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Solid waste materials management the main element constituting environmentally friendly health

Content
  1. Abstract
  2. Introduction
  3. Statement of the study Problem
  4. Hypothesis
  1. Significance of the Research
  2. Research Methodology
  3. Historical Background and Existing Scenario
  4. Literature Review
  5. Concept of Sturdy Waste Management
  6. Definition of Solid Waste
  7. Defining Solid Waste products Management
  8. Hierarchy of Stable Throw away Management in Karachi Metropolis
  9. Waste Source Reduction and Segregation
  10. Integrated Solid Waste material Management System
  11. Hierarchy of Integrated Stable Waste Management
  12. The Functional Components of Solid Waste material Management.
  13. Waste Generation
  14. Solid Waste Era in Karachi
  15. Estimated Per Capita Waste Technology Rate in Karachi
  16. Sources of waste generation in Karachi
  17. Waste Handling and Separation, Storage and Processing at Source
  18. Collection
  19. Collection and Transport of Solid Waste material in Karachi
  20. Problem Analysis
  21. Transfer and Transport
  22. Transfer and Travel of Garbage in Karachi - Past Experiences
  23. Processing and Recovery of Sound Waste
  24. Processing of Organic and natural Waste materials in Karachi - An experiment
  25. Disposal of Sound Waste
  26. Sites for Stable Waste Removal in Karachi
  27. Generation of Hospital Waste / Health Care Waste products in Karachi
  28. Hospital Waste materials Management
  29. Storage, Collection and Transfer of Solid Waste
  30. Haphazard Storage of Solid Misuse in Karachi
  31. The Role of City Area Government in Provision of Adequate Safe-keeping Facility
  32. Leftover Stable Waste
  33. Transportation System and Transfer of Great Waste
  34. The Condition/ Position of Transfer Station of solid throw away in Karachi
  35. Proposal for Garbage Copy Stations
  36. Two-stage Transport System of MSW
  37. Expected results of operations of GTS
  38. Private Venturing in Collection, Vehicles/Disposal
  39. The Solid Waste materials Incineration process in Karachi
  40. Critical Analysis
  41. A change in perspective of solid waste materials management of Karachi
  42. Analysis:
  43. Analysis:
  44. Analysis:
  45. Analysis
  46. Analysis
  47. Discussion
  48. Conclusion
  49. Recommendations
  50. References
More...

Abstract

Solid Misuse Management is perhaps one of the most important element constituting the environmental health insurance and sanitation of metropolitan growing sector. The management system has several components that happen to be included as well as interdependent thus the efficiency and effectiveness of the complete system is afflicted when some of its functional part fails or will not perform up to the particular level mark of procedure.

Karachi metropolis has been growing in populace and expanding in area since mid 1800s. The present estimated population has reached over 18 million with approximate daily era of solid waste products reaching volumes up to 9000 tonnes. You will find 18 municipal administrative divisions (TMA) and likewise 4 cantonment areas in Karachi which are responsible for managing solid waste materials in their particular jurisdictions. Prior to administrative devolution (2001) Karachi Municipal Organization (KMC) was in charge of the management of sturdy waste of the entire city. It is estimated that nearly 80% of the municipal solid waste is being collected and transported to both designated removal sites as proper sanitary landfill sites are yet to build up. Hence there's been an improvement in the misuse collection and transport system since 90s when only 2/3rd of the municipal throw away was handled. The transportation mechanism is through garbage vehicles using either hauled or set box system employing team for mechanical or manual launching. The number of garbage vehicles is limited and anticipated to relatively long haulage to disposal sites there are specific problems of consistent vehicular maintenance and high fuel prices.

The role of informal sector in collection of waste from avenues and removal of recycling items from the solid misuse stream is significant. However this unaccounted part needs to be acknowledged and included in the formal stable misuse management system.

Hospital throw away is another significant element of have environmental and health effect on the urban culture. In Karachi around 30% of the full total MSW may be thought to be of hospital origins out of which 0. 6 lots per day is infectious. At source segregation practice is exercised at most private hospitals and laboratories with few large private and open public private hospitals having their own in-house disposal facilities, incineration models. City district federal has also facilitated centralised incineration operation for general public and private hospitals (health care systems) through private agreement getting a capacity of 1000 kg/hour.

Improvement schemes have been proposed for Karachi sound waste material management system. There is a need to look at engineered approach in the redesigning of existing system such as; community bins and receptacles have to be designed and created for adequate storage space capacities in line with the era rates, collection frequencies and security requirements to regulate disease vector, over spilling and check unwanted access of waste-pickers. In almost all of the towns street sweeping businesses have been mechanised and done by machinery handled by vehicles. Engineering of Garbage Transfer Stations (GTS) at volume of locations within metropolis will cut the price tag on transportation of waste material to disposal sites as long haulages will be reduced. Materials processing, restoration of recyclables, compaction, size reduction, and increase in density will permit transportation of throw away to disposal sites / landfills via long vehicles (bulk carry), minimising transport/traffic and environmental pollution related issues. Development of disposal sites into proper sanitary landfill sites are being considered and appropriate budgeting and planning is underway.

Integration of informal (micro level) and formal (macro level) throw away management system is envisaged to be a plausible working solution for a competent and lasting system achieved through integration of most important collection system and misuse recycling followed from casual system.

It may be concluded that solid waste materials management system is considering a change over time scheduled to constructive methodology, positive insurance policy and decision making. However more concrete steps should be used beyond planning level. The impact of SWM on the surroundings and aesthetics of Karachi's urban circumstance have been significant due to growing and widening city and also owing to administrative transformations occurring over ages. The shortcomings in the SWM system of Karachi are being gradually met which is envisaged that if the 'political will' is suffered it'll soon meet its present requirements as well as will be able to cater the future needs of the town.

Introduction

The title of this research newspaper is very profound, diversified and complex when addressed specifically in framework to the demographic features of the Karachi metropolis, amounts and characteristics of solid wastes, the prevailing issues of management system and methods of solid misuse disposal in the town. Though it is difficult to encompass and touch upon all the aspects at length but an effort has been made to highlight the most significant issues and recommend possible steps for improving the prevailing solid throw away management system.

