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Smooth Muscle Contraction | Experiment

Background information on even muscles

Smooth muscle is one of three muscle fibers types within animals. Unlike skeletal and cardiac muscle cells, smooth muscle cells are not striated, and also have single nuclei. Soft muscles are typically in order of the autonomic anxious system, , nor contract voluntarily. Even muscle contracts little by little, and will not exhibit the characteristic twitch seen in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, simple muscle is not prone to muscle fatigue, making it an ideal element of sphincter muscles. Smooth muscle is situated in the gastrointestinal tract of several animals, which is accountable for peristaltic moves.

Smooth muscle contractions are afflicted by calcium and potassium ions. Calcium ion influx into the clean muscle cell initiates a contraction. Potassium ion awareness in the excess cellular medium affects the relaxing membrane probable of the cell, delivering it nearer to or farther away from its threshold voltage. Neurotransmitters affect different kinds of clean muscle differently, with regards to the association of the simple muscle with excitable skin cells. In general, acetylcholine escalates the muscle cell's permeability to calcium, while epinephrine lessens the cell's permeability to calcium.

Introduction and goal of the experiment

The following survey was to test a soft muscle that was accumulated from the intestine of the rabbit. The main of this test was to observe how the surrounding environment of the muscle could affect how muscle contracted. The test consisted of different environments and the muscle was checked and results were saved of the amplitude and the regularity of the wavelengths. The levels of muscle contractions and relaxations were measured by using a transducer, a D. C amplifier, and a laboratory computer.

Overview of experiment

The smooth muscle was a tiny area of the intestine which was prepared effectively by trimming off the fastened mesentery and extra fat. This experiment only required one little bit of this smooth muscle and this was then positioned into a beaker that was aerated and given Ringer-Locke solution this is an aqueous solution including the chlorides of sodium and potassium and calcium mineral that is isotonic to animal tissues. The experiment only required one piece of small intestine, which acquired the space of 2-3 cm long. The intestine was held in place with a structure holder, and was attached to the transducer via a little bit of string. The transducer found contractions and rest of the muscle, and via the D. C amplifier demonstrated on the computer the occurrence and strength of the contractions and relaxations. The answer that the muscle was positioned in was kept at the temp of 37 Celsius aside from when the surroundings condition modified was the temperatures. This sort of setup is known as 'in vivo' preparation. This preparation of the easy intestine allows a precise control of environmentally friendly conditions.

Brief explanation of test taken out

The test that was carried out possessed six parts to it. The first area of the experiment was to gain initial control of the muscle this was done by having perfect conditions for the soft muscle so that it could achieve a steady rate of contraction and rest. This was achieved by adding Ringer-Locke solution and keeping it aerated. By having this create it allowed the muscle environment to be very directly met to the perfect body environment where the muscle would have a good contraction and relaxation rate. The muscle was still left in this prep before readings using the pc were frequent (about 4 minutes) the initial control was labelled using the comment club.

The next environment was non-aerated this meant to turn the air supply off that was coming to the bath tub where the muscle was held. Then your Ringer-Locke solution was removed from the bathroom and fresh Ringer-Locke solution was then placed into the shower. The reason behind eliminating the old solution was to avoid any inaccurate readings as the perfect solution is could still have covered oxygen which would have afflicted the results. This part of the test was saved after every 5, 10, a quarter-hour and the results where put into a table. The main reason for by using this environment was to see the actual muscle contractions and relaxations are when there's a lack of air. This area of the experiment was again labelled on the comment club.

The next part of the experiment was to remove the Ringer-Locke solution and replace it with 50ml of glucose free solution and again results were registered after each 5, 10, a quarter-hour and documented into a desk.

The fourth different environment was change in temp. The Ringer-Locke solution of 37 Celsius was changed with a Ringer-Locke solution that was cooled to 4 Celsius. The goal of this environment was to check the muscle activity in a frigid environment and analyse the effects.

