Whilst looking at books to target my essay on, A passage to India was appealing; first published in 1924, E. M. Forster showed attention towards background of life including social class and race issues in the early 20th century. The novel involves various critical theories such as Post structuralism, Feminism however I've chosen to focus closely on Structuralism and Post- colonism. `
Edward Morgan Forster will transform his observations and encounters in life into his fiction. Forster's novel 'A passage to India' was inspired by his trip to India, at the same time where British had gained full control over India. In his previous novel 'Howards end (1910)', Forster criticized the class divisions and prejudices of Edwardian England. E. M. Forster experienced the divide between British colonist and Indian people consequently of cultural misunderstandings and racial oppression. Forster, a homosexual 'became a lifelong advocate for tolerance and understanding among people of different social classes, races, and backgrounds' due to experiencing prejudice first hand as homosexuals were not 'accepted' for the reason that time frame.
Ferdinand de Saussure is a famous linguistic who had a great impact on the Structuralist theory, discovering the idea that 'words aren't symbols which correspond to referents, but rather are 'signs' which are made of two parts' [http://faculty. ksu. edu. sa/Nugali/English%20461/Structuralist%20theories. pdf]the two parts being a) signifier - what's written or spoken and b) signified - the concept. The signifier is the word you write down or what sort of word is said and the signified is the image that comes to the top or what you imagine it to appear to be which is part of Saussure's theory. Saussure was a Swiss linguist; which is when linguistic scholars took particularly interested in historical characteristics of language, according to Saussure 'A synchronic description of language is a description of the language as it functions at a specific time. ' He also targets the connections between your historical developments of languages by speculating about the origins of languages itself. Saussure emphasised his views as a Structuralist theorist that 'the meanings we share with words are purely arbitrary and that these meanings are maintained by convention, only words that are unmotivated signs. ' Saussure is implying that there is no inherent connection between a word and what it designates. He uses the exemplory case of the term 'hut' to describe his theory, signifying that the term itself is not appropriate to its meaning as all the linguistic signs are arbitrary like this.
Ferdinand De Saussure's are a linguistic enthused structuralism, and many critics used linguistics to create a clearer knowledge of the Structuralist critical theory 'Structuralism developed as a theoretical framework in linguistics by Ferdinand de Saussure in the late 1920s'. 'The Structuralist methodology uses the analogy of the phoneme as the 'smallest meaningful unit'. A phoneme cannot be thought to have any 'intrinsic' meaning: it is merely meaningful by virtue of its put in place a complex system. It really is distinguished precisely since it is not something else. ' Structuralist critics in literature make an effort to identify fundamental structures in order to start to see the text as a larger structure.
Structuralism is a critical theory that was founded in France in the 1950s, which was then imported into Britain mainly in the 1970s but attained widespread influence throughout the 1980s. Structuralism can be interpreted in lots of ways 'Structuralism is often said to be hard to define because it has taken way too many different forms for a typical denominator to be in evidence: the structures invoked by the number of "Structuralists" have acquired increasingly diverse significations' Structuralism was initially recognised in the work of the literary critic Roland Barthes who felt that the structure is overlooked by old criticism rather than concentrating on revealing the value of language. Structuralist critics focus that there must be a more substantial structure to every text which can connect to the ways in which we live and understand the world. Structuralist critics are entirely interested in the words on the page but place them in a more substantial context 'Structuralism is characterised by two perspectives: the belief that the social universe is, in its nature, both arbitrary, and conventional like language itself; and the reversal of the traditional view of the relationship between humans and their social environment. '
Throughout the novel, E. M focuses on the possibility of the relationship between British and Indian people, whereas using Saussure theory of the sign and the signifier a guy is a man because they're not say a monkey or a building. Yet as they are from two different origins and incredibly different cultures these are symbolized as complete opposites 'They were discussing concerning whether or not it is possible to be friends with an Englishman. Mahmoud argued so it was not. ' Evident that with Saussure's theory they are both 'man', however Saussure's outlook could be changed in the manner for example A Indian man is an Indian because he's not American or Egyptian; comparable to an Englishman is English because he's from England rather than Poland. The theory of the sign and the signifier is that an image is merely what we make of it 'An image is what we label of it, and what we should label of an acoustic image depends upon the concept for which it stands for. ' Implying that joining the acoustic image and the content together is important to permit analysis to be produced, however it is merely a theoretical division only.
Claude Levi Strauss was an Anthropologist, and an important figure in bringing Structuralism into France. Levi - Strauss brand of structuralism had not been referred to as a method but "a way of taking a look at things". Levis Strauss was necessary to relate the structural linguistics from Ferdinand De Saussure to Anthropology. He proposed the thought of 'binary oppositions', which is opposite objects such as 'dark - light' and adapts them through literature. A passage to India contains several binary oppositions. Structuralist critical theorists identify binary oppositions as structuralism as noticeable worldwide human structures. The most obvious binary oppositions are the 'Indian verses Englishman' or 'Colonizer verses Colonized'; E. M Forster uses these binary oppositions to emphasize the differing cultures gives some the reason why they aren't likely to get along. Levi - Strauss follows the work of Roman Jakobson, a linguistic 'the leading idea would be that the human mind operates in terms of binary oppositions and this such oppositions structure all the phenomena of human culture' Levi - Strauss uses binary oppositions as he believes that is how the human mind works.
Structure comes with an unchanging connection that links different contents rather than being viewed as uninterested to contents 'Structure had no distinct content; it is content itself, apprehended in a logical organization conceived as a house of the real'. Anthropological structuralism is regarded as synchronic, synchronic meaning it can be involved with phenomena at a particular period without considering historical antecedents. 'Structuralism teaches us to conceptualize socio-cultural phenomena in terms of metalinguistic degrees of analysis'
A Passage to India is approximately the British in India, about relationships between the British and the Indians in the early twentieth century, about prejudice and justice and friendship and how myths are made. Or it's about "an unimaginable space which cannot be inhabited by today's tense, resisting even the European attempt to coax it into metaphoricity" (Suleri 250).
Forster brought to India an understanding of the paradoxes in man'situation matured through contemplating other societies; from India he learned of aspects to the existential condition atrophied or stultified by modern civilization, and in Indian thought and the symbolism of her myths, art and architecture, he found out other dimensions; to man's perpetual search for self-understanding.