Statement of the study Problem

Solid waste materials management (SWM) is an integral component of urbanisation and infrastructure development of metropolitan areas and becomes more essential and critical in the area of mega places which are quickly growing and broadening. The planning and design of sound waste materials management system which include its components; storage space, collection, transfer, travel, processing and removal requires detailed studies, increasing from physical surveys, demographic and socioeconomic data collection, solid waste generation estimates and characterisation analyses, various options for processing and disposal and finally technical and financial evaluation for implementation and operation of the machine.

The present analysis is limited to defining basic the different parts of SWM system that are working in Karachi. The problems and issues of the prevailing SWM of Karachi need to be recognized with the suggestions of possible alternatives for the improvement in working and performance of the system.

Hypothesis

The hypothesis of the issue of solid misuse management of Karachi can be expressed as sustained deficit in meeting the physical dependence on resources scheduled to unprecedented progress in urban populace leading to uncontrolled and increasing quantities of solid waste consistently necessitating restructuring of the management system, procurement and reallocation of physical and recruiting and development of infrastructure which has not yet been achieved scheduled to lack of concern and financial constraints.

Significance of the Research

The paper has an overview of the general aspects of sound misuse management in metropolitan sector. The case study of Karachi will be discussed in framework to the functions of the SWM components and their infrastructure in effective removal and disposal of solid waste materials. The problems and problems from the management, functions and policy making is highlighted which will be significant to provide the purpose of this research document as well to serve as a baseline for even more research in the region.

Research Methodology

The adopted strategy is easy yet thorough in defining and reaching the aims of the study. The research declaration has been laid in order to address the trouble, issues and targets of the research study. The scope of the analysis has been obviously delineated predicated on the aims of research. A brief overview of relevant books encompassing scope and its own research has been performed leading to identification of paramount problems with an analytical method of problem handling in solid throw away management.

The conclusion outlines remedial methods, solution and advice for a built-in approach to Sturdy Waste materials Management in Karachi.

Historical Background and Existing Scenario

A substantial upsurge in the solid waste materials production, particularly municipal solid misuse (MSW) has been witnessed over the past couple of years from almost 6, 600 lots per day in later 90s to 9, 000 tons/day of stable waste being generated in the city of Karachi in 2005 (KSDP 2020).

For on the half century, Karachi Metropolitan Corporation (KMC) has been administering the management of municipal sound waste products of Karachi. Following the devolution of the administrative composition in August 2001, the above service fell under the town District Federal government of Karachi (CDGK). Sturdy Throw away Management within the City Region is the merged responsibility of CDGK, the Town Municipal Administrations (TMAs) and Union Councils.

Present City Area Federal government Karachi (CDGK) has 18 cities and entirely 178 union councils. Each union council is in charge of providing waste collection services to an average of 9, 500 homeowners which is considered to be a great fill for the management of municipal sturdy waste successfully and effectively within its jurisdiction. In addition, the Cantonment Boards, Karachi Dock Trust and Pakistan Steel Mills carry out their own waste material collection and transfer. The key businesses accountable for collection will be the TMAs, who either use their own equipment or long term contract private sector providers in managing and functioning the primary collection system. In lots of low income areas community established organisations (CBOs) are lively in collection from homeowners and copy of MSW to community bins or katchra kundi. Also in many areas sweepers are operative and have organised to gather garbage from residences, neighbourhood and communal streets. Few high-income areas have house-to-house collection organised by appropriate garbage vehicles that transfer won't disposal sites. There can be an average population of about 560, 000 coming under town administrations that are responsible for collecting and moving solid throw away to designated 'landfill' site. Area government is liable to provide and develop landfill site(s) for the city of Karachi at appropriate locations. It will also control and operate the websites. Presently, there is really as such no sanitary landfill site for Karachi. Only couple of designated pieces of land have been allocated for dumping of stable throw away on daily basis. The CDGK is responsible for the maintenance and procedure of both "official" open removal sites at Jam Chakro and Gond Cross - each 35 km from the town centre. Any landfill developmental activity or standard sanitary procedure practice on these dumping sites is yet to be completed.

it is predicted that of the full total household solid waste products made daily within the City Area around 4, 500 tons is raised and of this, only 2, 000 loads makes it to 1 of both designated city "landfill" sites - actually available dumping sites. The rest is either retrieved for recycling (an estimated 1, 500 plenty per day) or is removed by getting rid of or by against the law dumping into available drains or onto roadsides or wide open land (an estimated 1, 400 lots)[1]. It's estimated that some 55, 000 individuals rely upon the informal sound waste materials recycling industry for their livelihood and with more than 1, 000 operating devices that the industry is worth some Rs 1. 2 Billion per annum[2].

Hospital (infectious) wastes are co-disposed with the regular solid waste materials stream. The availability of incineration facilities is on a very limited level hence most hospital waste is co-disposed with general waste, representing a significant health risk. Onsite incineration service is available in three to four 4 major private hospitals operating in public areas and private sector. However CDGK has facilitated collection and incineration center to hospitals through private contractor(s) operating at a couple of incineration crops[3].

Literature Review

Concept of Sturdy Waste Management

The source of waste; the designer, its generation; amounts, amounts and characteristics of wastes each is essential to determine and critical for the making, planning and procedure of solid waste materials management system.

Definition of Solid Waste

It includes all sorts of semi-solid and sturdy waste arising credited to man or pet animal activity as well as due to natural calamity(s) that is ineffective / undesired / unwanted or regarded as discarded material demanding removal and following removal. Usually if not taken off the foundation of generation or disposed off properly may of potential risk to environment (life and property).

Waste is a relative term i. e. for one it may be worthless or unwanted but also for someone it might be a useful item (a product - recovery, reuse, recycling)

Defining Solid Waste products Management

It is the integration of varied activities associated with sturdy waste into well defined and coordinated manner to optimise the utilization of individual, physical and financial resources and also to prepare for the near future needs. Solid waste material management will be the principles and methods made up of effective management tools applied to different components of solid waste functions which include; collection, storage, travel, treatment and safe disposal.