The fifth environment included the utilization of calcium mineral free solution this changed the Ringer-Locke solution. This was analysed for five minutes to see how the muscle activity was afflicted.

The final environment was regarding changes in the pH. The pH was modified from pH7 which is natural to a new pH. The answer with different pH was prepared before hand and the purpose of this environment was to see what effect a pH change would have on the muscle activity.

After every part of the experiment primary control was proven before shifting to the next part the reason behind this being to keep carefully the muscle jogging properly before each part of the experiment and cause less damage to the smooth muscle. Also every part of the experiment was labelled on the comment pub this is done showing each different part evidently so it had not been baffled. (Clear methods are shown in the printouts)

To workout the amplitude of the graph documenting two characters were saved one being the peak of the wave and the other being the lowest part of the wave

To work out the frequency for each area of the experiment the quantity of waves were recorded ina moment time frame. The frequency in this case was how many times the muscles contracted and laid back in a minutes. The amplitude was the strength of each contraction and relaxing of the muscle. The utmost and minimal amplitudes were collected for every single environment and documented; the amplitude chosen was selected at random as well as when where the consistency of waves was determined.

Discussion of results

Firstly a diagram of the intestine is required to show how it operates and what different types of cells it contains. That is needed as it will help to understand why the muscle behaved in another way when tested with six different conditions. A diagram of the tiny intestine is shown below;

The small intestine provides the 4 basic levels which can be serosa, muscularis, submucosa, and mucosa.

Small intestine wall comprises the same four layers that make up the majority of the gastrointestinal tract: serosa, muscularis, submucosa, and mucosa. The mucosa comprises a level of epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The epithelial layer of the tiny intestinal musoca involves simple columnar epithelium that contains many types of cells. A few of these are the following:

  • Enetrocytes - these assist with the transfer of substances from lumen of the intestine to the circulatory system, synthesis of the glycoprotein enzymes needed for terminal digestion and absorption.
  • Goblet skin cells - these are unicellular mucin also called secreting glands.
  • Paneth cells - they are located in the bottom of the intestinal glands. Their main function is their secretion of granules that have lysozyme this enzyme helps breakdown bacteria also called phagocytosis. Paneth skin cells may have a role in regulating the microbial people in the tiny intestine.
  • Enteroendocrine cells - they are typically found again in the lower parts of the intestinal gland known as the crypt. The main function of these cells is release a several hormones. The main one beings cholecystokinin, secretin and gastric inhibitory peptide these assist in pancreatic and gallbladder activity.
  • Intermediate cells - they are young enterocytes and goblet cell which have the ability to withstand cell department.

Apart from the smooth muscle many other skin cells and vessels constitute the intestine. The tiny intestine also includes submucosal artery and vein, lymphatic vessel, submucosal plexus, round layer of smooth muscle, and myenteric plexus. All these tissues, cells, and vessel combine to help make the small intestine wall structure.

The soft muscle in the control environment was able to obtain a constant frequency through its 4 tiny period with 15 waves per minute. The waves which were seen were the easy muscle contracting and relaxing. The amplitude degrees of the waves were both quite high teaching strong contractions rate the reason for this is that the surroundings set in place was to ideal conditions where the muscle could perform its best. It got a max amplitude of 2. 10 and min amplitude of 0. 78 which shows that having ideal conditions the muscle can behave normally without any problems.

