Cruel Tale of Youngsters (1960) by Nagisa Oshima reveals a graphic of youth which was unseen in Japanese movie theater. Turim express it as a suggestive symbolically imagery, of foreclosed spaces and sadistic, violent turmoil delimiting the desire for human relationship (Turim, 1998, p. 35). This leads us to the question of how far Oshima gone in reinventing the image of children and how far he negotiated the area for children inside the film and on the market.
Nagisa Oshima emerged as a filmmaker in the late 1950s, a period when the sociable scenery of Japan was significantly changing and was highly politicized. His introduction as a young filmmakers goes parallel with the introduction of youngsters in Japanese videos. He, by his provocative politicized issues and engagement of youth and their turmoil, consolidated the development of reflecting modern day youth. His films as Turim describes:
Oshima's films symbolize a working commentary, direct and indirect, on the intellectual and politics life of postwar Japan. (Turim, 1998, p. 1)
Oshima's Cruel Story of Junior is a film which deals with identity and identification of children in post Occupation Japan. The id crisis which this film treads into experienced direct implication from the changes in politics and world. The identification of Japanese culture was much debated and eventually remanufactured by various political and societal ideologies. This not only resulted in a tussle in the political sphere but also produced politics over its representation. In both spheres, Oshima was negotiating a space with his depiction of youngsters in Cruel Report of Youth; he was in a dialogue with modern culture by his ambivalent politics remarks as well as with the industry when you are intertextual to existing work.
The paper would look into how Oshima through this film was speaking with society with regard with the alienation of youngsters in the sociable sphere with a deep sense of id loss, and with the industry because of its representational politics of this displaced youth, simultaneously negotiating space for youth both inside and outside the film.
The storyline of cruel history of children is complex and sad. The storyplot is of two young delinquents, Makoto and Kiyoshi in pursuit of their specific life, entering into the series of events involving passion crime and money. The film starts off with Kiyoshi rescuing Makoto from a middle aged businessman, only to find this experience a source for earning money as well. The quick romantic, innocent idea of love soon becomes an obsession with crime. Inside the tale many disillusioned heroes are appear and using their indifference with Japanese culture are depicted as victims of a materialistic pursuit of lifestyle. Protagonists are shown constantly fighting because of their space with other persona and society generally. And unlike other characters fail to succumb to victim awareness and in the long run through group of disturbing event are dead almost unapologetically. The storyplot is further tormented and complicated by Oshima's treatment of anti-humanist and nihilistic strategy.
The question of identity in post-war Japan is a politics and social sensation which cannot be ignored while evaluating the Japanese theatre of that time. Cinema which we see in postwar Japan and all the genres it produced resonates one common matter; a concern which stems away of complexity of real truth for postwar Japanese world and their democratic independence under American occupation. The thought of Japaneseness which people were trying to figure out was problematized by the presence of various conflicts; the issue between modernity and traditional Japaneseness, the turmoil of Japaneseness with traditional western values, the conflict between a nationalistic/ patriotic way of presence with a democratic one. These conflicts coincided with each other and acquired implications for each aspect and section of society, including women and the junior. But was the nuclear beat the conjuncture which made the thought of Japaneseness complicated and complicated? As Stringer highlights that Japan's entrance in to the modern world and the subsequent import of european values had not been after the defeat and through the job, but was a continuing process which dates back to the Emperor's routine. However he consolidates the debate that defeat and job under Basic MacArthur provided a kind of break in the life of japan polity. He further elaborates, "Postwar the Japanese commenced to negotiate the limits of their politics community from a posture of ethnical subjection and disorientation, bounded within the intellectual world of Western liberal and democratic thought. " (Stringer, 1997, p. 135)
