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Social and Health Inequalities in New Zealand

Ingrid Happiness M. Castaneda

A. DEMOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATIONS

According to the reports of New Zealand, 86% of the complete human population are settling in the Urban Areas which are further classified into 72% moving into the main urban area, 6% in the supplementary urban area and the remaining 8% in the modest metropolitan area, while, 14% of the country's population resides in the rural area. If we are to associate this to the people's access to health, it is safe to say that those in the urban areas have better usage of health care services and treatment compared to those in the rural area. That is permitted because the metropolitan area offers better job opportunities as well as interpersonal and educational potentials thus beginning the brains of the metropolitan dwellers to the importance and access to health services. Apart from this, the development of the cities is gearing towards a location with opportunities of activities and social connection and renewable space.

In comparability to the opportunities that the urban dwellers enjoy in regards to to the gain access to of health services, the rural dwellers have limited access. Although health services are available in the area, vehicles to visit health centres and facilities might be an issue thus requiring additional time and money to allow them to benefit from the health services. Apart from these, the work opportunities in the rural areas are limited thus the majority of the income of the household would go to housing and basic needs thus placing health as minimal of the priorities if not, never.

B. POLITICAL VALUES

The political ideals of any person are attained through the procedure of political socialisation. In New Zealand, just like any country, people acquire their politics values of their immediate family (initially, the parents), from university, the press, friends, work, travel and using their own personal experience. (Levine, 2012)

Political prices can be a determinant to health planning, execution and analysis of interventions in the sense that the value or the worthiness that the federal government places on the entire health of the country will have an effect on the budget and quality and efficiency of health services that they are happy to provide to their people.

Democracy, the Guideline of Law, protection by authorities, fairness and equality and credibility are a few of the political values that are common among New Zealanders and this goes with the value that the government places on health which this country considers as one of its priority. Because of this the brand new Zealand Ministry of Health in continually finding the methods to disseminate information regarding health services that are available for their areas and making access to these services easier for his or her people without discrimination.

C. Faith based BELIEFS

Researches and studies have been conducted through the years and there's a significant romance between health and a person's religion. Religious practices occasionally relates to healthy living, how one perceives health issues and loss of life and these could sometimes be a hindrance to obtaining the necessary health interventions that the general public and/or health professionals might deem necessary.

The majority of the country's populace are Christians, approximately 44. 3% and generally speaking there are no restrictions on the dietary plan, even though some would practice fasting, such as abstinence from eating meat through the holy week or during Fridays. Some would also abstain from eating before receiving the Holy Communion. Views and stand on family planning may vary from one religion to the other but there are no restrictions on organ transplant and/or blood vessels transfusions. As the person owned by the Roman Catholic faith, I could say that my religious belief and practices are not a lot of a determinant to health but in order to be healthy, one must possess the knowledge, information and the dedication to live a wholesome lifestyle and get appropriate health interventions.

On the other palm the Buddhist and the Islam making up 1. 4% and 1. 1% respectively of the populace have restrictions in their diet. The Buddhists maintain a wholesome and simple lifestyle and are vegetarian and Islam as well, has a "no-pork" diet thus both faith have a diet that is mainly of vegetable which is a more healthy food group. According to the New Zealand Ministry of Health, Ischemic Heart Disease is the leading cause of mortality which is an illness that is highly associated with lifestyle.

D. Individual VALUES

There are a number of human principles and the values that are important to 1 person vary from the other person although lots of folks may value the same things. The group of values one holds may change with time and age group.

To make a much clearer justification of the impact of human being prices on health, I am going to use the individuals value of respect. Respect that are a simple phrase but it is of great importance in life standard. I will focus on the respect of life. Whenever we value and respect the life that people have we will try to manage it and we may then relate this with the worthiness that we place on health. One way of respecting your body that people have is to take care of it by living a wholesome lifestyle which would likewise incorporate a healthy diet and utilize the necessary health interventions that would assist in the promotion, improvement and maintenance of health and one's well-being.