The aftereffect of oxygen lack of the clean muscle cause the tiny intestine to increase the frequency, at 5 minutes no aerated the consistency had first decreased to 13 and after 15 minutes the consistency of contraction and relaxations had risen to 17 the reason why or this being without air the easy muscles began to have spasms as it was struggling to contract properly without the oxygen source needed. Also the amplitude levels reduced quite quickly from 1. 94 (potential) and 0. 47(min) at 5 minutes to 1 1. 58(maximum) and 0. 38 (min) at quarter-hour. The reason behind this was that without air the muscle was unable to make the energy necessary for strong contractions as the optimum is reduced as is seen on the traces. This was discovered by the pull on the string that was mounted on the transducer; the yank was not as strong which means this was registered on the traces. So without air the muscle cells are still able to make ATP but a tiny amount. Only about 2 ATP are produced per molecule of glucose in glycolysis. If there is no oxygen present, the Pyruvate stated in glycolysis goes through fermentation to regenerate the NAD+ used in glycolysis. This is known as anaerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration creates only two ATPs, and lactic acid is produced. Most lactic acid diffuses from the cell and in to the bloodstream and is also subsequently absorbed by the liver organ. Some of the lactic acid remains in the muscle materials, where it plays a part in muscle tiredness. Because both the liver organ and muscle fibers must convert the lactic acid back to pyruvic acid when air becomes available, anaerobic respiration is thought to produce oxygen debt

The next part of the experiment was to check how the muscle activity differed when placed in glucose free solution. From this area of the test the rate of recurrence of muscle activity remained constant throughout the a quarter-hour. The traces show regular movement as well as the amplitudes levels differed as at five minutes (1. 34) the maximum amplitude was low then at ten minutes (1. 51) it damp higher and at 15 minutes (1. 37) it reduced again to a similar figure that was at 5 minutes. By looking as of this result the email address details are not as exact as they should have been, meaning they may have been some kind of inaccuracy when following the method as without glucose, ATP can not be made and the amplitude of the waves must have been lower.

ATP can be made from glucose which is stored in the carbohydrate glycogen. From the metabolic process of glycogenolysis, glycogen is broken down to release sugar. ATP is then generated from blood sugar by cellular respiration. Also ATP can be created from glucose and essential fatty acids obtained from the blood vessels. When energy requirements are high, blood sugar from glycogen stored in the liver organ and essential fatty acids from fats stored in adipose cells and the liver are released in to the bloodstream. Blood sugar and essential fatty acids are then consumed from the blood stream by muscle skin cells. ATP is then generated from these energy-rich substances by cellular respiration. Without blood sugar the frequecny should hve increased however the amplitudes levels must have decreased as there is not really a sufficient power source which could provide you with the muscle so that it could long term contract and relax.

The next area of the experiment contains placing the easy muscle into a cooled solution of 4 Celsius from a big change of 37 Celsius. There was very little change to the consistency but it does drop a little bit due to the muscle not being used to these environmental conditions. The amplitude differed from the control readings as that they had decreased but were still quite high as that they had the nutrition in the solutions which helped those to long term contract. If this experiment was left to transport on then there would be further change as the answer would gradually heat to room heat and this means that the clean muscle activity would increase.

Calcium plays a major part in all muscle contraction as well as easy muscle contraction which is different as it does not contain troponin. In clean muscles calcium ions go into from beyond your cell. They then bind to a enzyme organic on myosin; this then breaks up ATP into ADP and then transfers the Pi straight into myosin. By doing this it allows the myosin to switch on and from cross ridges with actin. Once the calcium mineral is pumped from the cell, the Pi gets taken off myosin by an enzyme this enables the myosin to become inactive and the easy muscle is able to relax. This technique is also called myosin regulated contraction.

In the test where calcium free solution was added it affected the soft muscle immensely as the frequency of contracting and relaxing slipped to 12. Also the amplitude levels came up down as the contractions and relaxations levels weren't strong the maximum being 0. 95 and the minimum being 0. 47 if this was left for an extended time period the frequency levels may have dropped more. Without calcium entering the cell the clean muscle struggles to do the procedure which is described above. While making the Ringer-Locke solution it is not only the calcium ions which are important to the easy muscles. Some others are potassium chloride and sodium chloride, the reason why these ions are needed because it helps to portray an environment including the body with ideal conditions. Only if distilled normal water was used it would mean the cells in the muscles would up take the normal water and blow up. So these ions are used so they could keep a focus gradient and allow everything to work appropriately as it would in the clean muscles environment.

