Posted at 11.17.2018

Spacetime Structure Implications from Quantum Mechanics and Relativity

**Abstract**

Some idea suggested in the recent Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC) is talked about in this newspaper. In CCC it is argued that the concept of time looses its interpretation in a Universe filled solely with zero rest-mass particles (i. e. photons and gravitons). This particular idea is mentioned, because at least conceptually it can involve some implication on our knowledge of spacetime and a job of rest-mass. Relativity was a great trend in our understanding of space and time, sometimes resulting in paradoxes. Quantum Technicians launched "quanta'' of energy. It occurs that the living of the minimum "quanta'' of energy can has a solid implication on the spacetime framework. abstract will include at the potential. 250 words. The abstract should give viewers concise and accurate information about the materials of the article. It indicates what methodology you have used for your outcomes and exactly how you are concluding these results. The abstract should be constrained into an individual paragraph with Times New Roman with Font Size 10, with proper justification.

Keywords: quantum technicians; standard relativity; conformal cyclic cosmology

Introduction

Einstein's Relativity theory has been experimentally verified very thoroughly and also Quantum Technicians predictions are experimentally very well checked. The philosophical or physical interpretation of mathematical equations of Relativity is commonly accepted. However Quantum Technicians is a very good working operating tool, whereas the interpretation is different widely among physicist and philosophers (outlook of various interpretations can be found e. g. in [2]). Basing on the recent Penrose's cosmological proposal [9] it seems that some implications to our knowledge of spacetime can be derived from principles and as repercussions of Relativity and Planck's legislations. Additionally, it may lead to a particular interpretation of any wave function in Quantum Physics. The Penrose's selected idea will be offered at first. Then some factors influenced by this idea will be discussed.

Problems as time passes measurement

In [9] Penrose says that in a spacetime crammed solely by photons and gravitons no clock can be built (Only the actual fact that rest-mass is zero is important. Therefore in the others of this paper only photons will be discussed. Anywhere in the text when a photon is reviewed it's important that it is a particle with zero rest-mass. ). To be able to have any clock a massive particle is needed. A stable large particle "ticks" with the specific frequency (It could be derived by combining Planck's formulation and Einstein's method. Detailed discussion is within \[9]. ).

(1).

So when there is no massive debris a spacetime looses its metric composition and only the conformal structure remains.

On the other side the black gap evaporation process (known as Hawking radiation) [5] may lead the Universe to such circumstances in a very long time. Simply speaking if the World will be broadening (and therefore air conditioning) then after some time the backdrop will be cooler than all dark-colored holes. Certainly the infinite expansion is assumed.

There are however some objections, because there could be some matter kept, not collapsed to dark openings. E. g. some unhappy massive debris can withstand. Penrose discuses both alternatives: some highly hypothetical procedure for loosing mass in an exceedingly long period and implications of an event horizon. It is not a scope of the paper to discus it more carefully. Only to state that a spacetime packed only with zero rest--mass particles is actually interesting, acceptable and possible. Penrose debate that in that spacetime no time measurement can be done (and only conformal composition remains) seems true [3, 11]. Briefly "you can dispense with the geodesics neither of test particles nor of light rays in measurement process" [6]. More discourse on this subject matter are available e. g. in [10]. In such a paper it is assumed that Penrose's proposal is true and if spacetime is filled up with zero rest-mass contaminants or massive contaminants which cannot affect each other anticipated to event horizon then time cannot be measured in that spacetime. Possible outcomes of this statement will be reviewed.

Proper time of a photon, the Observability Concept and tiling a spacetime

Let us look at a spacetime stuffed only with zero rest-mass particles. From Special Relativity it is well known that any of such a particle "feels" no proper time. For instance no time moves for a photon between its emission from the Sun and its absorbing on the Earth. Time goes by e. g. for individuals on the Earth, but virtually no time passes for a photon. Sticking to the Observability Process, which means that anything which cannot be observed will also not can be found [7, 8], you can say that for a photon both situations take place at the same time (Because time difference between giving the Sun and approaching on the planet earth, such as for individuals on the Earth, does not can be found for a photon and it is not observed by the photon. ). This means that no time moves in the Universe crammed only by zero rest-mass contaminants equally as Penrose concluded in [9]. For the sake of quality such a World will be called a Penrose's Universe further in this paper.

