Next, we have identified the problems existed in our case which is the reputation of the workplace has been tarnished and the staff was being terminated. Therefore, we determined the foundation of problems are discrimination and low level of Emotional Brains.
We establish our learning effects that students have the ability to identify the situation existed and the source, apply theory and strategy critically to analyze situation and lastly, choose an appropriate way to resolve problem regarding to the situation.
After that, we have made few alternatives to solve the issues in the perspective of both employer and staff. For employer, we have suggested two ways which are employing contingencies of encouragement (B. F. Skinner) and enhancing the understanding of company by Johari Screen model. On the other hand, in the perspective of the staff, they can apply exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model to express their job dissatisfaction.
Then, we have chosen the best alternate which centered on improving the psychological intelligence. For employer, we have determined the strategic to increase the perception of employer toward the worker. While for worker, the voice method has been chosen to resolve the situation.
After completed this assignment, we have learnt to apply the data and theories to resolve problems relating to situation. In additional, there are several moral worth that we have learnt such as toleration, determination, responsibility, caring, empathy, respectability and also punctuality in teamwork.
In short, the training benefits have been achieved and all the alternatives that we have chosen are centered on improving the psychological intelligence
In a general sense, ethics is the code or moral key points and value that governs the behaviours of an person or group with respect to what's right or incorrect. Besides, ethics can be more clearly understood when compared with behaviors governed for legal reasons and by free choice. The area of ethics is placed between both of these domains. It does not have any specific laws, yet it can have benchmarks of conduct based on shared concepts and prices about moral do. Because ethical expectations aren't codified, disagreements and issue about proper behavior often occur. Matching to Buller et al. (1991, p. 773), "current international rules is insufficiently developed to provide much information in ethics". Therefore, the moral dilemma occurred frequently inside our current population.
Ethical problem is a complex situation that will most likely involve an clear mental issue between moral imperatives, where to obey you might bring about transgressing another. An moral dilemma arises in a situation pertaining to right or incorrect when prices are in conflict. Because the time of Plato (427-347AD) folks have put some work to know what is right or wrong, good or bad, fair or unfair (Hosmer, 1987). Although, different societies have their own interpretations of what's ethical. Possible options for working with cross-cultural ethical dilemmas include following the norms of the number country (ethical relativism), following a norms of the house country (moral imperialism) or following core worth that are considered morally "best" (Beauchamp and Bowie, 2001; Donaldson, 1996a).
In our circumstance, the worker has complained his dissatisfaction in his blog because of the company not allow him to take leave when he was sick and tired. Besides, employer also not providing him a chance to get a higher position in his job because of his appearance. As a result, the employer noticed the existence of the blog and react to flames the worker.
1. The trustworthiness of the employer has been tarnished. The employee spoilt the image of the business by writing something bad about the employer which represents the company in his Weblog.
2. The staff was being terminated. Therefore, he'll face financial crisis since he lost his income source.
From our case, we discovered that certain of the foundation of problem is discrimination been around among employer to the employee. Discrimination is defined as when someone works out their prejudicial frame of mind towards folks who are the target of the prejudice. The district supervisor has limited his worker a chance of obtaining a higher position in organization because of his dreadlocks. Besides, the manager also not allowed the employee to take leave when he sensed sick. Each one of these activities have made the staff felt angry and dissatisfied with the organization. Therefore, he indicated his bad feeling towards the company by writing a weblog (blog). Although employee didn't use his real name in his blog, he has pointed out his employer's name. The company has discovered the blog, figured out the employee's real name and terminated him due to the reputation of the company was tarnished by his irrational activities. This revealed that both of these have low level of emotional intelligence. Psychological intelligence is the capability to perceive and share emotion, assimilate feeling in thought, understand and reason with feeling, and regulate sentiment in oneself while others. They are not able to control their feelings which feature to behavior. Actually, there are better solutions to allow them to solve the problem
At the finish of the lessons, you should able to:
Identify the challenge been around and the source
Apply theory and strategy critically to investigate situation
Choose an appropriate way to resolve problem regarding to the problem.