The final environment was the change in pH levels. The results proved that the muscle got stopped operating and there was no reading on the traces. This intended that there is no muscle contraction or relaxing. The reason behind this is the muscle got broken down the reason behind this muscle exhaustion was that the reduced pH had damaged the smooth muscle as it was unable to perform in this kind of environment. Also as the low pH solution was there for a certain time period the muscle was unable to remove it and for that reason caused the muscle to breakdown. The low pH may have afflicted the sarcoplasmic reticulum which might lead to the interfere of the intercellular calcium concentrations, this can lead to permanent physical muscle damage as muscle materials are affected.

While organizing the isolated simple muscle many precautions are taken therefore the muscle can avoid unnecessary pH changes. Among these precautions which can be taken is to make certain that before placing the small intestine in to the bath. The perfect solution is will need to be analyzed with pH indicator test strips that may give a fairly correct reading of the solution which the even muscle will be positioned. That is very important as though the pH is wrong it will imply that the simple muscle won't perform to its full probable meaning the results achieved will be inaccurate. To get exact results all solutions which are used should be checked to see if they are the correct pH by using the ph indicating whitening strips. After this test the soft muscle was struggling to reach the control again as the muscle had broken down.

If this experiment was done again at room heat the results would are different as the performance of the muscle would decrease. It is because the optimum temperatures inside your body is just about 37 Celsius which temps allows the muscle to work at an maximum rate. The lower temperature will mean that muscle contraction will be slower as there will be an impact on enzyme reactions as the more heat there is the more kinetic energy you can find this means that the muscle activity will be good.

If acetylcholine was put into the solution shower of the simple muscle the membrane potential would lower and the regularity of waves would increase. The muscle can be more active, with an increase in tonic pressure and the number of rhythmic contractions. The effect is mediated by enzymes which escalates the intracellular Calcium concentration. Another substance that could have been added was adrenaline. Adrenaline allows blood vessels to flow easier to your muscles. Which means that more air is carried to the muscles by the excess blood, that allows your muscles to operate at increased levels. Adrenaline also helps the conversion of the body's gasoline source (glycogen) into its energy (blood sugar). This carbohydrate gives energy to muscles, and a sudden burst of sugar also allows muscles to fortify further.

Skeletal and simple muscle muscles distinctions in structure and function

There are many differences between your two types of muscles the differences are explained below:

Snmooth muscles

Skeletal muscle

A smooth muscle fiber has no T tubules, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum forms a loose network throughout the sarcoplasm.

Are long cyrindrical skin cells that contain many nuclei

Smooth muscle tissue has no myofibrils or sarcomeres

They are striated this shows their exact alignments of these myofilaments.

This tissue also has no striations and is named nonstriated muscle.

Thick filaments consist of myosin as thin filaments consist mainly of actin.

Thick filaments are scattered throughout the sarcoplasm of your simple muscle cell

Each independent cell is activated by a motor unit neurone.

Adjacent easy muscle cells are bound mutually at dense physiques, transmitting the contractile makes from cell to cell throughout the tissues.

Connective endomysium seprates cell

Function Differences

Smooth muscles cells are an involuntary action and can work slower so they don't have muscle fatigue.

Skeletal Muscle consists of both Fast & Slow Twitch muscle fibers, that enable a faster reaction where needed, and the opposite is true for the Gradual as well

Smooth muscle lines your arteries and airways and functions to long term contract or relax to help control blood circulation pressure.

skeletal muscles function almost constantly to keep up your good posture making one small adjustment after another to keep your body upright

They are also within the iris of the eye to control how big is the pupil in response to light. Through the radial and round muscle.

Skeletal muscle is also very important to holding your bones in the correct position and stops your joint parts from dislocating. Some skeletal muscles in your face are directly mounted on your skin

They brand the GI tract to move "food" through the intestines. That is done by peristalsis.

Skeletal muscle creates warmth as a by-product of muscle activity. This heat is essential for maintaining your normal body's temperature.

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