A comprehensive explanation of SWM may be given as:

It is a willpower from the control of generation, storage, collection, copy and transport, handling, and disposal of sturdy wastes in a manner that is at accord with the best rules of general population health, economics, executive, conservation, appearance, and other environmental factors, that is certainly also attentive to public attitudes.

There are a number of concepts about waste products management which fluctuate in their use between countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely-used concepts include:

  • Waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse & recycle, which classify misuse management strategies regarding to their desirability in terms of misuse minimization. The waste materials hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste material minimization strategies. The purpose of the misuse hierarchy is to remove the maximum useful advantages from products also to generate the lowest amount of waste material.
  • Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is a technique designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) in to the selling price of the merchandise. Extended company responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the complete lifecycle of products and product packaging introduced to the market. Which means that firms which create, import and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the merchandise after their useful life as well as during produce.
  • Polluter pays principle (PPP) is a theory where in fact the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment. Regarding squander management, this generally identifies the requirement for a waste material generator to pay for appropriate removal of the waste materials.

Hierarchy of Stable Throw away Management in Karachi Metropolis

As identified above misuse hierarchy means classification, according to the element of 'desirability', of throw away management strategies. The strategies could be to reduce waste or to reuse, recovery waste products or goal to recycle waste materials, the '3 Rs' of waste management. Another recent strategy is to 'rethink' or review the present system for a better system. No matter what classification, the primary and sole thing of waste materials management is to treat and dispose misuse completely or minimize it from the environment, to safeguard the fitness of the city. Concurrently, the supplementary thing is to extract maximum benefits from the waste materials by turning it directly into a useful product.

In case of Karachi these elite goals are still to be described and strategies laid as the primary activity of cent percent assortment of solid waste and its disposal i. e. providing waste management services to entire metropolis area is yet to accomplish.

Waste Source Reduction and Segregation

No information from recognized sources is on this subject. There is absolutely no system launched by the sound waste management division of the area government to promote waste reduced amount of municipal solid waste material at home level neither individuals should segregate the throw away into 'recyclables' or 'non-recyclables' at source. However open public in their own interest for a few financial gain with cooperation and cooperation of casual sector home & commercial throw away suppliers 'segregate and sell' their throw-away or 'recyclable' waste material items to 'door-to-door' hobbyists 'kabadis'. Similarly, establishments sell and dispose their waste products to middle retailers and recyclers. Also a sizable volunteer push of waste materials pickers on mobilised on avenues is operational as 'scavengers'. These are mainly self employed labour of Afghan origin who collect recyclables from pavements, community bins and wide open areas on daily basis sales to middle supplier to onward sales to recyclers. Hence a very strong system of waste products recovery from standard solid throw away stream and subsequent recycling is out there in the informal sector which is participating in its part in the management of stable waste and minimizing the responsibility on the overloaded formal sector of SWM but however its role has neither been recognised nor recognized.

Integrated Solid Waste material Management System

It is a strategy for solid waste material management applied to every one of the activities associated with the management of society's throw away. The term designed implies that the actions are interdependent and inter-related to be able to formulate a thorough and effective waste management system.

Integrated Solid Throw away Management may be thought as:

It is the selection and request of ideal techniques, technology, and management programmes to achieve specific throw away management goals and goals.

The basic goal of the integrated sturdy misuse management is to manage solid waste in a fashion that meets public health insurance and environmental concerns and the public's prefer to reuse and recycle waste materials.

Hierarchy of Integrated Stable Waste Management

A hierarchy (arrangement in order of ranking) in misuse management may be used to rank actions to implement programmes within the city. The integrated stable misuse management hierarchy used may be sequenced as;

  • Source reduction,
  • Recycling,
  • Collection
  • Waste change and
  • Disposal

ISWM programmes and systems should be developed where the components of hierarchy are interrelated and are decided on to support one another.

The Functional Components of Solid Waste material Management.

The Functional Elements of a Misuse Management System may be categorized as those activities which take place within the machine to meet the targets and goals defined for the effective management of the solid waste material. The components are those that are purchased and or actually developed (employees, infrastructure & facilities, resources, etc. ) to aid the functions of the SWM system. The typical functional components of SWM in an urbanised developed sector may be posted as follows:

  • Waste generation
  • Waste handling and separation, storage and control at source
  • Collection
  • Separation and processing and transformation of stable wastes
  • Transfer and transport
  • Disposal

Waste Generation

It includes activities in which materials are recognized as no longer being of value and are either thrown away or gathered mutually for disposal. It is important in waste technology to note that there is an identification step and that step ranges with every individual waste. At present waste generation activity is not so controllable, however, it is expected that more control will be exercised over waste material era in future.

As mentioned previously that waste technology phenomenon would depend after the demographic characteristics of town or city particularly the changing demography i. e. the populace due to growth and expansion with modernisation and urbanisation process.

Solid Waste Era in Karachi

In case of Karachi the devolution of city administration in cities though 'convenience off' the administrative container necks to certain scope particularly in context to management of people services but with solid waste materials management which is pretty much demographically controlled system the magnitude of the situation is very little reduced. It could therefore be appropriate to present the technology rates municipal solid wastes of different cities of Karachi in point of view of their individual populations for several year of research and projected similarly.

As set up the quantities of solid wastes be dependent after the demographic characteristics and its own composition is highly variable factor attributed to socioeconomic features as well as throw away management practices. The overall composition of solid waste identified at household level is given the following:

Estimated Per Capita Waste Technology Rate in Karachi

According to survey completed in 2005 misuse technology rate is predicted as 0. 3 to 0. 5 kg/capita/day. It is to be comprehended that generally the waste era rate depends upon a number of factors such as:

  • Income degree of waste producer
  • Socioeconomic and living style
  • Festive occasions
  • Waste management insurance policies and programmes
  • Awareness & education about environment and throw away concerns

Sources of waste generation in Karachi

In circumstance of Karachi, sources of waste technology may be classified as under:

  • Domestic
  • Commercial,
  • Green wastes
  • Hospital
  • Industrial

The types of wastes or garbage made are: home, commercial, institutional and street sweepings. Based on nature of waste material it is classified as degradable (organic), non-degradable (recyclable / non-recyclable). The believed information given in the SWM report of Karachi Master Plan 2020 draft record 2005 are as follows:

Major marketplaces where organic throw away is made are:

  • Vegetable market: 100 ton each day,
  • Empress market: 70 loads per day

High-income localities create garbage:

  • Organic Waste materials: 60%
  • Garden Waste materials: 12%
  • Recyclables: 8%

Low-income localities create garbage:

  • Organic Waste: 40%
  • Garden Waste material: 5% (potential)
  • Recyclables: 15%

The solid waste material generate that is recovered at;

  • Household level,
  • Community bin level (prior to copy / travel) and
  • Disposal site

Waste Handling and Separation, Storage and Processing at Source

Waste handling and parting involves the actions associated with management of wastes until they may be placed in storage space containers for collection. Controlling also includes the movement of loaded containers to the idea of collection. Separation of waste material components can be an important step in the handling and storage of solid waste products at the source. The best destination to separate waste materials for reuse and recycling reaches the foundation of generation. Handling at the foundation includes activities such as compaction and lawn waste composting.

Collection

Collection includes not only the gathering of stable throw away and recyclable materials, but also carry of the materials, after collection to the location where collection vehicle is emptied. This location may be materials control facility, a transfer stop, or a landfill removal site. In small cities, where removal sites are close by, the hauling of wastes is not a serious problem. In large towns, however, where in fact the haul distance to the point of removal is often higher than 15 kilometers, the haul may have significant economic implications. Where long ranges are involved, copy and travel facilities are usually used.

Collection and Transport of Solid Waste material in Karachi

Stages of collection of garbage is from house keep to community bin sites, (kachra kundi) and then to disposal sites. That is done in the following ways:

  • Stage 1: From house MSW is accumulated by private sweepers and citizen brought to short-term storage space / communal waste transfer center i. e. community bins.
  • Stage 2: From particles bins municipality vehicles copy and transport solid waste products to disposal sites OR to unofficial dumping earth (Primary transport, 2-3 trips a day which by description are long outings)

Problem Analysis

This is the most uneconomical way of SWM because the haulage is extraordinarily long and several vehicles have to get this to long travels several times each day. Hence due to lack of infrastructure and physical & recruiting with handling of large levels of waste materials required the SWM becomes inefficient in handling, moving and disposing throw away effectively.

The pursuing problems arise in Karachi in primary collection:

  • Poor attendance of sanitary personnel. Estimated volume of employed sanitary staff used in CDGK is 12000.
  • Gradual reduction in quantity of community bins (4100), as a big number of garbage containers Katchra Kundi are in the workshop for maintenance.
  • Haphazard accumulation of garbage on roadways, in open places and in drains.
  • Uncollected waste material usually detects it way in sewers, is ingested by the cattle, or left to rot in the wild, or burnt on roadsides
  • 15 to 20% garbage vans remain out of order. Total number of misuse vehicles predicted is 560.
  • Landfill sites are situated at long distance ranging from 10 to 70 km (up & down)
  • Hardly 300 to 400 outings of garbage vehicles are off packed daily at landfill sites out of 1500 travels.

Transfer and Transport

This consists of two steps; the transfer of waste products from small collection vehicle to the top transfer equipment, and the next transfer of the wastes, usually over long distances, to a processing or disposal site. The copy often takes place at a copy station. Although motor vehicle carry is most common, rail autos and barges are also used to move waste. The two systems for transfer and transporting stable waste through roads comprises of hauled and fixed container system.

Transfer and Travel of Garbage in Karachi - Past Experiences

In mid 90s an test of using coach carriages was done for hauling MSW of Karachi by the name of Garbage Train project. The project premiered by defunct KMC in 1995-1996. Garbage from Saddar, Lyari and other adjacent areas was taken to Wazir Mansion Railway train station for onward travel to Dhabeji through railway. The machine ran for approximately 4 to 5 a few months. Rs 27 Mil were spent on the project. The system failed credited to:

  • High charges levied by railway authorities
  • Wagons provided by the railway authorities were obsolete (not in good service condition)
  • No proper infrastructure for launching & unloading of garbage could be developed at copy stations.

Processing and Recovery of Sound Waste

It includes the restoration of separated materials, the separation and processing of solid misuse components, and change of solid waste products that occurs mainly in locations away from the foundation of waste technology. The types of means and facilities that are now used for restoration of spend that contain been segregated at source include kerbside collection, drop off, and buy again centres.

The separation and handling of wastes that have been separated at source and the parting of commingled wastes usually appear at a materials restoration facility, transfer channels, combustion facilities, and removal sites.

Processing often includes the parting of bulk items, parting of misuse components by size using displays, manual parting of waste materials components, size lowering by shredding, parting of ferrous metals using magnets, volume decrease by compaction and combustion.

Transformation processes are used to reduce the quantity and weight of misuse requiring disposal also to recover conversion products and energy. The organic small fraction of MSW can be altered by a number of chemical and natural processes. The mostly used chemical change process is combustion which can be used in conjunction with the restoration of energy by means of heat. The mostly used biological transformation process is aerobic composting. The selection of a given set of processes will rely upon the waste products management goals to be achieved.

Processing of Organic and natural Waste materials in Karachi - An experiment

A compost seed was established in the early 80's by a private contractor in North Karachi which continued to be operative for a brief period and then was closed down down anticipated to following reasons:

  • Supply of non-segregated refuse, gradually damaged the seed.
  • Heavy operational losses.
  • Gained favour during transfer of plant machinery and also acquisition of land for installing the plant, as such there was not much financial stake of the service provider was engaged.
  • Deployment of untrained and unskilled personnel.
  • Non-cooperation from the municipal administration (informal resources).

Disposal of Sound Waste

It is the final functional aspect in the sound waste products management system. Nowadays, the removal of wastes through landfill or land-spreading is the best fate of most solid wastes, whether they are domestic wastes collected carried to a landfill site, residual materials from materials restoration facilities (MRFs), residues from the combustion of solid waste, compost, or other chemicals from various solid waste control facilities.