In the perspective of employer, there are several alternative to solve the problems. They can be including contingencies of reinforcement which is one of the idea that launched by B. F. Skinner, and improving the employer's perceptions by using Johari Home window model.
According to Richard L. Daft in New Period of Management(2008), the contingencies of reinforcement or behavior modification is a combined model that defined reinforcers based on the change in response power rather than to more subjective requirements, such as what's pleasurable or valuable to someone. The action modification recognizes four types of results, known as contingencies of encouragement. You will find positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, consequence and extinction. The basic assumption underlying behavior modification is regulations of impact, which states that patterns that positively strengthened behavior tends to be repeated, and unreinforced or negatively reinforced behavior tends to be inhibited.
Firstly, positive encouragement happens when the result is introduced, given that the frequency of a particular behavior had been increased or taken care of. In additional, the boss can concern about medical and protection welfare of the employees by giving them tons of benefits such as providing them the insurance, worker's compensation, unemployment's compensation, vacation, fitness centre, and also medical benefits. Furthermore, the administrator can also give inspiration by encourage the employee's to maintain and improve their good performance.
Meanwhile, the workplace can also apply the negative support to give motivation to the employer. The negative encouragement, also called avoidance learning, is the removal of unpleasant consequences carrying out a desired behavior. Inside our case, what the most crucial employer must do is offsetting the staff by allowing his follower to go back home when feel tired in future time. Furthermore, the company should change his negative perception to positive toward his subordinates.
Instead of providing them with reinforcement, the employee can even be punished by company in order to influence his behavior. In fact, consequence is the imposition of distressing outcomes on an employee. It typically occurs pursuing undesirable behavior. This kind of approach will surely reduce the odds of the behavior. For instance, the company can impose the abuse such as scolding or paying reimbursement if the staff have done the job in incorrect way. However, predicated on a study by Skarlicki and Folger in1997, it has demonstrated that individuals who perceive they are unfairly treated by the leaders in the business often vacation resort to retaliation against the business. Therefore, it could be concluded that that the abuse can actually cause the disharmony if it has done in unequal way.
Extinction is also one of the methods to improve the behavior of employee. It could be defined by doing nothing at all or withdrawal of positive compensation. In this situation, company can also choose to do nothing at all on this issue. However, this process only can be useful if the staff be capable of motivate himself.
In short, prize and punishment motivational tactics can actually motivate the behavior of employees. All these three of approaches can assist the supervisor in influencing them so the better performance by worker can be assure of in future time.
Based on these techniques, there are 3 ways of increase the perceptions. There are knowing of perceptual biases, bettering self understanding, and also possessing a meaningful relationship with the employees.
The awareness of perceptual biases plays the most important role in changing the understanding toward the employees. In our case, the employer refused to promote him credited to his employee's dreadlocks and preventing him from going home when he felt sick. The employer can minimize discrimination so that can effectively neutralize the consequences of negative notion. Workplace should notice his perceptual biases towards his staff as quickly as possible. He should remind himself never to prejudge his performance by his appearance. There is no doubt that people don't always 'speak their heads', however, people actually don't always 'know their heads'. (Harvard. com) To be able to sense the perceptual biases, the employer can undertake a self understanding test called Implicit Relationship Test (IAT) by Anthony Greenwald, Debbie McGhee and Jordan Schwartz. IAT is an experimental measure within social mindset designed to identify the strength of a person's computerized relationship between mental representations of objects (concepts) in storage. (Wikipedia. org) In case the employer undergoes this test, he will able to understand more about their implicit behaviour, actions or view take place without their consciousness. (Harvard. edu)
After the knowing of perceptual biases, the employer must improve home consciousness by knowing their ideals, values and prejudices so that he can treat his staff better. For example, the workplace should permit the employee to go home to rest but not letting him to continue his work. Therefore, there is a Johari Windows model that can let workplace to increase their understanding about how co-workers can increase their shared understanding. In such a model, there are four 'home windows' that gauge the amount of how your own prices, beliefs, and experiences are recognized to you and others. The workplace should improve the size of the open up area so that both of the staff and employer know about your perceptual limits.