E. ETHNICITY

In New Zealand 44% of the populace is of Western european Ethnicity, with 14. 1% is of Maori descent, 11. 3% of Asian descent, 7. 6% of Pacific Island descent, 1. 1% includes the Latin North american, Middle Eastern, African, while 1. 6% are of another descent with 5. 4% that is not mentioned or unidentified.

The ethnicity a person belongs to also influences how she or he sees health in every its aspect. In such a section, I will consider the reports on unemployment and connect it to health planning, execution and intervention. By 2013, the best rate of unemployment is among the Maori which is 12. 1%, then accompanied by the Pacific with a rating of 11. 8% and minimal among the Europeans which is merely 4. 9%. With income comes the ability and finances to obtain the requirements of daily living. When a household have sufficient income they can easily access health care interventions plus they can contain the sufficient funds to cover items which may be beneficial to health like the right nutrition, activities and recreations, education, etc.

F. TRADITIONS

Traditions too have an impact on the health of the people. These are the group of practices and beliefs that are passed down from one technology to the other. These practices may highly influence how one views health, medical routines and interventions they are willing to accept. Like the traditions of the Moko (tattoo) of the Maori, this is done originally by using a range of uhi (chisels) made from the albatross bone however now it is performed with the use of tattoo machine, this may pose some risk to health placing oneself vunerable to the transmitting of disease through the fine needles use and also there could be instances for one to have an allergic attack from obtaining ta moko.

It has been a area of the traditions of the pacific visitors to have the extended family residing in the same home. To them this is actually the unity of a family. This may be an advantage for some point because family can take care of one another but on the other end, this may pose to be always a health determinant. Predicated on the reports the Pacific Islanders have a higher rate of employment thus this would mean that they may have less if not no income source to truly have a ideal home for the complete family. In cases like this, then your house wouldn't normally have the area enough for everybody, thus when living conditions are not good this would be a determinant to health, viral infections can certainly be transmitted from one family member to the other as well as the right nutritional food intake may not be performed with a limited source of income that is to be shared with numerous people.

TASK 1. 2

  1. PUBLIC IDEA OF HEALTH

As the country's development of society changes so will the concept of health for each nation. During the early on years health was not given a lot of an importance. It had been limited by the family and not the city. But as the years pass, there's been a major finding in the field of medication and the id of new health issues and diseases that may be related to the changes in environment and lifestyle.

The 21st century markings the time when health is seen by the general public not as a simple issue but is a shared endeavour. Health issues have been given the right attention so it deserves, and solutions have become multi-sectoral and multidisciplinary.

In general most Kiwis are now becoming health conscious giving rise to the switch of non-meat diet, organic diet as well as health recognition and maintenance programs and activities. Universities are now encouraging children to participate in activities and incorporate in their curriculum health understanding activities. This attitude towards health has a good impact on the planning and execution of health. Health programs are being catered to the needs of the general public as well as these programs and services have become holistic in nature, it tries to handle issues not merely on physical health but as well as emotional, social and spiritual health of the general public.

  1. PUBLIC IDEA OF ILLNESS

Since the general public now is becoming a lot more matter on health, they attended to view condition as something that needs to be prevented. People now slowly understand the consequences of health problems, people views health issues as a destroyer, it isolates you from culture and enables you to incapable of doing the things that can make them normal or accepted locally.

To some people, when they experience a certain health issues, this isn't the finish of everything. People continue steadily to have the trust they can still live a standard way of living despite of their health problems and that there are interventions that can health them in doing so.

Now condition is not simply seen by the public as something that is included with age, but rather people are actually more aware that some ailments are due to our lifestyle which includes the food we consume, the activities we do and even the surroundings that people dwell in.

  1. IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH

Health plays a essential role inside our day to day activities, for people here in New Zealand and anywhere else. Health is not only limited to the physical facet of life but also the subconscious, social and spiritual state of your body. All these aspects of living are interrelated with one another therefore they must reach degree of balance.