The collapse of the Emperor's business, coupled with beat and job, put the Japanese society's patriotic idea of presence into a test, with an overwhelming current of American thought in culture, economics and politics. As Stringer suggests that the Hegelian notion of a modern state, which depends upon the idea of patriotic that belong with their state, was tough to realize in the democratic environment of post warfare Japan. The sudden shift in the idea of existence for the Japanese polity didn't actually carry the prevailing patriotic sentiment which people acquired with the prior routine, and in the wake of american intellectual dominance, individuals and intellects had to struggle in order to reconfigure their bond with Japan. This identity crisis was pretty much obvious in Japanese theatre which came out after the battle as the profession forces attempted changing the face of Japanese movie theater by bringing in American worth into Japanese film. As Richie records that script writers were instructed never to depict Japanese traditional and feudal traditions which were going against the thought of democracy; further they were asked to show society not as it was but as it would be after successful democratization. (Richie, 1990, pp. 41, 42, 43)
The post-occupation Japanese polity, left with imported western political and cultural thought, were required to force its trajectory towards a liberal democratic convert. The thought of a modern talk about as Stringer points out is superimposed with the Hegelian ideals of individuality, which depends on the occurrence of the 'Other', upon which the identity of their state is realized; however in the Japanese context, this was quite difficult to achieve. Stringer, further building after the Hegelian notion of human freedom dependent on the existence of family, civil population and talk about, which is crucial because of its realization, shows that these ideals for the Hegelian condition could be traced back again to prewar modern Japanese intellect, although the civil modern culture was largely absent in the family-state agreement before. However, the post war period under the occupational reform observed the immaterialization of the aspirations of japan polity to achieve a Hegelian express. Additionally, reforms like land reform, reform of the civil and family codes favouring gender equality and individual privileges, created a mass of folks ready to pursue their specific realizations amidst the challenging environment of Japanese politics. The remaining wing protests up against the economic and politics coverage stems out of the dilemma within every sphere of life. (Stringer, 1997, pp. 137-8, 143-4)
Stringer cites the quest for subjectivity in the postwar period as another inability of Japanese culture towards Westernization, which he asserts lacked the Japanese principle of self-determination. This led to the spread of the individualistic, consumerist design of lifestyle in Japan, which almost negated the idea of Japanese communal life. These changes via commercialization and urbanization could also be seen as a society failing to organize into a far more plural and heterogeneous conformation. Further, this also led to a kind of alienation or de-politicization of the Japanese people who have the politics of identification, especially after the renewal of japan Security Treaty with the U. S. , which covered the beliefs of the degree of co-option with the Western world. (Stringer, 1997, pp. 144-5)
Oshima's early on work plus more specifically, his Cruel Report of Youth presents a commentary and a critique of the changes taking place in the 50's and 60's. He, because they build an allegorical, unapologetic, anti-humanist, citational narrative of characters physically situated in 1960's Japan, and occasions displaced all over the postwar period, reflects upon the discourse of id in Japan. The sociable and political changes during this era may be located in Oshima's Cruel Storyline of Youth in almost as erratic a means as they actually took place in Japanese culture, sometimes upfront and sometimes symbolically disguised.
Going back to Oshima's storyline, many repercussions of the social reconfiguration of that time suppose an important role. First the institution of family; young families present in the film were depicted as nuclear and dysfunctional, much of which is juxtaposed with surviving in an urban modern Japan. The protagonist, Kiyoshi's family is not known except for the time when his brother involves bail him out of jail. Makoto's family is somewhat similar, the daddy and the two daughters do not appear to talk about a harmonious connection, and more so the conflict with the ideals and beliefs of each specific is very apparent. The portrayal of metropolitan nuclear families in this way points to the isolation of the young ones in both conditions of Makoto and Kiyoshi, with the continuity of days gone by. Way more, the incapability with their respective family members to be of any help to the main character types reflects upon the extreme quest for individuality, which experienced left the organization of family redundant for the young ones in democratic contemporary society.