Besides, the workplace ought to have a important interaction with the subordinates in order to achieve a distributed goal. The company should treat the staff with the equivalent status so the employee will feel be respected. Furthermore, the company should emphatic on the employees. He should comprehend and sensitive to his employee's feeling, thoughts, and situation of him. For instance, the workplace can have a interpersonal gathering such as possessing a buffet lunch break at Jogoya, vacation in Bali Island and etc to reduce the status variations among them. After a long time amount of doing things collectively, no doubt, both employer and worker will shared the same principles. So to speak, a tranquility working environment can be taken care of to attain the same goal. Matching to a journal known as Perceived Head Integrity and Ethical Motives of Subordinates by Dane Peterson, stronger beliefs in general moral guidelines will be associated with lower intentions to commit unethical functions involving the organization, co-workers, and the customers.
From the facet of staff, they can apply exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model to express their job dissatisfaction rather than writing something bad about his supervisor on his web-blog. EVLN model identifies four techniques employee able respond to dissatisfaction.
One of the ways is exit. Exit is defined as leaving the problem, quitting or transferring himself to some other work unit. Leave usually practices specific "surprise situations", such as when the manager prohibited the employee to adopt leave when he was sick. Another "shock events" are the district director treat him unfairly when refused to market him because of his appearance. These "shock incidents" create strong feelings that energize employee to take into account and search for alternative occupation. Therefore, the worker can make to leave the dissatisfying company instead of writing his undesired sense on weblog.
Next, the staff can tone of voice his feeling. Speech refers to any try to change the situation. Instead of complaining his dissatisfaction on weblog, the employee can give a constructive response such as suggesting ways for management to increase the situation, or it can be more confrontational, such as by filling up formal grievances in the advice field provided by company.
Thirdly, worker can prefer to get loyal in company when he was dissatisfied. In case the employee is using this method, he'll patiently wait for the situation to improve. A loyal worker will remain silent and will not exhibit his dissatisfaction on weblog. Therefore, the employee will not be fired and the reputation of the company will never be tarnished. He works to suffer in silence so that one day the problem of discrimination will not ever before happen in company.
Last however, not least, the worker can pick to neglect the problem. It is generally considered a passive activity that has negative consequences for the business. He'll reduce his work effort or quality and increasing absenteeism to be able expressing his dissatisfaction. Indirectly, this may impact the employee's job performance.
From our things of view, we think that the best option to solve this issue is bettering the perceptions of employers towards subordinates. A couple of more advantages in using this process if compared to applying the "contingency of encouragement" strategic.
The tactical to enhance the perception is regarding two way of communication. The worker can provide the feedback to employer. Thus, the significant interaction between the employer and staff can actually exist. When the relationship between them is strong, all the problems can be speak out and discuss together. However, the tactical of support has only 1 way of communication. This talks about the employer thrust the employee the majority of enough time to improve the performance. In this case, if this process is applied, it could be say that only the company has the expert to make decisions on the particular staff can do. The worker can only just follow the actual employer decided and expected to them.
Furthermore, there is no doubt that it is easier to change yourself somewhat than change other. Therefore, we have to know ourselves first before you want to transform the patterns of others. In fact, the Johari Windows model is a tool that can increase our recognition to ourselves. By knowing ourselves, the psychological intelligence of company can be rose up. The manager can control himself so the work can be carried out effectively. With the bigger of emotional brains, the employer gets the higher ability to keep an eye on his own and employees' sense and feelings to discriminate between them and to utilize this information to steer their thinking and action. On the other hand, reinforcement strategic can only makes the company to motivate the employees to do work without knowing his real habit.
Last however, not least, the harmony of workforce can be looked after and upgraded if the perception strategic is utilised. The key reason why we say so is this strategic is more constructive way to take care of this approach. In addition, the employer can use tender skill to organize using their subordinates. However, the support approach could be more confrontational and ambitious. Under this process, the punishment can damage the reputation of the company. According to a journal called Re-articulating the ethical
corporation: the case of the Woolf Committee Record, damaged reputation can actually lowers competitiveness, success, capability to get highly skilled staff and also affect the monetary value in the business. As a result, people will think negatively such as not about the company as a suitable working environment.