A modern sanitary landfill is not an wide open dump; it can be an engineered facility used for losing solids on land or within the earth's mantle without creating nuisances or risks to general public health or security.

Landfill or more specifically sanitary landfill can be an engineering term, which might be thought as:

An engineered service developed on the designated piece of land that principally receives misuse as a 'fill' over a time period until the specified area is totally utilised. The development and procedure of service is usually affordable while maintaining appropriate health, safe practices and environmental expectations.

Sites for Stable Waste Removal in Karachi

Only two official landfill sites available and are in use in the city are:

  • Jam Chakro near Surjani Town (500 acres)
  • Gondpass near Hub river Street (500 acres)

In addition to these two proclaimed sites, CDGK also attained Dhabeji Landfill site (3000 acres) through notification of 2006 for the intended purpose of landfill functions in 2007 however the operations could not commenced scheduled to administrative and financial constraints.

Earlier the job of the Transfer and Removal of Karachi City through Garbage (Kachra) Train started in middle 90s that used open and closed cargo wagons to copy gathered MSW from garbage copy stop (Wazir Mansion) hauling it to Dhabeji site for open dumping / removal. The task was also not successful and ceased scheduled to administrative issues and financial constraints.

These sites are about 30 to 35 kilometres from City centre. Two unofficial sites one at Rehri and other at Ibrahim Hyderi are also used.

There is no proper management and guidance at landfill sites Since these specified landfill sites are mere 'open dumping grounds' scavenging and waste segregation practices are applied on these websites. Waste vehicles bring in lots are being purchased by the misuse pickers / segregators and pot-makers who used either retrieve left recyclables or burn the waste to create fire for making pots.

CDGK reported that from 2006 onward the Jam Chakro and Gondpass landfill businesses are outsourced to private contractors. M/S Astrotech is functioning Gondpass landfill and M/S Sanco is functioning Jam Chakro Landfill since July, 2009.

District Official (SWM) reported that around 200-250 garbage vehicles of differing capacities visit each Gondpass and Jam Chakro landfill sites daily. The companies level the waste in the so called anaerobic landfill / dump sites. The processes of landfill are not matching to sanitary criteria credited to resource constraints. Proper equipment and skilled people resource are not available to develop and manage the websites as sanitary landfills.

Generation of Hospital Waste / Health Care Waste products in Karachi

It is rather difficult to get the real estimate of medical center waste being made in Karachi Metropolis. It really is due the reason why that that there surely is no discrete criteria for the categorisation of hospital / scientific / healthcare unit / biohazard waste materials. Secondly, the segregation practice is not discretely observed. It is being commonly noticed that segregation practices are limited or restricted to the boundaries of the foundation only and are mainly applied where there are source segregation practices at source. Outside the point of generation of source in more than 95% circumstances the waste materials is a commingled throw away (blended with MSW). Hence in order to calculate the realistic quantities of hospital throw away being produced in Karachi thorough studies should be performed characterising the type, composition and levels of hospital waste produced. All the government and private hospitals, clinics, dispensaries, health care units shall be listed with CDGK and SEPA. A device will be devised for the safe assortment of hospital waste in support of listed / licence companies shall be engaged for the collection, vehicles and removal of hospital waste material. The official reports of 2006 associated with hospital waste products are as follows:

Hospital Waste materials Management

The handling of hospital misuse, or 'Bio-Medical Waste products; has assumed importance because of growing such dangerous disease as Assists. On way to manage this important issue is to make the hospital personnel aware of the dangers and the necessity for seriously taking the management of the waste for safe handling and disposal.

Only 140 healthcare items (HCUs) dispose off their misuse through incineration plants run by City Region Government (CDG). The remaining HCUs dispose off their waste material combined with the municipal waste. This poses a health hazard. The reasons of health hazards are:

  • Non-registration of HCUs either with Health Office Federal government of Sindh or with City Govt. and
  • Non-presence of Environment Protection Agency of Sindh at lawn root level.

The CDG installed two incineration crops at Mewa Shah in 1996. Each has a capacity of 1000 kg/hour. Incineration occurs at 800 C in ten minutes. At the moment 140 clinics/clinics are incinerating their waste through these incinerators (KSDP 2020)

District Officer (SWM, CDGK) in a dialogue said that there is no weighbridge for measuring the incoming clinic throw away being daily incinerated at all these facilities. It really is on estimation that an average daily 10 shades of hospital waste products incineration by CDGK is being reported.

Storage, Collection and Transfer of Solid Waste

These the different parts of the solid waste material management system are possibly the most critical practical components in retaining the health, hygiene and appearance i. e. environmental quality of urban society. Storage area may be either in-house safe-keeping at source or at the community level (community bin) for a brief period from few time extending to couple of days or in a few circumstance weeks depending after the collection occurrence. Similarly collection activity is also dependent upon the place or point from where in fact the solid waste is briefly or intermediately stored for collection or removal. Copy in addition has two periods; one associated with the primary collection and the next at the primary copy point (garbage transfer place) where processing of solid waste products is also completed prior to final transport and disposal.

Haphazard Storage of Solid Misuse in Karachi

The garbage dumping and tipping in the city restrictions is a common practice regardless of the existence of restrictions and laws and regulations of Sindh MUNICIPALITY Ordinance (SLGO), 2001, Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997, Medical center Waste Management Rules, 2005 to control and control, the uncontrolled storage area, tipping and dumping of waste in and around the town, the practice is being completed liberally. This is due to insufficient SWM storage space and collection facilities and inadequate enforcement of regulations / rules, monitoring and penalisation due to weak institutional setup, insufficient resources, and financial constraints which look like the real issues.