Another facet of this social change which Oshima was commenting upon, was the increasing unforgiving mother nature of contemporary society that the youngsters had to deal with. Within the film, the culture depicted will not end up being a support system for the junior who are being marginalized within an urban city space. Instead, the culture in this film is depicted as a puzzled entity, powerfully powered by money and materialistic dreams and needs. There is not a single personality in this film that is not entrapped in some way or the other, by the culture and the energy of money in the modern culture. The film space generally speaking is entrapped by pushes governed by money. Both protagonists are functioning in a system in which their existence automatically gets attached with money and are rendered in a helpless situation resulting in powerless reactions to various incidents. The sequence, in which Kiyoshi rescues Makoto from a middle aged businessman, eventually ends in the businessman providing him money. This event is further connected in the later series when Kiyoshi and Makoto venture out in a motorcycle to the beach to escape their dull, every day lives. The manner in which money creates this sequence suggests that the children invariably find identification with the favorite notion of a consumeristic culture (motorcycle and motorboat). However, Oshima, by showing Kiyoshi and Makoto in standard living situations (Kiyoshi's cheap apartment) emphasizes the dreams of the children which is enclosed in materialistic pursuit and trapped in the urbanized city space.
This entrapment in modern culture is attractively depicted in the series where Makoto and Kiyoshi, after coming out from jail try to get away from from Mrs. Sakaguchi, depicted as a symbol of entrapment in their lives, who will try to follow them. Oshima, in a very craftily constructed world seems to give them some momentarily concessions for a while but eventually, almost brutally, in an apparently comical shot in the film, squeezes any respite the personas might have got, by showing them without enough money even to cover the taxi, they were escaping in. Ironically, Mrs. Sakaguchi comes and pays off the fare. This kind of helplessness ascribed to character types questions the escapability from the materialistic contemporary society.
Further, the penetration of money in the lives of the people is also extended to their physical website. Makoto, by modeling as bait for middle aged businessmen, commodifies her sexual interaction. In the same way, Kiyoshi's unwilling sexual relationship with Mrs. Sakaguchi reflects another entrapment he had into enter for the money. Oshima needs this regards to another allegorical level when Kiyoshi were required to sleeping with her to be able to get money for Makoto's abortion. Inside the dialogue which follows, Mrs. Sakaguchi instructs him about the abortion she got for him. This emotion deprived sequence reflects upon the compromises Kiyoshi needed to make to be able to reside in.
These self-reflexive images in Cruel Account of Junior, point towards attempt which Oshima was endeavoring to make. His jarring imagery of the young ones present the cruel story of many children had to face, who were remaining abandoned by the next changes in the modern Japanese sphere of life, where in fact the omnipresence of money was crushing the ideals of modern culture. Having said that, this Japanese identity governed by money, was the result of the discord between imported ideas of state and politics, and traditional Japanese beliefs.
Coming to the politics within the film, Oshima Nagisha's gesture of the insertion of protest footage contrary to the Security Treaty with the U. S. , not only politicized the film space but also factors towards the idea of sovereignty, that was tampered with in Japan, reeling to maintain patriotic sentiment in post-war period. Inside a population where modernization was overlapping with Westernization and the intake of traditional western culture was at his height, the nationalistic connection with modernizing their state seemed a hardcore task for a typical youth. In this case, a era was by default still left without continuity from days gone by, as in the politics and protest were eventually moving in vain, and the aspirations of the previous generation did not match the beliefs which got set up. This intricate situation is very much obvious in Cruel Tale of Youth and therefore this makes it a political film. The beginning credit sequence begins with a blurred collage of paper cuttings, with vivid red letters showing the titles. This, along with the insertion of the footage of politics protest in South Korea and in Japan up against the renewal of the U. S. -Japan Security Treaty makes the topic matter of the film hook up to the politics of the modern day times, however the jarring way in which these footages show up conceal more than what these are actually point towards. The importance of the footages inside the film, to some extent, seems very restricted; although they bring in the socio-political timeline of the film, nevertheless they keep politics faraway from the protagonist. One reason which Yoshimoto asserts for clubbing the Korean protest footage into the film seems 'metonymic displacement', which consequently does not really have political relevance with the story and the people in the film, but can be seen as a pointer on the absent image of japan Prime Minister, Kishi Nobusuke. (Yoshimoto, 2007, p. 174) However, another reason which Keser highlights lies in fact of the lifestyle of the children depicted in the film, who were born in the urbanized, westernized and materialistic Japan, and were disconnected with regional politics and occurrences in Korea. (Keser) Further, as Yoshimoto cites, the talk between Makoto's sister and her ex-boyfriend about the post conflict battles places the political situation of 1960's Japan in historical perspective. (Yoshimoto, 2007)
