In 1911, Riccitto Canudo, Italian poet and film pioneer, publicized the famous "The seventh fine art declaration". In such a declaration, the film was officially founded as an independent art, in addition to the architecture, music, poetry, painting, dance and sculpture. Up to now, the film development is merely about a hundred years of history, but it is undeniable so it is among the most most popular, influential and dynamic fine art.
In the development process of the film fine art, the emergence and the application of every element, such as lens movement, montage, audio, coloring etc, have injected new vitality. Among these, the join of the film sound is without a doubt of great relevance.
Sound, the materials of which composes the ability to hear skill, is the material of the marketing that has creative vitality and creative influence.
The sound of the film is one of the basic elements of the film medium. It makes the film from a solely visual mass media into a blend of perspective and audition. As the audio is an effective method to form an area image in human's brainwe can make use of it expressing and show you the theme of the film. If we consider that the silent film is 2D space, then the sound film is 3D space.
Today, the sound is becoming an important performance factor in the film artwork, and because the improvement of the technology as well as exploration of the art work, the film sound, from appearance to a means of artistic which has an independent aesthetic pursuit, comes with an inextricable, interactive marriage with the cinematographic art work ontology.
The emergence of the film sound
The invention of the film was originally were only available in the entertainment pursuit of the "moving image", so for a long time after 1896, the delivery of the film, videos are limited by a simple record of genuine life, and almost all of this content is trivial fragments of the moments of life.
At first, People were all astonished and impressed from this new "working picture taking". However, this basic unaesthetic record soon lost its appeal to the, the film slowly but surely went toward to the trough. "If the film art desires to break from this problem, it must be employed with a similar alternative art, the theater art, to narrate experiences. " At that time, some early filmmakers, Georges Melies, on your behalf, apparently took take note of of the, so they started to expose the theater performance in to the film and explore the multiple narrative ways of the film.
However, the more and more rich subject material and content really was a challenge to the expression of the film art work. In those days, as the film was just moving pictures with no sound, such as a mute, the artists had to attempt to use a number of possible indirect solutions to express more and more complicated plots and interior emotions of the individuals. During this period, many views which required the audio, usually indicated through the actors' exaggerated facial expressions and body moves, or even the subtitles.
These really played a great campaign on the introduction of the montage vocabulary and the improvement of the stars' operating in the silent film, and, also produced lots of silent film maestros as well as some basic works with very high artistic value. Nevertheless, these expressions were tortuous and indirect, but did not meet the objective laws which human use to comprehend the globe by aesthetic and auditory conception. So eventually, the voiceless heroes and plots made the audience feel boring and inauthentic. Therefore, no matter whether the film were "recording the reality" or looking to "tell a tale", the problem that only with pictures but soundless obviously shown defective in creative expressions, and even a few of these, such as regular introduction subtitles, would interrupt the tempo, affect the standard expression of the film. Thus, on the point of view of the film development, the filmmakers highly desired the sound.
The development of the film sound
Throughout the history of the film, there can be an interesting phenomenon. People are once strongly contrary to the sound film, but now, people pay a great attention on the use of the sound in the film.
The film was almost 30 years of age before it began to talk. The earth welcomed chatting pictures with available arms. The prophets of doom predicted that the film would lose its aesthetical ideals. The opposite took place new genres were created and the motion picture developed visually.
"Wait a minute! Wait one minute! You aren't listened to nothing at all yet. "
These were the first three sentences ever before said in a film. Nothing earthshaking in itself but definitely words that started out a small revolution in a thirty-year old industry.
Although not everyone concerned presumed in the new development or backed it and even thought that it would lower the specifications of the motion picture, the past 70 years of sound have demonstrated that the medium was enriched and activated to expand at astonishing tempo.
As a matter of known fact, it is hard to believe it took so long for the film to start speaking. The Edison phonograph (1875) preceded the first film camera, the Kinetograph, and various attempts were made at the beginning to bring audio to the motion picture. The simple truth is that motion pictures never were without sound: commentators, pianists, accordion players and even orchestras followed the moving images from the very start.
