able to get yourself a conclusive derivation of the state of affairs as compared to another different group.
Antony Giddens used scientific method of research whereby he seen and made conclusions. He used the principle of positivism whereby that the one authentic knowledge is based on sense experience and positive confirmation. They reject metaphysical interpretation and create a theory that can be actually proven and tested and it is obvious since Pierre was able to put it on to the educational point of view and was able to come up with a theory that discussed the variance in institution performance
Pierre used statistical interpretation whereby as well as Coleman though on distinct situations sampled students and from an over-all response came with conclusions and theories. Pierre inculcated Anthony Giddens theory of composition and company and used the information to create the theory of social production to explain a phenomena that Coleman also established in his research. This is the method of anti-positivism
Giddens theory wished to explain why population behaves as it can and just why there can never be a turmoil in the behavior of people and that difference in tendencies is based on the social framework that has characterized his upbringing. This goes to explain an instance circumstance of two different people. One is raised in a stable family as the other in violent family that believes in violence to women. The one raised in a stable home is likely to have a stable family in future due to the fact of the structure and also even though he might be violent in nature, his violence may never actually materialize especially to women because the choices that he makes are influenced by the buildings that he was brought up in.
Pierre wanted to explain why public buildings never change after they are instituted if indeed they do change; they are doing so by the virtue of the actual fact they bow out to superior structures. This would go to explain the wise expressing that if you go to Rome then do as the Romans do. In addition, it seeks to confirm that likelihood of success that follow conformity are high since as illustrated previously that dark-colored students performed much better than white kids since they could actually abandon their ethnicities and adopt the white culture. Those white kids which were opposed to the culture of integration complained and finally left institution for other non integral institution but he sustains that decisions whether to conform or not is with an individual
Both these theories are similar since they tend to clarify the same variable which is the base of behaviors of men and women which is the presence of social constructions and agency
On the other hand however they are different in the sense that Giddens did not offer an appropriate example while Pierre travelled ahead and gave a thorough example undertook a study and recorded on his findings. Giddens also was not able to completely conclude whether his theory was a micro or a macro sociology theory but dwelt more on the micro part of if Pierre however undertook a study and concentrated on the macro level and desired to explain a phenomena that been around using a predetermined theory
Of both issues I'd say that Giddens provides one since he looks for to clarify it from a generalized point of view not as in comparison to Pierre though he only developed what Giddens experienced researched on. The idea could even be used to make clear the gap between the rich and the indegent whereby the wealthy continue being rich together with the years that follow since it a sociable framework that they inculcate in their children and the lids take upon themselves to learn and apply the lessons of getting and maintaining that prosperity. Though no situation is long lasting they may decide to deviate from these lessons and take a course of their own to the downfall of their legacy and empire. Alternatively the poor may continue to be poor as well as their generations due to the structures that contain been inculcated in and their choice to continue being poor but may decide to deviate to check out wealth thus the environment being the structure while the choices being the organization.
Giddens, Anthony. (1974). Positivism and Sociology. Heinemann. London.
Ashley D, Orenstein DM (2005). Sociological theory: Traditional statements (6th ed. ). Boston, MA, USA: Pearson Education. pp. 239-240
Swartz, D. , "Pierre Bourdieu(2000) The Cultural Transmitting of Social Inequality" in Robbins, D. , (2000) Pierre Bourdieu Level II, Sage Publications, London, pp. 207-217
Giddens, A. (1986). Constitution of world: Put together of the theory of structuration, University or college of California Press; Reprint release (January 1, 1986