Oshima's portrayal of the previous era of Makoto's sister, her ex-lover Akimoto and Makoto's father, also present various historical tales of postwar Japan. The increased loss of dreams in the postwar era, who thought in the democratic worth of freedom, can be seen in the scene where Makoto's father presents a monologue on his generation's increasing disillusionment after the initial expectations of the postwar period. "Times were hard after the war, but we thought we'd a better life-style, that we were reborn as a democratic region, that responsibility travelled together with freedom, but what may i say to this child now? What have we to offer?"
Similarly, for Makoto's sister and Akimoto, who were part of the remaining wing protest in 1952, experienced their own editions of postwar Japan. Their targets did not materialize and their beliefs were discontinued. This event was seen from a future lens heading back into the history, and then dissect the superficiality as well as the fragility of their idea of world. Both Akimoto and Makoto's sister are shown as disillusioned and are compelled to handle fact. Makoto's sister will this by giving Akimoto for a wealthier man and Akimoto resorts to practicing illegal abortions.
Hence, the contribution of Cruel Report of Young ones in the discourse of postwar Japanese personal information can be seen as highly didactic; the film functions as a loosely linked reportage of situations, which has complicated the question of personal information for the Japanese youngsters and has pressed them into materialistic isolation.
The identity that was difficult for Japanese culture was equally sophisticated for the industry and the directors working within it. Oshima's early work experienced few distantly linked precursors to it and had several repercussions. First there was an industry which recovered from the war and the postwar period, and then in the 1950s come to what's known as its Golden Heights. With film going international, popularity for filmmakers and studios, along with money kept to arrive. But even for the industry, the post war reality was challenging to support in the whirlwinds of internationalization, and we see motion pictures like Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon and Honda's Gozirra, which were to some extent echoing the irreconcilable nature of fact and actuality which Japanese world was witnessing.
Similarly, the youngsters in culture was facing a highly politicized series of incidents, which, post Japanese defeat, kept on happening; they include Profession, the go up of still left wing politics, democratization, Americanization, the Security Treaty with the U. S. These occasions, to an extremely large extent, engaged the young ones and were definitely affecting their identity. This, in conjunction with the marginalization of the youth, both in terms of film space in the film and young filmmakers on the market, resulted in a discontent against the programming of motion pictures in the studio system. Further towards the end of the 1950s, with the development in television set, the film industry was facing a distinct drop. As Richie argues, this discontent amidst young people employed in the industry, the unprofitability of videos with many cinemas being closed down, and the increasing level of popularity of television, led to the introduction of a fresh kind of movie theater in Japan. (Richie, 1990, p. 64) As he further records upon this development:
Film companies were thus inclined to listen to young, dissatisfied directors, something they would not have done ten years earlier or, for example, a decade later. Claims that Japanese movies offered no real reflection of Japanese life, that Mizoguchi was engeki-teki (stagey) and Ozu furukisai (traditional), were paid attention to with patience. (Richie, 1990, p. 64)
However, filmmakers like Kurosawa and Tadeshi have make videos about the junior and since Yoshimoto advises, the youth came out in movies as a distinct theme after the warfare itself in videos like Kurosawa's No Regret for Our Youth, but as he asserts further, they were confirming the idea of a new democratic starting for the youngsters and for world generally. (Yoshimoto, 2007, p. 170) What followed was the appearance of Taiyozoku or 'sun tribe movies' which made the youth as the theme more apparent. These videos which comes from Ishihara Shintaro's novella 'Season of the Sun', depicted modern day youth, intimacy and violence, and additional resonated the styles and motif of this novella.
