Posted at 11.28.2018
People who are stigmatised as socially and morally undesirable will tend to turn to further rule breaking in the foreseeable future. Discuss using one or more of the major sociological theories protected in the module
Stigma theories describe the exclusion of stigmatised person's from normal sociable interaction. The author will concentrate on the social reaction theory (also called labelling theory) and how influential sociologists are suffering from different ideas. By examining the way the labelling theory is put on chronic illness and deviance. Therefore, the reader will understand. The audience will understand how folks who are stigmatised as socially and morally undesirable will have a tendency to turn to help expand rule breaking in the foreseeable future. The author can look at the works of Edwin Lemert and Howard Becker's theoretical idea of labelling. Also, Erving Goffman and his analysis on stigma and the management of home followed by an example of Scrambler theory on epilepsy and finally looking at some of the coping techniques distributed by Goffman. But first of all, we need to understand precisely what the term stigma means.
The term 'stigma' was in the beginning used to make reference to bodily indications burnt or slice in to the body to distinguish, criminals, and social out-casts as "contaminated" people, Goffman (1968). Also, Goffman defines stigma as difference between a online social id - this is the stereotyped imputations we make in everyday activity and actual interpersonal personal information- that is those features which an individual does indeed actually process. Regarding to Goffman stigma is a particular kind of marriage between attribute and stereotype which is the process where the reaction of others ruin normal personality.
In demonstrating the sociological ideas such as the interactionism theory of deviance by Becker (1963), stated that Social teams create deviance by making the guidelines and apply those rules to particular people and labelling them as outsiders. Becker then evaluated the possible effects upon someone of being publicly labelled defining a person as a particular kind of person. However, a label is not natural: it contains an evaluation of the individual to whom it is applied. It is a master position in the sense that this colours all the other statuses possessed by the individual. For example; if a person is labelled as a unlawful, mentally sick or homosexual, such brands largely override their position where people see them and react to them in terms of those product labels, and tend to assume they have got the negative characteristics normally associated with such labels.
Therefore, since individuals self-concepts are largely derived from the responses of others, they'll tend to see themselves in conditions of the label which produces self applied- fulfilling prophecy whereby the deviant id becomes the handling one.
Becker discovered possible levels in this technique; Firstly, an individual is publicly labelled as deviant. This may lead to rejection from many communal categories such as relatives and buddies, loss of work and possibly be forced out of the neighbourhood.
Secondly this may also encourage further deviance; for example; medication addicts may turn to crime to support the behavior since reputable employers refuse to give them employment. And thirdly the official treatment of deviance may have similar results in which they have a problem finding employment and are forced to come back to crime for his or her livelihood. Becker pressured the importance of public id of the deviance label that can lead to further deviance and may also change individual's do it yourself concept in order that they came to respect themselves as deviant for the first time.
However, interactionism has been criticised on meaning of deviance. Lemert and Becker argued that deviance was made by the cultural group who defined acts as deviant. Young, et, al (1973), however, stated that view was mistaken to them most deviance can be defined in terms of the actions of these who break cultural rules, rather than in terms of the result of a social audience. Furthermore, interactionism is deterministic it assumes that, once one has been labelled, their deviance will inevitably become worse. The labelled person does not have any option but to get more and more involved in deviant activities and it fails to make clear why individuals commit deviant serves in the firs place.
On the other hands, the exemplory case of mental illness, Goffman (1968) suggested that people who are labelled mentally sick it's in the interest of others to label them so. For example Esterson's (1964) found a families cases that their child is suffering from schizophrenia however when he studied the house circumstances, he found that the parents possessed flatly refused to simply accept that their little princess was growing up and acquired themselves acted in bizarre and whispering behind her rear and spying on her.
The daughter was experiencing the behavior which parents said she had created by imposing a explanation of mental condition on their daughters actions and they successfully prevented her from attaining independence. Because of this, Goffman (1968) mentioned that once someone is labelled as emotionally unwell, then others treat them in different ways. With this sense whatever actions the individual undertakes will be evaluated with the data that the person is mentally unwell and therefore what they say or do can't be considered at face value.