The scenario of available dumping in city and piling of garbage is most beneficial reflected in the following news report published in national paper[4]:

Piles of garbage, dumped in available drains and across the river mattresses, and being openly burnt on roadsides, in streets and in parks, have become a common vision in Karachi, which clearly shows a severe turmoil being encountered by the businesses and departments worried responsible for collecting, managing and losing solid waste. The problem is most serious in densely populated cities like Saddar, Keamari, Site and Lyari where garbage accumulation in the lack of effective removal systems has turned into a health hazard. Most of these cities lack proper facilities for collection and lifting of garbage, leading to insanitation. . . . . Among the problems in congested towns of metropolis is that a lot of designated sites where garbage is dumped and disposed of have disappeared as the land mafia has generated apartments and complexes about them. A survey of Lyari, Saddar and Keamari cities shows that there is absolutely no trace of several such sites for the aforesaid reason. Finding no place for proper dumping of garbage, the domestic, commercial and even hospital throw away is dumped at the nearest neighborhood corner. Eventually, heaps of garbage has emerged at every block corner, aggravating the problem further. Ironically, the sanitation personnel does not collect garbage from these undesignated removal spots, which have turned into a permanent nuisance for common citizens. The town federal as well as the town administrations have up to now miserably didn't come up to the recovery of people, moving into subhuman conditions in many parts of the city. People of these areas have complained of the municipal regulators' inefficiency and their indifferent attitude for the intolerable unhygienic conditions. They say that poor management, neglect and lethargy for the sanitation staff has not only destroyed the surroundings and living conditions but has also contributed greatly to the pass on of infectious diseases. In Lyari Town, the haphazard construction of multi-storey complexes has further worsened the problem. The residents of these buildings put their domestic throw away into the avenues some dump them on the floor floors some others throw their misuse in the backstreets. Every land in Lyari has several backstreets and a survey shows that almost all of them remain filled with garbage since there is absolutely no proper set up for lift and get rid of the waste.

The Role of City Area Government in Provision of Adequate Safe-keeping Facility

Waste%20ScavengingThe problem of shortage of safe-keeping facilities in the metropolitan sector may be analysed in the perspective of the following limitations:

  • Availability of infrastructure and materials resources
  • Adequate size and quantity of community bins positioning in proper locations
  • Frequency of collection (emptying of community bins at regular intervals before they reach their full capacity)
  • Scavenging at community bins (no check and safety precautions could be implemented to avoid spillage and growing of solid waste beyond your bins)
  • Deteriorating condition of bins (material pots corrode, haul containers get damage and become unserviceable thus requiring repeated maintenance and large total for maintenance).

Collection of garbage and municipal solid waste from avenues has been done by sanitary personnel comprising of sweepers and the misuse vehicle staff. The garbage gathered and dumped at community bin sites and street attributes by the neighbourhood communities, private sweepers is deposited for removal on regular basis by municipal services. Waste materials vehicle personnel empties the city bins with the help of spade / shovel and trough / bucket to weight the container of waste truck / vehicle. Alternately in case of movable or haul container system the pots are picked, migrated and transported to disposal sites.

Waste-picking or removal of recyclable items commonly known as scavenging is also common. A big population owned by Afghan immigrants is involved with informal misuse collection and recycling of sound waste.

Leftover Stable Waste

The present level of serviceability of collection of solid waste specifically municipal solid misuse is not ample. The solid waste being produced is not fully collected and transported for disposal setting up a backlog leading to a build up of garbage hence formation of dumps and loads of waste in avenues, along roadsides, open up plots, nallahs, etc. It is estimated that only 4500 of the full total household waste has been lifted.

Transportation System and Transfer of Great Waste

The main activity of transfer of throw away is travelling to the disposal site through street route through garbage vehicles making 2-3 travels to the garbage dumping site per day.

The Condition/ Position of Transfer Station of solid throw away in Karachi

Existing waste raising / transporting capacity of garbage vehicles vary from 1. 5 to 5 tons which is never totally utilized. The entire round trip to the designated disposal sites amounts from 10km to 70km (average 36km). Hence, direct (in a single stretch) transportation of more than 9000 tons (presuming 100% serviceability) of MSW daily from various locations in the town to the landfill sites does not remain affordable.

Proposal for Garbage Copy Stations

Conventionally two-stage transport of garbage is being used in the almost all of mega metropolitan areas of the developed and growing countries.

Two-stage Transport System of MSW

Garbage Transfer Channels (GTS) are founded at critical locations in the city district restrictions providing good convenience between your area being dished up and the removal site. The length between the service area and the landfill is most effective and preferably for efficient rounded trip generation recommended distance is 3-4 kilometres.

The garbage vehicles perform major collection from the community bins / collection details and travel the waste material to GTS where range of vehicles arriving (weight count number) and quantity of waste is assessed (weight count number) and other relevant information are documented formulating a data bottom.

The recyclable items are segregated / segregated and retrieved for subsequent recycling and reuse. The non-recyclable and degradable waste materials is compacted (physical processing) into large storage containers (volumetric capacity differing 35-56 m3) for supplementary transportation from GTS to disposal site.

Expected results of operations of GTS

  • Primary vehicles will have to operate in a radius of 3-4 kilometres only.
  • One extra vehicle will carry the garbage equivalent to the load of 6-10 key vehicles.
  • The volume of trips of made by most important vehicles increase to 5-6 from existing 2-3 excursions per day.
  • The principal lifting capacity of the garbage vehicles will be doubled
  • The supplementary vehicles will be restricted to off-load the garbage at landfill site only thus informal dumping of garbage within urban restrictions will be inspected.
  • Revenue era will be possible through restoration of recyclable items.

Following four sites have been decided on for the establishment of garbage copy stations

  • Mewa Shah,
  • Gulshan Iqbal Behind Aziz Bhati Park
  • North Karachi
  • Korangi

Private Venturing in Collection, Vehicles/Disposal

A contact was awarded by DMC Central to an exclusive contractor in 1998-99 for sweeping and garbage travelling from F. B. Area and part of North Karachi to landfill site. This contract ran for one calendar year only, and failed due to flaw in deal.

A contract was given by DMC East in the entire year 2000 for lifting and travel of garbage on tonnage basis. The agreement continuing for 2 months and suspended due to litigations between the company and DMC East.

A deal for the lifting and travelling of garbage from community bins to landfill site was given by Shah Faisal Town in 2005.

TMA, Gulshan-e-Iqbal given a deal for transportation of garbage from momentary garbage transfer place to landfill site in 2005.