Fig. 1: To tell apart between different configurations time is needed. In case of no time (incapability to evaluate time) you can say that possible configurations happen at exactly the same time. Or just each particle is at once in all possible places.

It seems important to provide some thought here (which was not mentioned by Penrose). From the above paragraph it could be figured different configurations can be realised in the same time. Here a period is grasped as an interior property of a Penrose's Universe. This is of adjective inner will be clarified throughout the rest of this newspaper. Obviously we are used to measure time for example by evaluating configurations of objects (e. g. distance proportions between elements of them, etc. ). When we see an egg on the table and next we see smashed egg on a single table we reckon that a period has approved. In sake of clarity in a Universe filled with photons solely we ought to distinct between configurations (in a position to happen at the same internal time) and incidents (which happen one after another because of the order of the arrow of your time). Within a Penrose's Universe configurations are possible, but situations are excluded by the meanings.

So in a Penrose's World each possible settings occurs in the same (internal) time. Equivalently they just take place concurrently. (When there is no time it could be said that everything happens at exactly the same time. ) If one considers all possible configurations in a Penrose's Universe, one can equivalently say that every zero rest--mass particle is almost everywhere at the same (inner) time (Let us notice that we might omit internal because if it is assumed that nothing at all exists except a particular Penrose's World then every other reference for a few other "time" cannot exist. ).

Of course the fact that a photon "feels" virtually no time when passing from A to B - i. e. which it has zero proper time - will not imply that hence, it is almost everywhere in spacetime and, specifically, it generally does not imply that it is "simultaneously" on all possible paths between A and B. Indeed, in relativity theory, light moves on well-defined null geodesics. What I am wanting to emhasise is the fact without massive contaminants it is impossible to discriminate these geodesics [3] and for that reason (actually this is actually the crucial step) following a Observability Principle we identify all situations that are undistinguishable. It might be concluded that this is somehow similar to rather commonly decided thought that the truth emerges only with regards to the results of measurements.

Fig. 2: INSIDE A there is no considerable particle. In B there are a few. Time exists internally in B. A is a tiny Penrose's Universe without time (as far as no conversation with B happens). A (global) time that we can treat A as Penrose's World is assessed in B, because in A no time is present. This means that on A+B there is a time.

Such an image is not valid inside our Universe because useful clocks are present in it. The obvious contradiction occurs only because we visualize a Penrose's World from the external point of view (experiencing the flow of the time). If we suppose nothing exists except a Penrose's Universe we would not have to use inside to describe time. Simply no device to measure time stream would are present.

Now let us think about a spacetime as a manifold (as generally Relativity). One residing in the spacetime approximates the global composition of the complete manifold by watching his neighbourhood. However locally there is no "absolute time" as Relativity claims. Consider now a small tiny part of the Universe (an wide open subset in the manifold). The Universe is filled up by both zero and non zero rest-mass allergens (as our World we live in). But locally we can find small elements of it which are filled entirely by photons. We are able to treat each such a component as a Penrose's Universe as far as no conversation with any significant particle occurs. It is due to previous things to consider. We can say that no time moves inside such a part as far as no event occurs. It is comprehended that events take place in the global Universe. And by the event we suggest here some take action of connection between a part being truly a Penrose's World and an integral part of the global World possessing at least one non zero rest-mass particle. Then these two parts can be treated as one part (being then not really a Penrose's Universe). Quite simply let us find in our Universe as much as possible really small Penrose's photon filled local Universes. These small Universes differ from Penrose's one big World by the fact they can be treated consequently only so far as they do not connect to some considerable part. The thought of tiling the spacetime manifold is sketched on pictures.

