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Sociological Perspectives ALONG WITH THE Functionalist Perspectives Sociology Essay

The first sociological point of view that I am going to use to try to make clear the Bertram family scenario is the functionalist point of view. The functionalist point of view evolved from the task of Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), though it was formed by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons through the mid-20th century. Functionalism can be summed up simply: 'the world is a system of interrelated parts, and each part makes a necessary contribution to the vitality of the system' (Bohm, 1997: 82). Functionalism examines contemporary society through an operating framework which stresses that everything, no subject how seemingly peculiar, out of place, or harmful, serves an objective. A useful analogy to utilize would be all the various areas of the body and how they function to keep carefully the body alive. All organs in our body depend on one another and each is vital, performing an overall 'function'. Friendly systems work in quite similar way as an organic and natural system. Societies have established structures within that happen to be established beliefs and procedures. All people of society are expected to conform and act acceptably. The institutional agreements, for example, political or religious arrangements, exist in culture not by selection of its individuals but because they perform a specific 'function' for the interpersonal structure as a whole. People within these cultural set ups know and consent on how to react, 'living their lives in the right ways - that modern culture benefits' (Jones 2003:39). Functionalism keeps that everyone and everything in society, no matter how strange it may seem, serves a purpose. Criminal offense, for example, is looked at almost universally as a nuisance. Functionalists, however, point out that crime will serve several purposes. Durkheim concluded that offense and deviance provide three major functions for population: deviance clarifies or reaffirms societal norms, it promotes interpersonal unity, and it challenges the status quo. Deviance can bring into question the status quo, forcing modern culture to rethink recently held norms. For instance, acts perceived as unlawful or deviant were critical in shaping the protection under the law activities for African Americans, women, and homosexuals in america. Without questioning the original way of dealing with disadvantaged teams, the norms of discrimination and prejudice could not be destroyed. Criticisms of functionalism give attention to its popularity and rationalization of cultural inequality and societal evils. Since functionalism supports that all aspects of society are necessary, human privileges issues like poverty, cravings for food, slavery, and genocide must be accounted for. Critics claim that functionalism can be used as a rationalization of such issues. The perspective is also criticized for its insufficient testability, which is critical for upholding any social science theory. Several questions stand against its consistency. Still, they have its strong items, such as its capability to explain criminal offenses and deviance. Functionalism essentially serves as the most traditionalist of the sociological classes of thought.

As with all the current other various areas of culture family has a job to play in the performing of contemporary society and each family member has a job to experiment with. Mrs Bertram is no longer in a position to perform the cultural roles that culture expects of her (for example, mother and better half). Inside the scenario of the Bertram family, Mrs Bertram could be seen to have taken on the 'tired role'. The functionalist point of view of illness is that it disrupts society; it too is a kind of 'deviance'. A functionalist point of view indicate that interpersonal services would need to control the deviance by either adding Mrs Bertram into residential care or by giving services on her behalf at home, to be able to bring her back range with society's expectation of her. Likewise the social staff member would also expect Mr Bertram's deviant behavior to be handled. The actual fact that he is leaving his better half alone for extended periods of time and is normally not caring for her as would be likely of a partner could be looked at as deviant behavior. The Bertrams are from a technology where gender assignments were very specific and Mr Bertram is probably fighting the role reversal, so would want support with this. Mr Bertram's possible alcoholism may be seen as a form of deviance that would need to be brought under control by perhaps providing him with support to get over it.

Feminist theory became established in the 1960s. What identifies feminism is the view that 'women's relative subordination must be questioned and challenged' (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005:16). The feministic view is the fact women are oppressed and their independence to do something and go to town is limited by the comparative ability of men, as they tend to possess more financial, cultural and communal resources than women. There exists an array of feminist views because of the failure to acknowledge ways to make clear subordination of women or how women can be liberated or what actually constitutes oppression (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005). Because of this there are many various feminist perspectives pulling on an array of disciplines. Matching to Abbott Wallace and Tyler (2005) early feminists have focussed on issues relating to questions of ability, knowledge and subjectivity. Liberal feminism 'sees gender prejudice as a subject of specific ignorance' (Jones 2003:91). Liberal feminists imagine inequalities can be eradicated by putting in place anti-discrimination laws and by promoting non-sexist behaviour. Marxist feminists think that 'women's subordination serves the needs of capitalism' (Jones 2003:92). Marxist feminists dispute that subordination of women in capitalist societies is best discussed by understanding the monetary cons that they face. Radical feminism sometimes known as gynocentrism affirms that 'patriarchy is the main element to understanding communal constructions and patriarchal relationships are widespread and elemental' (Jones, 2003:94). The word patriarch is utilized widely to make reference to 'a society predicated on widespread male supremacy and female subordination' (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005:33). This point of view is concerned with women's privileges rather than gender equality and it emphasises the difference between men and women. Within radical feminism the family sometimes appears as an integral device of women's oppression through erotic and maternal obligation. Feminists who adopt this perspective are concerned with just how women perpetuate men's control when they become so oppressed by patriarchal ideologies. Feminist theories of public work have been criticised recently for dealing with women generically and showing insufficient level of sensitivity to the sophisticated ways in which other sociable divisions such as competition, age, impairment, etc effect on gender relations. (Dominelli 2002)