The emergence of 'sun tribe videos' revolutionalized the trajectory of the depiction of modern-day youth. This could be viewed as the first sign of rebellion within the industry on the representation of youngsters. These films offered a different children that was urbanized, modern and materialistic. The legend of these motion pictures, Yujiro became the new social icon of the post war generation. These films were increasing the boundaries of the depiction of love-making and violence in the machine. Although these videos were few, but their presence marks the switch within the representation of youth, which was taken further by filmmakers like Oshima.
As Yoshimoto implies Oshima's Cruel Report of Youth carried forward a few of the motifs of 'sun tribe videos', like young ones rebel against modern culture and men and women, a generational difference and the lack of a patriarchal authority. However, Cruel History of Young ones is not really a typical youth film, which is evident not only in its unpredictable style, but also in the very theory and conflicts that the film addresses. The film depicts the youth not simply as a interpersonal phenomenon that should be criticized from the positioning of a faraway observer, but as dynamic agents of action in postwar Japanese population. Further, although Oshima admits to sun-tribe movies marking a change in the depiction of children, he considers the children rebellion in these videos as superficial, which do not understanding the socio-political context of the restlessness of children, and are shown to grapple with rather conservative, outdated problems such as parent-child romantic relationships or sibling rivalry. Often, the heroes of such videos are then converted into dutiful sons. In Cruel Account of Children, however, such co-optation is absent. In fact, the absence of family support in the film, makes the protagonists face the situation as individuals. (Yoshimoto, 2007)
The design of filmmaking we connect with Oshima is very often compared with directors from the French new wave, and his expansion as a director coincides with the go up of auteur in film theory. Yes, definitely what surfaced in the late 1950s in Japan and carried on for few ages, for ease of historical categorization, could be grouped as 'Japanese New Wave' equivalent to 'French New influx. Without a doubt it acquired some stylistic commonness with the French New Influx and these films, especially Cruel Story of Junior was promoted as Japanese New Wave.
Although Oshima's trajectory of filmmaking from film criticism was quite similar to the French New Wave filmmakers like Godard, Rivette and Truffaut, but unlike them there was a huge disconnect among the filmmakers who were grouped as Japanese New Influx.
As Keser highlights that even Oshima dismissed this term, Japanese New Influx as mere marketing methods deployed by the industry to market films involving youngsters, sex and violence. (Keser) He describes Oshima's attempt as:
His goal was to bring to the top the invisible currents of repression and shame, concealed under tradition, in every their contradictory and "cruel" vitality, providing neither comic break free valves nor strategies for easy recognition or facile Freudian subconscious resolutions. (Keser)
Oshima's treatment of this film experienced many unconventional traits attached to it. His notion of taking the camera away from the tripod was an attempt not only to make the imagery close to realism but also an effort to make it suggestive of cinematic liberation, which he/filmmakers were seeking to attain with the studio room system. Further, this idea of liberation was superimposed with handheld jittery camera movement depicting protest, consolidating the debate that Oshima was attaching ideals of political liberation with cinematic liberation.