Fig. 3: An discussion took place from part B to part A. A is no more a Penrose's World.

Fig. 4: Such a timeless World can't be divided into a massive parts and Penrose's Universe parts. Regardless of how we would tile this Universe each component has no time.

In a Penrose's Universe it is unclear how different configurations (space--time pathways) should be defined. Indeed, equally as there is absolutely no time solution, so there is no spatial strategy (with which can recognize, for instance the length between factors on two different paths). Therefore due to the Observability Principle allergens in such a universe are as if they were everywhere you go at the same time. What is had a need to talk about any time order is an connections with some substantial debris. Only then e. g. before and after are practical notions.

Discussion on the Increase Slit Experiment

In the famous double--slit test a photon appears to go through both slits at the same time. Therefore a influx function has been unveiled, because a particle work as if it were a wave. However if one tries to localise through which slit a particle actually goes by, disturbance image is erased and a particle behaves as a corpuscle. Therefore one says about corpuscular-wave dualism. But anticipated to things to consider in previous paragraph you need to also be able to say a photon really moves through both slits (because virtually no time passes for a photon, so two event take place for a photon at the same time). And what is called a collapse of any wave function is merely a choosing of a particular path out of all possible. Such a way of measuring is however possible only when non zero rest-mass is involved. It really is known that as a particle becomes more considerable quantum properties are less clear and lighter debris behaves similar to a waves (photons, electrons). The ability to measure time period can also be seen from Eq. (1). In such an interpretation a wave function is no abstract living in observer head. It is a physical being. But as such should somehow depend not only over a particle but also over a spacetime where is considered.

Summarising Relativity Einstein once strongly criticised any physical idea which is "independent in its physical properties, developing a physical effect, however, not itself affected by physical conditions" [4]. Only a proposed interpretation of a wave function should therefore be justified if this wave function interacts with spacetime.

Basing on General Relativity we know that the spacetime is affected by gravitation. Therefore the first simple test for the new interpretation is to check on whether gravitation changes a wave function. Fortunately this experiment was done. First of all neutron beam was scattered into two beams: each inspired by the same gravitational field. Second the whole equipment was placed in a manner that after scattering the gravitational fields for the first beam and for the second beam were different. By analyzing the interference pattern it was witnessed that the quantum-mechanical period move of neutrons is brought on by their interaction with Earth's gravitational field [1]. You can then also speculate that the gravitational field affects a influx function.

It can be objected that the suggested reason of quantum mechanics is contradicted by the conservation of the power. A particle really going thorough all possible paths would do infinite work. It isn't true in the suggested scheme. No procedure could measure such an energy, because those excursions take places in an integral part of a spacetime where no useful time principle exists. If time is immeasurable then your particle can do the task needed to go through all possible pathways. However immediately when a working clock is used, a particular path is localised an the energy conservation is saved. It may also be seen out of this debate that the Feynman's Path Integral procedure is the easiest formulation of Quantum Technicians.

Conclusions

The presented quarrels lead to the precise interpretation of quantum mechanics. Conceptually the shown considerations show that one may find some guide towards Quantum Physics beginning with Relativity and Planck's legislation. Especially Feynman's Route Integral Formulation emerges in nice way.

Some further implication to Cosmology occurs. The World filled entirely with zero rest-mass contaminants should be cared for just as a superposition talk about of all possible states. Occurrence of purely positive people not separated by event horizon would supply the origins to time and areas being in a superposition can be reduced to a specific condition. It advocates the concept of the Universe wave function.

In a black hole singularity time halts and mass denseness is infinite as is known from Relativity. If one would check out a singularity from the presented perspective one could say that mass density is infinite limited to exterior observer. Because only this observer has a meaningful concept of time. Infinite density occurs as a consequence of localising all in-falling contaminants in a spot. However as it was explained in the newspaper if time puts a stop to, all contaminants can take up the same point in the same "time" (which prevails only for exterior observer). A likelihood of software of the offered structure will be explored in the future research.

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