The advantages of reasonable technology came about because of certain Hollywood studio owners who wished to expand their powers. In the late Twenties the Warner Brothers were spending a lot of money on the enlargement of facilities and properties. One of this was to purchase sound for movies. They tried out to synchronize gramophone documents with film images.
In 1926 the Warner Brothers been successful to virtually put sound and film mutually. They used a process that they called Vitaphone which was in truth sound on discs. The motion picture Don Juan was released with orchestral accompaniment and sound effects on the discs. Following this some short vaudeville motion pictures with performing and dialogue were released. The thought of sound films started to grow strongly.
In 1927 the first words were spoken on film. The presenter was the well-known entertainment legend, Al Jolson. The film was The Jazz Performer - later produced again with Neil Stone in the subject role. The Jazz Vocalist was only partially a discussion film or "talkie", as it was called. Parts of the film were accompanied by music only.
The applause from the spectators was deafening and for Warner Brothers a very important return because of their investment in audio. The Jazz Singer brought an end to the lifetime of the silent movie and started a new era for sound.
The development from the silent picture to the audio picture was so quick that many a film organized and started as a silent film in 1928 and 1929 was produced and released as a sound film. The makers were forced to include reasonable to these pictures as a result of the demand from the side of the public.
Theatre owners had to change their theatres and fit it with sensible equipment. Vitaphone didn't survive lengthy. In 1931 it was obsolete and replaced by the Movietone system that was less clumsy and acquired more overall flexibility. Movietone was the brainchild of the American inventor Lee De Forrest and added to the actual fact that the sound film became an international phenomenon in a single day.
At the beginning of the Thirties film companies quickly moved away from the monotonous talking in sound movies by producing more imaginative movies. Music and dialogue were manipulated in a far more subtle way by using post-synchronization.
Motion picture companies also learned that music via an unseen source can have a special effect. A clock ticking, a knock on a door, running water and animal sounds were used effectively.
Dialogue was uninspiring but luckily a new generation of scriptwriters emerged and they recognized how to place words in the mouths of film celebrities. Scriptwriters such as Ben Hecht, Dudley Nichols and Robert Risken used crafty dialogue that helped to tell the story and not to smother it.
The magnetic tracking technology emerged in 1940's, it brought the film sound up to a broad prospect. The quality and expressiveness of the film audio were greatly improved, Visible and auditory were balanced. Within the arts, the film designers had begun to handle the role of audio in the film, and use of audio was in-depth thinking.
The build of audio in movie
The build of music part are discussing the three basic elements: human being tone of voice, music and acoustic. The distinctions and different agreements between the three, exhibited us another magnificent world.
Human words, which pronounced by the combination of variety of melody, strength and rhythm, had always been playing the main role in the movie history. It has a essential importance and replaceable impact in story-telling, emotion-expressing, debating and conversing, creating characteristics and conflicting between characters.
Sound, as an art form, which can are present on its own, have a lot of performing effectiveness in silver-screen skill. It includes multiple ways expressing its unique effect on demonstrating, implyingand supplementing the movie scene
Hegel had once stated that personality is the real middle of the art. This phrase concluded the standard form of most art, expressing the feeling of the copy writer. In movie skill, music also has the effect of increasing temperament. Although music has less effect than visible image and conversation in creating identity and expressing certain mental activities, but its expressing potential is almost infinite. It can express one's psychological activities and objective, and also create certain scene. Quite simply, via the reading and thoughts of real human, music can change the invisible music into visual image, to assist the training video and talk into a multi-layer way to express the mental outburst. In many events, music and video and conversation created a multi-layer space of senses, can make the movie create more impact to the audience.