The Solid Waste materials Incineration process in Karachi

The incinerators have proved useful in providing solution for the management of health care and infectious waste products of clinics and treatment centers. Few large private hospitals have installed and have the ability to maintain their own incineration plants in their premises. The CDGK installed two incineration plants at Mewa Shah in 1996. Each has a capacity of 1000 kg/hour. Incineration process occurs at 800C in 10 minutes. At the start of the programme 140 clinics / clinics participated and sent their waste material to these units for incineration on regular basis but with the duration of time there was a decrease in the interest of the management of engaging hospitals.

Later the operation was handover to a private contractor to operate and maintain both installed plants. The ToR include; assortment of waste from clinic and clinics, travel and incineration of the misuse, operate and keep maintaining the plants. It's been reported that incinerator vegetation are operating at 12-15% capacity credited to non-registration of most HCUs.

Critical Analysis

A change in perspective of solid waste materials management of Karachi

With the recent changes in the administration of City Area Federal of Karachi, sturdy misuse management has regained goal on the agenda though regarded as uphill activity to be fixed on ecological basis. The plausible step of privatisation of the sturdy waste materials management system of Karachi shows dynamism but still requires primary technological analyses that ought to be undertaken in order to understand how the mechanism of misuse collection, transport and disposal would be integrated to formulate a sustainable solid misuse management system.

Regardless of the info available about the privatisation of the solid waste products management system whoever will be the 'operator' of the waste materials management system, most likely through overseas entrepreneurship, the built-in system will be facing the following issues that are of critical importance without which a ecological system is hard to understand.

Who should have the ownership of solid waste materials - In the event, if an exclusive company / stakeholder needs the deal and become an 'operator' in the metropolis to get, store, transportation and dispose the waste material then there are certain critical aspects / issues which are to be pre-defined and fixed.

a. What could be the potential or likely technology of revenue that might be created from the collected misuse or what would be the proper execution of repayment / return designed to the operator instead of services provided? Would it be also as internationally that the operator has the waste (from the idea of its era) and derives out income as additional component from the restoration and recycling of waste materials components.

Analysis:

As considerably as the possession of waste can be involved, the generator or maker of the waste material within its premises 'has' the waste products until he transfers the waste products at his own accord outside his premises boundary. The issue of ownership shall be between the service provider, city supervision and any alternative party (authorised or unauthorised / scavenge) working in the identified city limits and also require access to the solid waste material thus have to be resolved legally and rights of handling, copy, transport, process and dispose should be evidently defined and declared.

b. In case of Karachi, as talked about the structure of solid waste specially the municipal waste varies considerably from the point of era to intermediate safe-keeping and transfer and ultimate removal. The waste materials characteristics at household level are rich in recyclables hence earnings producing items however very little is left to recuperate as it extends to the city bin, probably the point from where the operator would take fee of the management of sturdy waste. The considerable reduction in the recyclable components of waste would substantially reduce the recovery and recycling potential of waste, in doing so making the proposition of development of material recovery facility for generation of income from the operation of waste materials management system would therefore be reduced to nominal.

Analysis:

The composition analysis of municipal sound waste at various storage space, collection and transfer levels in the waste materials flow blast of Karachi signifies that economical value of solid wastes varies and reduces substantially loosing its potential of restoration for generating income through recycling. Hence additional / supplementary component of revenue would be required as an input for the procedures of solid throw away management system.

c. The informal sector would be greatly affected who works in roadways at community bin level. It would be administratively difficult to limit the involvement of mini-private operators in the macro sound throw away management system. In short it might be rather officially incompatible to incorporate micro and macro throw away management systems at major collection levels that would impede establishment of lasting waste products management system in major regions of city area.

Analysis:

The large force of waste-pickers (scavengers) involved with collecting recyclables from roads and community bins isn't just responsible for troubling the conventional sound waste management efficient factor but also triggering significant harm to economic area of waste management while troubling the equilibrium its income dynamics.

1. Who shall be responsible for disposal of throw away - Collection and removal of solid waste products are two interdependent tiers of sound waste materials management system. Person who is taking care of the waste may not necessarily take on the disposal of waste. The method suggested for the disposal of waste is largely dependent upon the characteristics of waste materials that are kept in the waste by the finish of primary waste material handling previous to disposal. Following are the options that may be considered regarding misuse disposal options for Karachi metropolis.

Analysis

If the operator undertakes the removal of the waste through landfill method as proposed, it should achieve this by taking fee of the landfill site hence should take on the administrative duties and own functional rights of the selected land under long-term deal by the town District Government of Karachi.

The landfill operation alone is just one more major functional element of solid waste products management hence the disposal operation should be well integrated with other functional components of solid waste material management system and associated activities. The success of landfill operation is therefore much based mostly upon the constant source of source provided by from various components of waste material management system. In case if there is no infrastructure available / developed at the selected sites (as in case there is Karachi), removal cost of solid waste is expectedly to be high greatly. The expense of development of landfill facility is an essential awareness for the operator in supervision and operation of the facility. Development of landfill site is a significant component of stable waste removal system. To be able to have a lasting management of stable waste so to truly have a proper disposal center and its own effective management is a perfect pre-requisite from environmental point of view.

Ideally, it ought to be the operator who should be responsible for the disposal of waste material, and in the case of Karachi, landfill functions would then be affordable providing ultimate safe way for the disposal of solid waste. The development and building cost of landfill facility should be provided by the city supervision under the solid waste management program in order to supplement the price of businesses to be borne by the operator.

Integration of informal and formal waste products management system - It is imperative that the role of the informal sector in effective solid waste materials management should be officially accepted. This can be achieved by taking certain constructive steps in modifying the typical sound waste materials management system. In the current circumstances this is achieved in the following manner.

Analysis

Usually the right of possession of waste resides with the operator from the point of collection i. e. community bin level declaring its threshold of functional and administrative website within a jurisdiction of city council. This is the point from where it could be easier integrate the micro-waste management and set up its co-function / coexistence in a sustained manner. The top force of waste-pickers (scavengers / avenue enthusiasts / door-to-door enthusiasts) may be employed and involved in primary collection of solid misuse (collected as segregated waste materials - recyclables / non-recyclables). The socioeconomic impact due to this proposed change in the primary level (segregation at household and collection of waste materials) of the sound waste materials management system thereby integrating informal and formal systems would maintain positivity and significant.