However, Gove (1982) argues that labelling theories approaching mental disease are both overstated and mainly wrong. Rejecting the view that most people react to mental illness negatively, arguing instead that people around the psychologically sick person are supportive for case; members of the family and friends sometimes support their emotionally sick patient.
Nevertheless, Helman (1986) found that illness with a poor moral label attached to it, such as lung tumor and obesity. The person who suffers from such an illness is undoubtedly blameworthy because aspects of their chosen lifestyle that are thought to have caused the disease. For example Helps is associated with sexual activity, lung cancer to smoking and over weight to overeating and lack of exercise.
These images of illness can have a powerful effect upon how people with disease see themselves and exactly how others see them. They could feel guilt for actually having the disease. Therefore, the ensuing pity and the sense of being different and substandard have been analyzed by Goffman (1968) who advised that certain people who have unwanted differentness are stigmatized by others and respect them as tainted and marked down.
One of the major types of stigma relevant to the sociology of health insurance and health issues is physical deformity. Goffman distinguishes between a discrediting stigma like a clear noticeable disfigurement or disability and a discreditable stigma where in fact the negative undesired difference is not apparent and the person has the likelihood of concealing it.
People who have discrediting attributes corresponding to Goffman offer using their potential difficulties daily getting together with others through impression management. This lowers the probability of humiliation or other problems. One of the techniques used is covering for example; the person will engage in most normal activities, but will seek to reduce the impact of the stigma by conforming whenever you can to standard norms of behavior. People who have discreditable traits can seek to cover their attributes and prevent stigma, or undertake information management for example; managing what they inform others. Both main approaches for the person with discreditable features are moving and withdrawal. Passing is wanting to conceal the discreditable attribute and drawback is when the individual withdraws from public contact whenever we can. For instance; this could affects for occasion people living with HIV in two ways. first of all, it's been linked to delays and/or avoidance of good care seeking because of doubts of further stigmatisation, while others seek carer to avoid chance meetings with neighbours, friends or other associates
Scrambler (1986) used Goffman's idea of stigma to review people who have epilepsy. Where they made distinctions in the principles of stigma by distinguishing enacted stigma and noticed stigma. (enacted stigma) pertains for illustration to discrimination against people who have epilepsy due to their identified unacceptability or inferiority. Was feeling stigma refers principally to worries of enacted stigma but also has a feeling of shame associated with being epileptic.
However, People will respond negatively to people that have epilepsy (enacted stigma) and
Individuals with the disease have found ways of taking care of it (felt stigma). Scrambler,
Suggested that individuals will respond in at least four ways to experienced stigma
Firstly; Selective concealment - is when people do not notify the majority of those with
whom they work together in the task place or leisure activities, colleges and so on. Usually
people follow an idea of disclosure, under what circumstances they can cover their
illness and in what situations they need to let others know. Second is Covering up -
the discreditable condition and keeping it secret. This runs a threat of exposure.
Third is condemning the condemners where people issue the enacted stigma often through politics action and finally, Medicalizing their behaviour to evoke sympathy.
However, Charlton (1998) criticized these methods to understanding stigma, at least when put on disabilities. He shows that the reality for impaired people across the world is that they are poor as consequence of being excluded form decent job, as well as because of stigmatizing attitudes.
In conclusion, looking at the sociological information of men and women who are socially stigmatised, the response ideas, such as deviance and labelling mounted on the mentally ill, epilepsy and long-term illness is that once a individuals known to possess the label mounted on them, they feel polluted in their community in which causes further behaviour. Moreover, Goffman offered ways of coping where people cover their identities as consequence of dread for disclosure and reaction from culture. However, the sociological research is that folks who are socially stigmatised fear more the reaction of world than the genuine condition.