By the use of footage displaced in space and time and the referential remark to various videos and incidents from Japanese population, Oshima was rejecting the genre movie theater. Yoshimoto suggests that this film was also a dialogue with founded filmmakers, in terms of its intertexuality. He cites these components of intertextuality in the film through: Akimoto's remark, 'For our vanished youth!' as the antithesis of the theme of Kurosawa's No Regrets for Our Youngsters, Makoto and Kiyoshi sitting down on the seashore with Ozu's character types, Shukichi and Tomi from Tokyo Storyline, Kiyoshi and Makoto speeding down the street in a motorcycle with the images from Masumura's Kisses. (Yoshimoto, 2007, p. 178)
But then that which was Oshima doing with Cruel Story of Junior? This calls for further scrutiny of his work in terms of that which was depicted, what was recommended and apparently concealed in the film. Somewhat Oshima's work could be seen in the Foucaultdian sense of authorship, who was simply constructing a intricate counter-top hegemonic narrative of youngsters up till 1960. (Foucault, 1979) He was an auteur who was by his writing and movies, was projecting a graphic of children by breaking the appearance and convention of Japanese cinema.
As Oshima writes:
We must demolish the illusion that motion pictures are characterized by the level storytelling of the naturalist book and affirm that what is cinematic is vibrant fiction and free composition. Next, we must do away with the naturalism within each shot and in the way the photos are linked (Oshima, 1992)
Building upon his written discussion he creates this cruel storyline which is extremely post-structuralist in both content and form. The debate about rethinking the medium, which Oshima was promoting along with nihilistic, almost anti-humanist personality of junior he craved out, didn't give much redemption to the audience. Redemption was also deprived to the key character types in the motion pictures, Makoto and Kiyoshi, who weren't able to redeem themselves and in the closing sequence were useless separately. This statement not only implies the tragic result children were facing amidst the crisis of personality but also reflects a severe discontinuity using their company past.
This unredeemed end was another depiction which most Japanese videos of that time averted. Yoshimoto describes it as victim awareness that was new and barely observed in any previous movie aside from A Japanese tragedy(1953), also made at Shochiku. Yoshimoto advises this as a deliberate make an effort by Oshima to surpass this notion of victim id. He describes the "primary drive behind Oshima's cinematic practice in the early times of his job was to change Japanese movie theater into an intellectually powerful power much like the art, literature and critical discourse that possessed enormous impact on Japanese post battle public impression. " (Yoshimoto, 2007, p. 177) He further implies it to be part of Oshima's self-conscious project to reject the product of both the studio system as well as leftist filmmakers as commoditized entertainment and the illustration of leftist ideals. His attempt with motion pictures and the film culture he was striving to develop was to beat the victim consciousness and also to develop real subjectivity. (Yoshimoto, 2007)
Cruel story of youth will get over this victim consciousness; in the world where Makoto is resting in Akimoto's clinic, Kiyoshi rejects the thought of being the victim, somewhat protests against the victim consciousness of once pupil activist Akimoto. He, in protest, continues on biting an apple before Makoto in an extended take sustained of over four minutes. This gesture combined with the generational confrontation he had with Makoto's sister and Akimoto was defiance to the prior generation, who he thought had succumbed to being truly a victim and experienced shrugged almost all their responsibility in beat to money's unrelenting power in the contemporary society. This remark further consolidates the idea of Oshima's talk with the past era. He was trying to challenge the value system that the previous generation adopted; whether it is war, Occupation or the failing of an protest movement, the prior generation has found refuge in being a victim, which Oshima is at no mood to provide to his protagonists. This also could be observed as his dialogue with other filmmakers who had been engaged in this kind of portrayal.
Another thing which Oshima was countering was the representational politics of political subject in the film; his insertion as mentioned before was although making inkling to politics around contemporary society but at the same time was not letting it be engaged with the protagonists in the film straight. As Yoshimoto records that together foregrounding politics and concealing modern day socio politics issues could be looked at as Oshima's critique of the leftist post-war theatre by filmmakers like Yamamoto Satsuo and Imai Tadeshi. These films either shown the protagonist with victim's awareness or offered them self-righteously condemning a communal injustice by corrupt government bodies. (Yoshimoto, 2007) Rather Oshima makes the politics in film very ambiguous and the character types in the film, politically either disconnected like Makoto and Kiyoshi, or opportunist like Kiyoshi's friend Ito, Makoto's sister and her friend from the protest time Akimoto.