Acoustic means the other sound than human tone and music, which created by the type world and human being activities. We lives within an environment filled up with all kind and types of audio, acoustic is the material properties of our living environment, and also the the most important aspect of identifying and knowing our living space. Acoustic is a kind of sound have more describing ability than music. It has multiple effects on creating space and atmosphere and also visualizes actor's mental activities. In addition, it has a great deal of usage on symbolization and metaphors, which also made soundless another environment.
The art work value of movie sound
Change the behavior of appreciation of the audience.
Movies have been seen as a pure visual art while it was just appears, the sound got brought the most immediate effect on pairing and reading and vision, which complied with certain requirements of people's rule of perceiving and sense the planet. The sound got enhanced the talents of audience to appreciate and apprehend of movie via more than just visible image, which acquired brought a wider experience of esthetic.
But because of the acception to the silent movie, the audience of that time had got used to comprehend the movie by reading the display and actions of the acting professional. So at the first appearances of the sound, it created a disturbance to the audience and most people found it was hard to adapt to the new way. With additional advertising impact in the movie of this time, people could not coordinate of the new marriage between the aesthetic and the audio. But as enough time goes on, people start to allow this form of artwork because it is way more like the real perceiving way in true to life.
By the exploration and tactics of the audio in movie, the audio itself created more function of story-telling and emotion-expressing, it got are more than replication of the real acoustic environment and addition to visible image. Changing approach to using the sound can also create symbolization and metaphors to improve the undertaking. The artful desire and practices had helped bring changes to just how of audience perceiving their own understanding, and also increased the power of the audience to apprehend the movie.
Extend the space in movie
As a thorough story telling skill, the reality feeling of the movie chosen the effect of the movie. So, in the development in movie art work, to enhance the spatial feeling and gain the knowledge of located next to the character would the best purpose of the designers of movies. However in a long time, people had been exploring on the image itself, only attempted to change just how of filming, the light/shadow percentage, structure of the picture, looking to get the spatial sense in a 2D build. In actuality, this kind of implementation has limited result and spatial sense does not effect on the audience. The sound of movie created a new level for movie history, it helped to break the limitation of the 2D picture, and stretch the feeling outside of the silver screen. This sort of breakthrough mostly appeared in two different ways, the first is the addition to arena based on the external way to obtain sound, etc. environmental audio and speech beyond your picture, could help the audience to comprehend the whole set-up, create the expectation and suspense; the second way is the use of surrounding sound could make use of the multi-channel sound to make a sound field, which surround the audience and create really powerful sense of ability to hear and vision. This sort of utilization could let the audience to become listed on in the movie and influence because of it. Change the story-telling way of the movie
3Change the story-telling way of the movie
While the movies remain silent, all this content are performed through the image, as it was said, " Silent movie is a global without sound, so a lot of icons are appeared to cover this flaw" and the appearance of sound deemed to covered this flaw and break the "set of symbols"
First, sound had taken a few of the role in story-telling, etc. using dialogue to explain the issues between individuals, develop the story; using music to express thoughts and and create certain euphemistical scene.
Secondly, sound possessed become a powerful way to spell it out one's personality. French philosopher Moris once said, "Speak more or speak less, talk full or hollow, words specific or with emotion, echo more people's true aspect. " So in the films, role's tone and characteristics of talk will be the most direct representation. For example, the sicken Dr. Hannibal in "silent lamb" uses a deep and calm with somewhat harsh tone of voice has a highly attacking tendency, as though each syllable penetrates in the deepest nook of the audience, "creepy" had end up being the most successful attribute of the role.
Except for the aforementioned, because sound has a specific tempo and style, so that it may be used to keep a track on the movie's rhythm and form a specific expressive style. Take an example from the films, "Singing In the torrential rain", "The Sound of Music" and other musical crisis collaborate the dance tempo and music rhythm together to create the movie tempo, the director uses the music rhythm to control the acceleration of the music to construct the whole movie. You will find more types of films edited by using different shot in various space linked by music.