Mrs Bertram could be seen by feminists to be enduring as a result of a patriarchal population. She has been lured into dependency by Mr Bertram's 'charming' ways. Maybe it's argued that Mrs Bertram found the prospect of marrying into a higher social class somewhat pleasing. Radical feminists dispute that 'all connections between men and women are institutionalised human relationships of ability' (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005:35). Mrs Bertram does not seem to be the same in the marriage and her health issues has further exacerbated her powerlessness. Mr Bertram has all control of the funds and probably all major decisions affecting Mrs Bertram, especially as she now lacks capacity, further reinforcing her subordination. It really is unclear whether Mrs Bertram has ever worked, if she's not Marxist feminists would argue that this was to the benefit of a capitalist world as she provided, when she managed, free local services to maintain her man. Mrs Bertram's known reasons for wanting to stay with her man may be credited to her ideological view of matrimony. Feminists dispute that married women don't have an identity distinct with their husbands (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005) and she may be hoping to hold on to what little she has still left of her individuality as she is slowly sacrificing her faculties because of the Alzheimer's. Her ideological view masks the true subordination she encounters as a result of her husband. That is further strengthened by his disregard of her needs and failing to care for his partner as a spouse would be expected to.

The psychodynamic theory was pioneered by Freud and later produced by lots of authors. Freud argued that there were various levels of conscious and unconscious thought. The 'id' which is the foundation of basic urges and the drive to survive. The superego is the conscious, 'general population' appearance that seeks to convey that people are doing what's acceptable to modern culture. The ego is the part of the unconscious that attempts to mediate between your id and superego. Individuals may not be aware of the relationships within themselves and take part in behaviours that are expressions of the deep unconscious, wanting to rationalise them through the ego and superego. 'The psychodynamic procedure includes all the ideas in psychology that see human functioning as based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the individual, particularly unconscious discord between the different set ups of the personality' (Baker, 2003:39). The psychodynamic methodology attempts to describe the drive of behaviour. The basic assumptions of the psychodynamic theory are that behaviour is motivated by conscious and unconscious mental processes, and that behaviour reflects current determination and earlier experience (Glassman and Hadad, 2009). The strategy claims that early on negative experiences may become buried in the unconscious and manifest themselves in how a person behaves in relationships with people later in life. Bion (1962) cited in Maclean and Harrison (2009) thinks that the grade of childhood romantic relationships in early on life shapes the introduction of personality and personality. According to Freud various defence mechanisms are developed by people to cope with difficult psychological situations. These defences include denial, repression, projection and displacement. Freud was of the opinion that individuals could get over their problems by causing mindful those thoughts and motivations covered in the unconscious. He used several methods to access the unconscious, such as free connection which involved allowing the given individual to say whatever arrived to their mind if your client became 'obstructed' discussing something this signified something deeper was taking place in their unconscious. Freud also use fantasy research as he presumed that unconscious thoughts were discovered in dreams and could be interpreted. Transference was another method used as clients projected and displaced their own thoughts and feelings onto their therapist. The psychodynamic approach is criticised for its subjectivity and gender, social and historical bias (Barker, 2003).

The psychodynamic approach could be utilized to raised understand Mr Bertram. Problems that are identifiable in the event situation are his poor management of money, his disregard of his better half and his suspected alcoholism. His behaviour could possibly be a result of what is taking place in his unconscious mind due to a negative experience in early childhood. The quantity of time he spends at the driver away from his better half could be discussed as him using denial as a defence mechanism against painful thoughts. He may have observed painful losses in the past which may have influenced his unconscious mind. It is possibly too unpleasant for him to simply accept his wife's condition and his coping strategy is to won't accept what is occurring. His suspected alcoholism may be credited to him regressing to a youthful level of development where he felt safe or comfortable, most likely the oral level when developing children focus on oral pleasures such as nourishing. It's possible that the stress of his wife's condition has brought about the regression and he might not even be familiar with how his unconscious is leading him to make use of alcohol to deal. His use of alcoholism could also be described as fixated behavior, if Mr Bertram experienced injury when he was at the dental stage (level where regarding to Freud child increases satisfaction from sucking, eating, etc) in his development it's possible that he then became confined to the particular stage. His mindful choice to consume alcohol 'has its roots in the repressed depths of the unconscious head' (Ingleby 2006:8). His use of alcohol as a way of owning a difficult situation is inappropriate behaviour and making its own set of problems as he's neglecting his better half and the house is within an awful express. A social staff member using this process would need to proceed with caution as behaviours might not exactly be the result of unconscious assumptions.