Another theme which comes away differently in the film is that of love and desire. Oshima's depiction of love and intimate relationship was new; his use of these motifs as slave to the forces of world, normalize the ambiguity in the nature of children interacting in modern metropolitan space. Filmmakers in post war Japan experienced many means of depicting the subject of connections, in the changing nature of principles in the modern culture, many portrayals emerged and received normalized, but Oshima's attempt was not to associate this subject matter with any kind of value system and heroism. As Keser records, relationships minimize across generations and characters, and in a very anti-romantic view of marriage Oshima weaves them in a story where their physical interconnection is linked in a disillusioned, opportunistic, nihilistic way. (Keser)Further, the lack of emotional space for the people to comprehend their relation brings about psychologically deprived consumeristic design of love.
Oshima's rebellion with industry, which although started out with films like Cruel Report of Junior, made under the studio system for Shochiku, lasted beyond it. How have his films created the activity he wished to bring in representation politics of youngsters in Japanese cinema? His films definitely brought a transfer towards more self-reflexive cinema containing contemporary youngsters. He placed the level for his next film which was overtly politics about postwar politics and participation of children in it. Keser asserts his use of intimate motifs in this film as providing a precursor to pinku genre. He links this plausible reference to sequences inside the motion pictures, "This film's soft-core sexual tussles in grubby scholar lodgings and hourly-rate love hotels laid the groundwork for the emergence of the teasing pinku-eiga genre of erotic movies in 1962, a form which would soon account for 70 percent of Japanese film creation. " (Keser) He also connects movies like Shohei Imamura's Pigs and Battleships( 1961), Hiroshi Teshigahara's Female in the Dunes(1964), Seijun Suzuki Fighting with each other Elegy, (1966) and Yoshishige Yoshida Eros Plus Massacre, (1970) with the legacy of Cruel Tale of Youth, in term of exploring the question of countrywide id with 'surreal means and forms'. (Keser)
Oshima's Cruel Tale of Youth got a significant contribution in the negation of space for young filmmakers. Space for politics in film definitely increased after this film; more than it, the area for film where politics is not supplied from a leftist or humanist perspective, but from an extremely nihilistic perspective acquired founded. The politics over the identity of modern-day youth which started with the 'Sun Tribe videos' was further taken up to a polemical level, where Oshima was looking to press upon the idea of depicting the children without any moral or ideological lens.
Oshima's dialogue with population and with industry, which comes out through his early films, especially with Cruel Story of Junior marks the starting of his representational politics with the machine. His highly symbolic almost amoral account lines, linked deeply with politics and world, with his filmography writes a counter-hegemonic narrative of societal change, changes in the individuality of Japanese subject and on the trajectory of Japanese modernist ambition. Cruel Account of Youth reveals a critique on modern modern Japanese intellectual and also brings out the inability of modern Japanese point out envisaged since the post-war period. His things dealing with modern day youngsters and isolation within the machine, questions the thought of youth amidst the contemporary political discourse about modern Japan. Turim describes his early on are:
These wide-screen features all concentrate on contemporary Japanese youngsters. They are indeed "cruel tales, " to cite the title of 1, anti-humanist and anti-realist, where passionate figuration is systematically decentered. The "towns" that Oshima depicts, Osaka, Kyoto, Tokyo, haven't any love or anticipation suspended as wrong promises prior to the contemporary spectator. Instead, Oshima steps us by using a night and fog specific to a Japan whose growing sun has been buried in the foreseeable future of its illusions. This dystopic rage fills the long horizontals of Oshima's movies. (Turim, 1998, p. 27)
Simultaneously, Oshima troubles the genre theatre of contemporary Japan by not sticking to any genre convention. His post-structuralist narrative can be corresponded with directors of French New wave, but its indigenous dynamics in terms of the proximity with the subject subject and efficiency in controlling it, helps it be, his creativity and legacy.
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