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Stages of Human Development

Keywords: Bowlby, Maslow, development, child

5 Phases of Human being Development

Social, physical, psychological, cognitive and cultural changes happen throughout the life-span of a person. There is a general series of development which is fixed, nevertheless the rate of development can sometimes change depending on many factors. There are key needs which must be met and consequences if they're not.

Stage of Life Circuit: Infancy 0-5 Years

Attachment Theory-Bowlby

At this stage the newborn is highly dependant. As soon as a child exists they begin to build up actually. The baby's senses commence to develop; the guy can focus on objects, learns to carry the weight of his mind up and makes an attempt to take himself up holding onto the edge of an chair or table. He then learns to crawl and with plenty of encouragement finally learns to walk. Through connection with parents, family, friends and other children they learn to socialise, play and speak. With much needed activation and play, newborns and young children learn. They start to discover and memorise faces, characters, objects and music. With communication, consistency and encouragement they learn speech and are trained routines and behaviour, such as bed-time and toilet training. To build up emotionally, a child needs love, passion and consistent good care.

Bowlby's attachment theory, as later complimented by Rutter, suggests that from birth a kid requires a constant attachment and bonding with at least one main caregiver. With a sense of safety, belonging and being cared for unconditionally the kid learns trust and views the world as a safe place to be. Because of this it is important to avoid broken attachments. If the child's parents are uncaring, unreliable, are inconsistent with their treatment or if circumstances cause the attachment to be busted completely, the kid may be unable to develop with their full potential. Without an adequate, loving connection the infant might not exactly have the ability to develop a loving relationship in future and with out a trusting romance with the main caregiver, they will develop mistrust. They may become apprehensive, withdrawn and suspicious around people.

Stage of Life Pattern: Years as a child 5-12 years

8 stages of Identity; Initiative v Guilt-Erikson

As the kid reaches school age they have increasing physical self-reliance. They now get started to learn new skills such as running, skipping, ball game titles and cycling. They have progressed socially and have the ability to choose their own friends, find their own hobbies and make their own decisions about which activities they take part in. They begin to develop a knowledge of others needs and would like and learn to show and take turns. They can start out to develop mental accessories to individuals other than family which can form if activated. Cognitively the child begins university education and begins to develop a knowledge of authority and following guidelines.

At this level of a child's development they must be in a position to learn effort without dealing with too much guilt. Effort means they must be allowed a certain amount of responsibility and the flexibility to learn new skills; they can only just achieve this by the parents allowing and pushing their child to test ideas and allow them to make use of their imagination. The kid must not be cared for to feel too much guilt over their behaviour or feel ridiculed; this can lead them to become over delicate plus they can feel guilty about their emotions. On the other hand too much initiative and too little guilt can create a ruthless specific; they might not exactly contemplate or value the consequences with their actions.

Erikson also claims a child must create a convenience of industry without unnecessary inferiority. The kid must figure out how to understand the difference between creativeness and certainty with the information of parents and professors. The kid should learn the sensation of success and be praised and motivated, without this they could develop an inferiority complex; they may become worried of failure rather than able to look at and find out new skills.

Stage of Life Routine: Adolescence 13-20 years

8 Periods of Identity; Identification v Role Misunderstandings/Self Concept-Carl Rogers

During adolescence the average person goes through an instant progress spurt. Puberty starts and many developmental changes take place; boys begin to build up more identified muscle tone, learn to grow mane over their body and their words breaks and becomes deeper; girls are more curvaceous and they get started their menstrual period-both sexes become extremely hormonal which can result in mood swings impacting their social and emotional life. They might be concerned they are not growing as quickly as their peers triggering emotional stress. Young adults begin to build up and explore their personality and self applied image. Dependant on their culture they may develop physical relationships and test out alcohol and drugs. They experience and develop new social skills as they be present at higher education and could leave the house to attend school or university. The mind continues to develop until overdue adolescence. Cognitively this can be a very turbulent time with the pressure of examinations and choosing their profession.

As adolescents proceed through new life experiences and figure out how to deal with the emotions, they start to have responsibility for themselves, reflect on their connection with life up to now and create their own id. Young adults often rebel contrary to the authority which has governed them up until this aspect; they break the guidelines and avoid against their parent's wants. Their behavior and attitudes change, they test out style and clothing and even get started to speak differently as they struggle to find their true personal. They have a need to find their own personal information and been observed in an optimistic way by others. Erikson's theory state governments that the average person must discover his own personality and without the independence to do so may battle to easily fit into and socialise. If this development is not made, for example if adults in the adolescent's life don't allow them the freedom expressing themselves, they could find it difficult to take on tasks and develop a sense of right from wrong. Should the parents push them to conform to their views; the average person will experience role confusion.

Stage of Life Routine: Adulthood 21-65 years

Hierarchy of needs-Maslow

As the individual reaches young adulthood, they reach their peak conditioning, have a rise in stamina and really should have developed a balance of good health and lifestyle. They may have their own children and also have begun to stay down. They have generally decided and also have settled into their chosen field of vocation and work to build up and improve their education and skills. They now undertake many more responsibilities like a mortgage, providing a stable and secure bottom part for his or her family or they may experience stress within the work area. Emotionally they may have connection with loss of life and bereavement. They have more intimate relationships and could opt to marry; their role within the family changes and they begin to develop social networks.

According to Maslow, to accomplish fulfilment an individual has key needs which must be satisfied in order to attain their full probable, this is know as a 'hierarchy of needs'. The bottom of the pyramid shows physiological needs such as shelter, food, warmness, stimulation and snooze. Another level states safeness needs which can be required; protection from disease and disease. Maslow states that in order to move up the pyramid, each stage of requirements must be attained. For example, without food and shelter an individual cannot be safe against disease and subsequently cannot progress to another step of the pyramid which is love and belongingness, accompanied by self-esteem. In mature life inside our culture it is expected an individual will be provided with their physiological needs and can stay in safety. If indeed they do not receive the love and passion they want; trust and approval and a feeling of belongingness they might not have self-esteem. Without esteem and love from others they cannot respect and love themselves.

Stage of Life Circuit: Aged Adulthood 65+ years

Hierarchy of needs-Maslow

As the adult gets into into the previous stage of the life, they may begin to actually increase frail and could suffer with mental illness. Older parents' eyesight and ability to hear often begins to fail as they get older. Socially the old generation tend to follow other interests and after old age have the perfect time to lead a full social life. However, the aged generation may become more isolated credited to family issues or health reasons such as hearing or sight complications. Emotionally they may become withdrawn being themselves as an encumbrance to their population, family and friends. They may get started to contemplate their lives and also have negative thoughts such as regret or guilt; nonetheless they may feel satisfied, pleased with their achievements and their family. An older adult has knowledge and experience although they could find it hard to grasp and understand new technology and develop new skills. These disabilities are often due to ill health or memory loss.

According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, at that the surface of the pyramid the average person has a dependence on esteem; self-esteem and the esteem they receive from others. They might need an even of value for themselves and from others; with the needs fulfilled they feel self self-assured and valuable. Without esteem they can feel poor and worthless. If all the needs of the pyramid have been met, the older adult extends to self-actualisation; a sense that they have resided a life of goal. Minus the other needs of the pyramid being found they may battle to reach this level.


  • Miller. J (2000) Health care used for Higher Still, Hodder & Stoughton
  • Erikson. E. H. (1965) Years as a child and Society, Hogarth Press, London, pp. 222-43
  • http://webspace. dispatch. edu/cgboer/erikson. html
  • http://www. learning-theories. com/eriksons-stages-of-development. html
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