"Better health is central to human pleasure and well-being. It also makes an important contribution to financial progress, as healthy populations live much longer, are more productive, and save more. " (World Health Group, 2015)

The affirmation of the WHO is true atlanta divorce attorneys sense of its words. Whenever a person is within his leading of health this might imply that he has the mind and body to operate and fulfil his responsibilities and responsibilities to himself and his community. A wholesome being will have the capabilities to be fruitful and an asset to the contemporary society. A healthy body and mind will also imply less susceptibility to diseases and health problems thus he will be able to save the time and investment property on health services and interventions. Because of this the look and execution of health is not limited to curing the condition or illness but rather on elimination and maintenance of healthy mind and body.

  1. ATTITUDE TOWARDS HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS

I assume that the attitude one has towards health insurance and the doctors is highly related from personal activities. A good experience will have a confident impact on how one values health insurance and doctors and negative encounters will yield to negative response.

To cite an example, I'll use communication as one factor. The Maori has their own dialect and then for older people some may not have a variety of British vocabulary. In instances when they access healthcare there is high probability that medical issue they are trying to convey to medical professionals might not be properly realized, because of this, the health problem that the Maori is experiencing is not attended to therefore this might be a negative experience for the Maori. Since the Maori culture is family-oriented, the negative experience may be distributed among family thus developing a bad attitude towards health and medical professionals. Instances like these has a negative impact on the look and implementation of health involvement because this might make it hard for the public to take good thing about and trust the health services that it would be beneficial or best for them, keeping a close head about health because of their bad personal experience with health and health professionals. Goals and targets of health programs may not also be achieved.

TASK 1. 3

New Zealand is country that has a diverse culture, it houses a number of ethnic communities. It comes with an ageing society but at exactly the same time an increasing amount of migrants becoming citizens. Although the rate of unemployment is little basing from the entire population but the rate remains saturated in some ethnic group. Practices that are being practiced by different cultural groups also change and may in one way or another affect health. The connection between all these factors will have a significant impact on the look and applying of health interventions in New Zealand. The planning of health interventions should examine all areas of health that needs attention and who ought to be the major recipients. It should not only be limited by one group but should prolong to everybody. Inside the implementation level, it must consider how fast and effective it could be delivered to the public without discrimination. The sociable and social factors will also assist in determining medical issues that needs maximum prioritization. These health interventions should not be general in characteristics but be as personal and holistic as is feasible in order to achieve the set in place goals and goals as well as for everyone to attain their most effective health position.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

2010 The Community Statement. (n. d. ). Retrieved from Ministry of Social Development of new Zealand: http://www. socialreport. msd. govt. nz/people/distribution-population. html

New Zealand Demographics 2014. (2014, August 23). Retrieved April 6, 2015, from Index Mundi: http://www. indexmundi. com/new_zealand/demographics_profile. html

Dharma World Buddhust ADULTS. (2009). Basic Recommendations for Buddhist Practice. Retrieved April 8, 2015, from http://www. drby. net/index. php/New-to-Buddhism/basic-guidelines-for-buddhist-practice. html

Jenny Douglas, S. E. (2010). A Audience in Promoting Open public Health. United Kingdom: Sage Publication.

Levine, S. (2012, July 13). Political worth - New Zealand politics and politics beliefs', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved Apr 8, 2015, from http://www. TeAra. govt. nz/en/political-values/page-1

Ministry of Health. (2014, Oct 3). Major Causes of Death (All Ages). Retrieved April 8, 2015, from http://www. health. govt. nz/nz-health-statistics/health-statistics-and-data-sets/maori-health-data-and-stats/tatau-kahukura-maori-health-chart-book/nga-mana-hauora-tutohu-health-status-indicators/major-causes-death-all-ages

National Health Committee. (2010, January). Rural Health: Challenges of Distance Opportunities for Innovation. Retrieved April 2015, from http://www. nhc. health. govt. nz

Orme, J. P. (2007). Consumer Health for the 21st Century. United Kingdom: McGraw-Hill Education.

Statistics New Zealand. (2015, February). NZ Public Indicators. Retrieved Apr 2015, from http://www. stats. govt. nz/browse_for_stats/snapshots-of-nz/nz-social-indicators/Home/Labour%20market/unemployment. aspx

World Health Firm. (2015). Health and Development. Retrieved from http://www. who. int/hdp/en

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