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Stimulate Recall of prior learning


This paper seeks to go over how some of the key instructional design ideas behind "Second Life" can be employed to refine the learning strategy within SI. Specifically, the main element characteristics in Second life that are of interest include (a) the utilization of Exclusive space as the program for interactive learning, (b) how the virtual space can be leverage to incentivize learning and (c) how Robert Gagne's nine occurrences of education can be applied in the design of a exclusive learning environment. This paper will discuss how these ideas can be infused into the existing e-Learning program in SI, called "My Learning Space" (MLS), the objective is never to replace MLS with Second Life but rather to introduce the training features in second life that will further boost existing design.

Current Situation - Learning in the 3G SAF Space:

2. As the SAF persists to build up itself into a technological advanced and complex push, it is clear that the SAF will realize an increase of military services hardware and software that will fuel this transformation effort. Underpinning these technological transformation, is the necessity for our service personnel to be better trained to operate these systems. The challenge to teach and prepare the 3G SAF is not really a trivial affair due to following reasons:

a. Due to the various solutions and combat systems that are procured, trainees would have to learn new skills and competencies to handle such equipment. Gradually, these systems are also becoming more technical over time.

b. You can find shorter time to train, mainly because of the decrease in NSF training time from 2. 5 to 24 months and NS duration from 13 to 10 years.

c. The learning personal preferences of the Net-Gen learners will progressively pose new problems for their training expectations given what they have been uncovered plus more accustomed within their institutions prior to enlistment and home (smart college and a pervasive network environment). However, the probable of the Net-Gen learners should also be observed as a leverage for learning in the 3G SAF space.

Impetus for development in the Future

3. Development Potential of Second Life. Second life as a digital world supplies the flexibility that is perfect for creating instructional tools, such as games, problem established learning conditions, simulation activities, and distance education settings. Second Life can be an open-ended environment where players themselves design the globe, its things and their conducts. Incorporating advanced three-dimensional modeling tools and a robust scripting language, the game invites players to readily unleash their imaginations. Users, through their representations in the area, called avatars, maneuver around and interact with one another in Second Life. Users can also create structures and materials in Second Life. Therefore, difficulties and problem handling duties can be created.

4. Limits of Current Knowledge Website. MLS can be an in-house developed learning portal that delivers a common user interface for trainees to get usage of a collection of training services and tools. From the digital training program, trainees can view a catalogue of video tutorials and digital training manual that are relevant to their course. While these modules may be useful in lots of ways, it continues to be lacking and limited in range to allow deeper learning as a result of following reasons:

a. It is typically set up as a knowledge repository.

b. Will not facilitate implementation of cognitive strategy.

c. Standard motivational techniques are hard to put into practice.

d. Hence, it becomes more an exercise media

Consideration for Learning in the Virtual World

5. The Key factors for learning in the online environment are the following:

a. Pros:

Net Technology learners are incredibly comfortable operating in this space (facebook, youtube, talk, etc).

Relatively easier to create desire to learn, collaboration and experiential learning opportunities that might not exactly be easily available in real life.

No limit to the utilization of space.

Elaboration of the Nine instructional Events

Modeling after Robert Gagne's nine incidents of education, the suggested MLS Ver 2. 0 would integrate the nine design characteristics based on the info processing style of the mental happenings that arise when men and women are offered various stimuli. This is summarized in the table the following:

Instructional Event

Internal Mental Process

1. Gain attention

Stimuli activates receptors

2. Inform learners of objectives

Creates degree of expectation for learning

3. Stimulate recall of previous learning

Retrieval and activation of short-term memory

4. Present the content

Selective notion of content

5. Provide "learning information"

Semantic encoding for storage space long-term memory

6. Elicit performance (practice)

Responds to questions to enhance encoding and verification

7. Provide feedback

Reinforcement and diagnosis of accurate performance

8. Assess performance

Retrieval and encouragement of content as final evaluation

9. Enhance retention and copy to the job

Retrieval and generalization of learned skill to new situation

a. Gain attention in Hi-Res 3D Virtual World Learning Environment (VWLE)