Discussion

It has been clearly comprehended that there is an urgent need of safe disposal facility for municipal sound waste products of ever-expanding Karachi metropolis. It is obvious that landfill is the sole viable solution for disposal of municipal sturdy waste which is often supplemented with composting for (organic) and incineration for hospital waste. Though the existing solid misuse management system is not totally designed and competent to incorporate landfill businesses regarding to international requirements but with financial and technical revamping of the system it may possibly be performed. The wave of privatisation in sturdy throw away management may seem to be a plausible solution but may only show effective and sustainable if the prevailing loopholes and administrative issues some of the critical aspects which may have been discovered and analysed are resolved prior to the privatisation of the machine on macro range. The issue of integration of collection and disposal and interim misuse management functions is crucial in expanding its financial viability and establishing sustainability. One operator held with sub-contractors type operating-system will be an ideal solution for mega-city like Karachi. It might be figured integration of micro and macro-solid throw away management otherwise recognised as informal and formal sector, respectively, is inevitably essential for the sustainable and effective management system.

It may be advised to have a range of easily supervised landfill facilities than a sole large one located definately not urban settlement. Ideally a number of sites should be located near to the periphery of metropolitan development having relatively brief and easy access. When the word 'landfill' is employed it means a proper sanitary landfill of specified environmental standards, not experienced now as 'available dumping site' as mentioned above in case there is Karachi. Producing and operating a landfill site is just one more critically important procedure for solid waste management planning, planning which is an long-term operating system based on advanced technology necessitating competitive engineering which is however not beyond our reach and it is available indigenously.

Establishing material restoration facilities (MRFs) for waste products and composting for organic and natural residue prior to last removal to landfill will certainly reduce waste volumes closing in landfill. Expanding recycling industry zone in the vicinity of the landfill area will help sustainable waste products management.

Conclusion

It may be concluded from the analysis of the existing solid waste management system of Karachi that:

  • The existing infrastructure of SWM is limited in conditions of physical and human resources which have to be strengthened on concern basis.
  • Storage facilities at community levels, bins, containers and fixed community bins are inadequate rather than safe. Also the design of the receptacles is not in line with the real capacity which depends upon the throw away generation rate, human population to that your receptacle is offering, the collection frequency and lastly the density of the waste products. The service of collection of solid throw away is not covering the complete city and hence unable to lift up the total waste products on daily basis which creates a backlog. This is again due to lack of material and recruiting which need to be intensified.
  • Transport and hauling ranges are too much time in Karachi for removal to landfill sites which makes garbage vehicles basically difficult to make more variety of trips each day as well as the life of vehicles is reduced and frequent maintenance of the fleet is required.
  • Garbage Transfer Stations are urgently required and should be developed in a few critical locations within the town to ease of the move system of stable waste out side the city limitations.
  • Disposal of sturdy waste at specified dumping sites is not landfill operation rather open up dumping.
  • Hospital waste material and other harmful misuse require proper throw away management. Hospital waste should be retained segregated from MSW. Incineration might provide a cost effective and environmentally appropriate solution however the ash / residue needs proper removal.

Recommendations

It is preferred that in order to upgrade the existing solid misuse management system of Karachi following steps should be studied:

  1. An engineering approach and techniques are required in planning and design of solid waste products management of Karachi.
  2. As suggested by CDGK to get intermediate Garbage Copy Channels in few locations within city to take off long haulage as well concerning recover recyclables from waste materials these facilities should be developed on priority basis. Long vehicles will then be used to transport garbage for ultimate disposal to landfill sites.
  3. Proper sanitary landfill needs to be developed.
  4. Scavengers pressure should be employed as formal element of primary collection mechanism also the informal recycling industry should get its insight from the formal waste products recovery system. Both areas of micro and macro level incorporation integration in to the transformed solid waste material management system would then have the ability to assure sustainable system in the metropolis.
  5. Privatisation might provide a much better service and management option for solid throw away management system of Karachi however should be in close conversation with metropolis management to get over civic and administrative issues which will tend to be the prime road blocks in operations.

References

  • CDGK, Karachi SWM - Karachi Master Plan 2020, 2006
  • "Solid Waste Management System in Karachi", a demonstration for the Governor Sindh by ACS (LG), February 26, 2005
  • Key sources are: Division of MUNICIPALITY, Federal government of Sindh, 2005; City District Government of Karachi, 2005; Consultants to CDGK (Icepack), 2005; IUCN, Sindh State of Environment and Development, 2004; Sound Waste Management, edited by Aquila Ismail, URC Karachi series, 2000; Arif Hassan, Understanding Karachi, 1999.
  • Mansoor Ali, URC, Stable Waste Disposal in Karachi, 2000.
  • Asian Development Lender, TA-4578-Pakistan: "Karachi Mega Metropolitan areas Preparation Task", Volume level 1, August 2005
  • Official Website CDGK: www. karachicity. gov. pk
  • "Integrated Solid Waste material Management: Engineering Principles and Management Issues", George Tchobanoglous et al, 1993
  • UNEP Statement, 1996
  • Hospital Waste Fact Sheet - WWF PAK http://www. wwfpak. org/factsheets_hwf. php
  • http://www. citizenswasteinfo. org/A559CA
  • http://compost. css. cornell. edu/MSWFactSheets/msw. fs2. html
  • Wikipedia (www. wikipedia. com)
  1. Key resources are: Section of MUNICIPALITY, Federal of Sindh, 2005; City Region Authorities of Karachi, 2005; Consultants to CDGK (Icepack), 2005; IUCN, Sindh Express of Environment and Development, 2004; Stable Waste materials Management, edited by Aquila Ismail, URC Karachi series, 2000; Arif Hassan, Understanding Karachi, 1999.
  2. Mansoor Ali, URC, Stable Waste Removal in Karachi, 2000.
  3. Asian Development Loan company, TA-4578-Pakistan: "Karachi Mega Metropolitan areas Preparation Job", Volume 1, August 2005
  4. "Absence of solid-waste disposal offers surge to dumps", Latif Baloch, The Daily Dawn, June 08, 2006
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