Behaviourism rose in prominence in the first 20th hundred years through the ideas of thinkers such as Pavlov and Watson. The behaviourist procedure lays focus on the role of environmental stimuli in identifying the way that people act. A key idea in behaviourism is that all individuals enter in the world as a 'clean slate' (Ingleby, 2006:5). Communal factors are then in charge of shaping the individual. The basic assumption is the fact humans learn behaviour by discovered connections between stimulus (excites the sense organs) and a reply (a reaction to stimulus). The primary behaviourist theories of learning are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. 'Classical conditioning occurs when we make a link between a natural stimulus that reliably produces a reply, so that the neutral stimulus involves produce the same response' (Baker, 2003:43). It is renowned through Pavlov's test where dogs were given food at the same time as a bell was rung. The result was that the pet dogs would salivate when the bell was rung even if no food was shown. Pairing of any unconditioned stimulus led to an unconditioned response and when the unconditioned response was paired with another stimulus, the stimulus eventually produced a reply on its own. Operant conditioning has had a considerable affect on psychology and is utilized regularly in interpersonal care and attention (Maclean and Harrison, 2009). Operant conditioning recognises that the surroundings effects behaviour. Much behavior occurs randomly and whether we replicate it or not is determined by the response we get. For example, when a person says they would like to wipe out themselves, they may not understand how or fully understand what they are saying but whether they say it again may be based upon the response of those around them. The behaviourist methodology is criticised for be oversimplified as it ignores mental techniques and limited as not everything can be accounted for by simple learning (Barker, 2003).

It is possible that Mr Bertram has discovered behaviours over the years due to the replies he has received. As he is from a white upper class record he has led a fairly privileged life. Even though his financial position is now in question he has learned over the years that his 'exceedingly enchanting manners' are able to get him what he would like. He was able to use his 'attraction to sweep Mrs Bertram off her foot and so much has managed to utilize this same charm offensive to keep the landlord and cultural services at bay. If we apply the rule of operant conditioning to the problem we can see that Mr Bertram's behaviour has been formed incidentally that those he has touch have responded by conceding to his wonderful ways. The result has been that he continuously uses this behaviour to mask the issues he and his wife are experiencing.

I was created and brought up in Zimbabwe just before independence and I am the second child of your nurse and a self-made business man. Education was very important in my own family and even though it gone unsaid there is always an expectation that we would achieve success in life. The culture I was raised in had a very patriarchal framework which extended to convey policies and techniques. For example, for me to secure a passport or nationwide identity card I had formed to either go to authorities offices with my father or a men relative with the same surname or produce my father's recognition documents. My mother's existence or her documents wouldn't normally have been appropriate. If I view this from a feminist perspective, women in my culture were positioned in a position of subordination because of monetary dependency and because generally they were 'constructed as socially poor' (Abbott, Wallace and Tyler, 2005: 28). Even though my mother performed all financial decisions were created by my dad. Marxist feminist would argue that subordination of ladies in Zimbabwe dished up and is constantly on the serve to enhance capitalist pursuits. My mom tended to my father's every need so that he could go out and be profitable at work. Education was an essential part of my life. Emphasis was always put on the actual fact that we needed education in order to achieve life. I recall getting very good records at school while my sister received the opposite. My parents would stay her down each and every time her report cards came home. EASILY apply the behaviourist concept of operant fitness to my situation I learned that if I came home with a good report card my parents' response would be a positive one. I therefore endeavoured to always have a good survey so that that positive response from my parents would be repeated.

My background provides me with perception how women can feel oppressed even in environments that they are likely to feel safe, so that I could effectively concern oppressive tactics. My record also helps me understand how responses I may have as a cultural worker will condition future behaviours of service users to other public workers or professionals. It is clearly important to have an understanding of sociological and psychological perspectives in communal are both make a significant contribution to understanding different service user needs.

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