In order for just about any learning to happen, you must first record the attention of the pupil. To this end, MLS 2. 0 would be designed as a online copy of SI. The 3D user interface accompanied by sound effects or music startles the senses with auditory or aesthetic stimuli. From here, trainees can navigator and "explore" the many rooms within the building. Each room constitutes a new learning domain or subject matter and are just accessible predicated on the intended collection of learning. Trainees can only access other rooms of "higher learning" only if they have gained the required requirements.

b. Inform learners of objectives

Early in each lessons students would be given a list of learning objectives. This initiates the inner procedure for expectancy and helps motivate the learner to complete the lesson. These aims form the foundation for diagnosis, and structured based on Mager's model of Performance, condition and Criterion. Beyond these explained targets, trainees would be asked to recognize 3 other personal targets that he/she wish to achieve by the finish of the course. Trainees will have a real time view of these improvement in the attainment of these objectives so that they can graph their own learning progress. This makes learning relevant to the trainees.

Stimulate recall of prior learning

Associating new information with preceding knowledge can aid the training process. It really is easier for learners to encode and store information in long-term memory space whenever there are links to personal experience and knowledge. To induce this, every learning component would begin by requesting questions about past experiences, a knowledge of previous ideas, or a body of content. To ensure that the pre-requisite modules are protected in the correct sequence, the module would reiterate the fundamental modules and will also focus on those that have been overlooked before allow trainees to move forward further.

d. Present the content

This event of instruction is where the new content is really offered to the learner. To charm to different learning modalities, a number of media would be utilized. These include word, graphics, audio narration, and video tutorials. Working out videos are sorted out in a "youtube" fashion and related videos are grouped in a coherent order. To increase the scope of learning, other "related videos" that are relevant to this issue would also be "suggested" and made for easy access. These video tutorials are deliberately retained short to maintain the attention period of the trainees.

e. Provide "learning information"

To help learners encode information for long-term storage area, additional guidance in the form of a learning map will be provided combined with the demonstration of new content. Direction strategies are the use of examples, non-examples, circumstance studies, visual representations, mnemonics, and analogies. This learning map serves to provide the higher level introduction and also storage help to help retain the knowledge gained.

f. Elicit performance (practice)

Eliciting performance has an opportunity for learners to verify their right understanding, and the repetition further escalates the likelihood of retention. To achieve this outcome, the use of MLS is in conjunction with the other aspects of a blended learning strategy. Building upon the knowledge received in these learning module, the trainees would be asked to perform simple task (e. g. sensible hands-on to set up an equipment), and short quizzes.

g. Provide feedback

As learners practice new tendencies it is important to provide specific and immediate opinions of these performance. To achieve this, the on-line learning quizzes would provide results as a proxy towards the entire course performance. Besides the instantaneous feedback, the scores provide to mirror the "Top 3 scorers" over the cohort.

h. Assess performance

Upon doing instructional modules, all trainees would be subjected to an-of-module test. This may come in the form of a paper quiz used on-line or a useful exam with respect to the nature of the skills requirement. On top of this, the real-time accrual of the individual scores really helps to elicit the weaker performances from the better performances. This allows trainers to scope their lessons and customize them to meet individual trainee's deficiency.

i. Enhance retention and copy to the job

To assist in the retention of knowledge, a daily electronic digital journal is preserved by each trainee. This seeks to help trainee recap what they have gain during the period of their training. To aid in the effective retention, a mind-map will be attracted by the trainees by the end of each component. This pictorial representation would be distributed across the communities to assist in the indexing of knowledge.

Longer Term Execution Approach

7. MLS can't be used in isolation, it should be organized with existing didactic way of learning to form a combined methodology. This Blended learning offers learners and trainers an environment to learn and instruct more effectively. Learners can select the best activities to match their own tempo, learning style and level, as well as time and place. Learners can become more 3rd party and self-reliant in their own learning. They can also be more able to take decisions, think creatively and critically, investigate and explore as well as solve problems they face in learning and real life. Meanwhile, teachers can be facilitators, supervisors, assessors, organizers and professionals of learning activities, therefore should be creative and in a position to support learners and provide various learning materials in different types. In SI, the blended approach we adopt is captured in the diagram below:




Field Experience



Reflection Log


Mandated Reading

Online Quiz

and Exercises


8. Adopting the learning object in Second Life to make a virtual world learning environment (VWLE) applied in a combined learning environment is a fresh pedagogy the SAF dreams to leverage upon to meet the training needs of the 3G SAF troops.

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