4New development in several types of movie
The looks of movie sound affected the overall development of the movie skill record and also enriched the appearance of the films, new form of movies like musical films and dancing films had been delivered and also increased the attractiveness of mystery and horror videos.
Musical and dance movies will be the great influence helped bring by movie audio, in addition to a classical advertising for Hollywood dreams. Although before the performances of movie sound, silent films also come with with the music or recordings in gramophone, but only when the music and boogie works for the storyplot of the movie and used as a way to express this content, then can be seen as a standalone movie type.
As to the detective and horror films, they had been seen when the silent movie looks.
Detective films have no less record than the important movie type. At least when the "Holmes's Fracture" appears, the existence of this type of film had been on the big screen. But they didn't receive much attention. The reason why to that is basically because the detective works together with their magnificent logical analytical skills can't be fully shown in silent movies. So until 30s, following the sound possessed conquered the Hollywood, detective videos could use the speech to express the character's special observation and reasonable analytical abilities, then detective movies are shown with the full bright on big screen.
In the early time of silent films, the first technology of movie originator leading by Edison had been endeavoring to take horror stories from fiction or sci-fi books on to films. However they are limited by the contemporary solutions and only in a position to create atmosphere by cosmetic, light, design of persona and special result. Even the tale was well-written; the real horror effect was limited. After the sound became a member of the horror films, sound had become a very effective way to construct atmosphere. Creepy music, the "cluck" sound of high heel shoes in a quiet corridor, indescribable profound breath and so on. In a mental way, everything that is invisible or unknown situation might lead to the instinct fear of human, therefore the unknown sound factor from outside of the screen could cause depressing feeling and generate fear. Of course, there are certain ways to build horror atmosphere, which had helped bring the horror film into a new generation, and lots of good productions experienced made this type of film has a particular trait, which drawn lots of of audience.
The sound design of the film
As the technology of the audio recording, duplication, editor extended to evolve, and the film creation extended to innovate, acoustics production became increasingly popular. The idea of sound design commenced to seem, and it aroused increasingly more art makers and researchers' attention.
"The audio is the correct sound art that obtained at the appropriate time and location. "
The appropriate time, which means during the sound editing, sensible designers choose the fit audio clipping point by way of a commercial impact of the audio and picture.
The appropriate location, this means sound designers should balance the workload of each step -cutting, premixing and final mixing, ensure that every step not only has completed the audio processing which required technical standards (loudness, strong, etc. ) in that minute, and are well prepared for the next phase, but also offers a relative independence in audio processing, such that it will be possible for the further adjustment in the next step.
The appropriate sound, means that the audio designers make the right cosmetic choice to a certain arena.
This shows that the sound design is an important task that covers both cosmetic and technological details factors. It is an activity which must make full use of modeling features of audio to shape the image and design of audio and create audio-visual artworks. It will involve two aspects- technology and fine art, not only to design the procedure and the techniques but also the blueprint for sound, including the imaginative effect of the whole and the precise paragraphs or displays.
Sound design include: the recording process design, vocabulary design, music design, sensible impact design, style design, the hardware system design, task planning and management.
The function of the sound design
1Point out the status of the film theme
In days gone by, the picture was presented with more attention than the audio, because the picture greeted the audience first. With technology and upgrading of the technology, the specifications of the film development are increasing as well, then the picture, no matter how perfect it is, needs the audio to set off against its wonderful. So, audio is more carefully linked to appear, the sound makes a unique help the film with brilliant descriptions. Although it is complementary, the audio design can't be sloppy. It could highlight this content, present the themes, with its co-operation, the film can show amazing talents.
2Enhance the eye of enjoying the film
There is a particular sensitive area to music, fine art, vocabulary in human's brain. The tranquility of audio and picture can relax the mind and bring an improved experience. No matter how perfect the picture is, it can not take the business lead. Only when the audio tracks and the visible achieve unity, the film can let the audience enjoy themselves a lot as to neglect to leave.