Children are the future of every nation and folks have always strived for helping them to reach the most of their potential in the life span. Today's children have more complex needs which should be fulfilled because of their proper level of development. With this work we will try to overview three well-known ideas of child development and examine the similarities and dissimilarities between them, as it's very topical to know already existing ideas to evaluate properly modern methods to child education; and discover the essence of interaction of cognitive, physical and psychological development of children to understand the value of knowing o their needs.
Lev Vygotsky focused on the socio-cultural factors in child development which he considered the most valuable. He mentioned that almost all of knowledge which every child gets in the course of his development is provided with a wise and experienced tutor (mostly father or mother or educator). The tutor provides the child with both verbal and nonverbal instructions which the child is intended to follow. And natural interest of the kid helps him to do this. Vygotsky assumed that higher mental techniques in the average person have their origin in social processes. Moreover Vygotsky retained that that interpersonal learning got a inclination of preceding development. Vygotsky was sure that "learning was a required and universal aspect of the process of producing culturally planned, specifically human psychological function".
Also Vygotsky developed something of higher mental functions. These functions are developed from the ethnic tool, which can be acquired by children unconsciously, along the way to getting the cultural, historical and other information through the verbal and nonverbal connections with a teacher. Along the way of development children learn how to use these social tools. Higher mental functions include: attention, verbal thinking and storage area.
It is interesting that among all the mental tools Lev Vygotsky considered terms as the utmost specific and important one. On the one side it is a necessary mean to provide children with verbal instructions, while on the other hands it functions as a highly effective opportinity for intellectual adaptation of a kid. "Private conversation" matching to Vygotsy's theory helps children to make needed strategies to their activities. Thus, dialect is nothing at all else, but a lift for thinking and understanding.
Jean Piaget's theory of child development is cognitive and is based on the system of levels of cognitive development of a child. Following this system we might recognize such phases as:
Sensorimotor stage (0 -2 years). At this stage children investigate the surroundings around them by making use of their sense. In addition they start learning how to understand the things around them. For instance, they get to know that if to throw an object it will show up and make some type of noise. During this stage children realize that even if the object is not near them it still doesn't stop existing.
Preoperational stage (2 - 7 years). This level is mainly seen as a children's failure to see things from the various point of view, but their own one - they are very ego-centric. At this time children understand how to use dialect to describe objects on the globe.
Concrete operational level (7-11). In this level children can already think logically and predict the sequence of their actions. They also can classify objects into several categories.
Formal operational stage (11+ years). At this time children may think abstractly and can plan their activities through hypothesis. Moreover they may be deeply concerned about the future.
The key concept of the developmental theory of Jean Piaget is the fact that nature is dominating over nurture. Out of his system of stages of cognitive development of children we see that the first stage is sensorimotor one. At this stage "the infant's activities, physical and intellectual shortage detail and his activities and attention are dominated by exterior stimulation" Piaget underlines that the initial instincts - including the influence of perception, flavor, touch, and reading- of folks are the most powerful and it is they which make their personalities on the whole.
Jean Piaget thinks that children are no less intellectual than parents, nonetheless they think in another way. From the very moment of labor and birth of every child he must do a lot of things: to understand how people interact and the way the complete world works, therefore we guess that they are less emotionally powerful. Indeed, children have significantly more intricate brain skills than men and women, so if to consider this advice as a starting point you'll be able to overestimate our ways of coaching and educating.
The maturational theory of Arnold Gesell, which is seen as a biological perspective, is based on the belief that every child has a particular plan or program within his body as for his development. Gesell was persuaded that heredity or dynamics has an initial influence on the introduction of a kid.
Gesell is well known for creating certain norms for children at every level of their expansion and developed the so-called "gradients of development". Among them we might find: motor characteristics, personal health, fears, emotional appearance, play, university life, ethics, and philosophic perspective.
Gesell assumed that the development of the child through either education or play should be spontaneous. He suggested that through the span of evolution children inherited some type of code which recommended their activities and needs, so if the parent wants to help his child o find his life avenue the simplest way is always to allow child choose it himself.
The key similarity in the developmental theories of Jean Piaget and Arnold Gesell is based on their belief in the dominance of dynamics over nurture. Both theorists also developed original systems of calculating either the levels of child development or the signals of their growth. Moreover it is required to point out that the three theories are promoting effective conversation of tutors and children in the process with their development although matching to each one of the ideas their work is diversely directed.
Unlike Vygotsky's thought that cultural learning should obviously precede the development Piaget considered that learning was less important thing in the kid development - the main impact instead he noticed in nature. Also it is necessary to mention that Vygotsky paid much more focus on the socio-cultural factors in child development than other theorists. However the ideas of Gesell and Piaget are as well in many aspects, the difference is that Piaget underlined the major influence of sensorimotor stage on child development while Gesell presumed much in heredity, i. e. Piaget managed that the child cannot enter another level until he fulfills the prior one, while Gesell was sure that child would be whom he should be due to the biological program within his body.
Analyzing the theories of child development makes us ponder over need for effective connections of cognitive, physical and emotional interaction in the process of development of children. When it concerns fact unless each one of these aspects are properly achieved the kid has fewer chances to realize her or him in life as it is needed. Cognitive development refers to memory, awareness, attention and imagination. It helps children to do well at school, goal, pretend what they'll be in future, model different life situations, understand and use symbols, count and even write compositions. Overall cognitive development is essential for a child to resolve their problems at every stage of the development. Proper physical development is responsible for children's coordination, engine skills and other physical skills. Emotional development helps children to own such features as self-regulation, self-sufficiency, self-concept and proper self-esteem. Only if the previous areas of development are in proper level child has chances to produce a positive and healthy self-image. The main point is that poor physical development may impact badly the level of attention or even ram of a kid which would certainly lead to problems at institution and thus to under-self-estimation. And vice versa: if a child is badly developed emotionally he may be unaggressive and ignorant that may lead to poor physical and cognitive development. Therefore relationship of physical, mental and cognitive development is of major importance both for tutors and children.
Evidently knowing the concepts of forming of the child's personality is of great importance both for parents, professors and psychologists. Unless we realize the needs of the child or an adolescent at the particularly level of his development we will scarcely be able to help him. Knowing the main element milestones of the development at child's age group it is possible to evaluate his or her physical, cognitive and psychological development and find the simplest way fro every concrete child to boost each aspect. It really is far more important nowadays, when children have access to the media, computers and Internet and can themselves find all the answers(as it seems to them) to their questions, so they seldom ask their tutors how to resolve their problems - instead they make decisions independently, often no the most affordable ones. In such situations it is particularly valuable to be aware of the peculiarities of development of children as of this age and what problems most of them usually face. It goes without saying that knowing norms of children and adolescents will help to find satisfactory advice to market children to attain their potential in life.
All the three ideas of child development became affordable and useful. We found out that Lev Vygotsky's theory was based mostly on socio-cultural factors of development. The theorist presumed that learning preceded development and this made the key difference between his theory and the theory of Jean Piaget who was sure the child's potential depended on the introduction of his senses and intuition first of all. Another prominent theorist Arnold Gesell was sure characteristics dominated over nurture too and his key strategy was that heredity was absolutely in charge of the introduction of particular child. Gesell and Piaget even developed their own systems of evaluating of either the levels of child development or the indications of their progress. Although the theories are different in many aspects, every of these is aimed on effective conversation between tutors and children and this is the key value of each of them. It's important to be able to realize the needs of children and adolescents to help them in reaching their potential. In this process it's important to each a well-organized connection between cognitive, physical and mental development of children.