In addition, it can be said that the conception proper is prioritize the sensation of staff than the result attained by the worker. With this strategic, the company shows more empathy to employees. Therefore, the devotion of the worker can be build up completely. However, the encouragement strategic uses more on the pay back and punishment approach to create the drive among the employees. It cost more heavier effort and money in this process if compared to another approach. . According to Geoffrey P. Lantos While in his journal, which called as Motivating Moral Corporate Behavior, there is the statement that professing that it's crucial to have social responsible in an group. While being socially liable and honest often entails short-run pain, it usually in the end results long-term gain.
As a finish, improving the perception of the workplace himself is more beneficial than using the support approach. Eventually, the staff will avoid doing this type of action such as complaining the boss on the web-blogs.
In our judgment, we think the best choice for the worker to reply his dissatisfaction is tone of voice out. Actually, the staff can change the situation by several ways. For instance, he may use constructive response by hoping to resolve problem with management complain or actively helping to increase the situation. In other way around, voice can even be more confrontational such as using suggestion pack, face-to-face communication to express grievances. Inside the extreme, staff might engage in counterproductive behaviours to get attention from the management and drive changes in the organization. By using voice method, management can identify the problem experienced by the staff and therefore find a best answer to solve this problem. Indirectly, conflicts can be minimized. Employee will get the same treatment among co-workers in the business and therefore he will become more satisfied. When the employee is using this method, he'll not be fired credited to speaking ill-will of the business in a general population domain. In addition, the reputation of the company will not be tarnished.
The reason why we do not choose leave, faithful and neglect because we recognize that these three ways do not actually solve the root of problem. The management won't know the challenge existed in the business since the worker escaped to face the problem. To begin with, if the employee chooses to leave from the business, he may face the same problem in the new workplace. While, the loyal employee has to await an anonymous period and the situation may or might not exactly improve. Discrimination in corporation will become aggravate as it engaged other employees in a long run. Lastly, worker who selects to overlook will be still dissatisfied with the unfair treatment in corporation. Gradually, he might reduce his labor force, work quality and increase absenteeism. He might even show negative emotion to the customers which will lead to the dissatisfaction of the customers, too. As a result, this may cause the company sales drop.
In brief, we think that voice continues to be the best answer to solve job dissatisfaction of the staff in business.
After done this task, we've learnt:
1. Application of knowledge and ideas.
2. While using the best strategy to solve problems matching to situation.
3. Toleration among team members.
4. Increasing dedication in a teamwork.
5. Sensible to our designated task.
6. Caring and empathy to your team members.
7. Respect our team customers.
8. The importance of punctuality.
First and foremost, we're able to identify the problem specifically. Thus, we will get out the source of problem been around in the business. In cases like this, we came to the realization that the sources of problem are discrimination and low level of EI.
Then, we were able to apply theory and strategy critically to investigate situation. Therefore, few alternatives can be produced to solve the challenge. Throughout the debate, we had recommended the reinforcement theory and strategy to improve belief of employer when facing the same problem. Actually, this kind of methodology called as a pedagogical strategy whereby students develop their own case studies based upon their workplace encounters. The students then discuss that they handled the problem and how they might deal with the same issue given their activities because the original event. (Laditka and Houck (2006 Education and trained in honest decision making: comparing context and orientation))
Next, we are able to choose a proper way to resolve the condition regarding to the problem. We can choose the best solution from the produced alternatives. From the case, we discovered that there are four ways for employee to express his dissatisfaction in the working environment. However, we feel that "voice" is the best option alternative.
In overall, it could be figured all the alternatives that people have chosen either from the point of view of employee or employer is targeted on enhancing the emotional cleverness (EI). In order to sustain an organization in long run's interest, both employees and employers need high psychological intelligence to boost their effectiveness. In addition, the company should be more socially dependable towards his subordinates so the vision of the business will be achieved in the small amount of time.