Posted at 11.21.2018
Now a days ubiquitous computing is one of the most significant field for analysis and research. There are lots of potential applications of ubiquitous computing and growing quantity of research laboratory to work on this field which will be the next computer time . There will work in various research topics in ubicom applications, like sensor network, mobile computing, human computer relationship (HCI), artificial intelligence (AI), distributed computing, augmented actuality (AR), wearable computing, tangible interface, robotic and multimodal software. In my statement I am enthusiastic about studying designing the user program for ubiquitous computing. There are quantity of established methods to build an individual interface that'll be smart and user friendly.
In this article section 1. 1 I am going to discuss about the various phase of computing while in section 1. 2 will express about ubiquitous processing and section 1. 3 will discuss about the characteristics of ubiquitous computing. In the section 2, I am going to explain about how precisely to build a good interface and what are these contains to build a good interface.
Mark Weiser (1952-1999) is the father of ubiquitous computing (UbiCom). He was the first launched and coined the word UbiCom and he is the top of UbiCom job at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Centre). The PARC can be an independent organization and it was a birthplace of almost all of the development that proclaimed the PC period like, the mouse, glass windows based interface, desktop metaphor, the laser beam computer printer, and many idea of Computer Recognized cooperative work (CSCW) .
"Ubiquitous computing brands the third wave in computing, at the moment beginning. First were mainframes, each shared by lots of people. Now our company is in the personal computing era, person and machine staring uneasily at the other person across the desktop. Next comes ubiquitous computing, or age relaxed technology, when technology recedes into the background in our lives. " --Tag Weiser and Brown
In the article "The Coming Age of Quiet Technology" Draw Weiser and Dark brown described the analysis of three period use of personal computers. These three stages are mainframe age, personal computer age and the ubiquitous processing period. The first stage we call mainframe period, lots of folks share one computer and it has a common writing tool. And it was allowed many people to use the mainframe at the same time. The second period we call personal age, one computer use only one person. This phase started from 1984 where amount of individuals uses the personal computer and it was surpassed or achievement in number of men and women using shared computers. The partnership is personal for pc (PC) even intimate. For instance, you have some type of computer so it includes your staff and your information where you can interact immediately and deeply with it. The non-public computer still found in the pilot, the Newton, the Zaurus and it's also used as one can own several computers for home and work and you can own several vehicles for road. The idea ubiquitous processing is the 3rd phase of computing and it cross-over point with pc within 2005-2020. Internet and sent out computing is a transition step to the third phase of ubiquitous processing. In this phase lot of computer systems sharing the info each folks and many of these computers would be the hundreds that can access a few minutes for internet surfing and some these will be inserted in chair, wall structure, clothing, light, autos in everything.
The word "ubiquitous" produced from Latin word "ubque" which means everywhere and from "ub" which means where. According to the oxford dictionary the term "ubiquitous" means "seemingly presents just about everywhere at the same time". Subsequently "ubiquitous computing" means we can say computing seemingly everywhere at exactly the same time .
According to Weisers article "Some Computer Knowledge Issues in Ubiquitous Computing", he pointed out:
"Ubiquitous processing is the method of enhancing computer use by making many pcs available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively unseen to the user" 
In this informative article, he wanted to explain that ubiquitous processing offers a framework and its result from various sub-discipline of computer science like: different potato chips is hardware components, network protocol, interaction substrates is software for screens and pens, privateness and computational methods. Through the use of these device end user can compute and speak and connect to one another in a pervasive way. He also stated about period I in his article, phase I means: to construct, deploy and learn from a computing environment that are comprising tabs, pads and boards. The purpose of this technology to improve computer to utilize computer resources through the physical environment and it creates unseen for users .
In this article "The Computer for the 21st Century" Weiser mentioned,
"The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves in to the fabric of everyday life until they can be indistinguishable from it" .
Ubiquitous computing is making life easier everyday in our life through the technology. In his article he also described that for information technology it is a big potential because ubiquitous processing always prepare to create everywhere you go anytime. Writing anywhere is the easy example of ubiquitous technology like, writing in magazines, writing in the literature, and writing in the billboards in the roadways. Ubiquitous computing also makes invisible from users and some devices are embedded in our day-to-day life like TV, cell phones, vehicles, clothes, and etc. He also indicated his prediction in his article that computer will go away from our vision and it'll participate objects that we use in our lifestyle.
In this section, discuss about different characteristics of ubiquitous processing. It could be ubiquitous, embedded, nomadic and timeless. In this following discuss about these characteristics:
Ubiquity: This is actually the important figure of ubiquitous processing, where end user can access his device, can get information from any place in anytime.
Embedded: we can say computing and communications both properties are exist on the globe. So, these properties consumer can feel it and user can act on it also.
Nomadic: Nomadic provides that users and the processing can frequently move with out a fixed design of movement.
Adaptive: Based on the end users activity and their procedure condition individuals have more versatility and autonomy for computing and communication.
Timeless: won't need to use the re-start operation and if the system gets any issue then its components can up grade easily.
A interface (UI) or simply it called "interface" means consumer will interact with some type of computer or other hardware devices. There will vary contains to signify interface like, screen selections and symbols, keyboards, command terms, physical switches for dial and levers. All suggestions devices are also included like, mouse, remote control, touch screen, pleasure stick and etc. In the foreseeable future, speech popularity and also natural terminology will bring a standard component of user interface for customer .
The design of a good interface is one kind of art work. And it is an important things for information and communication technology (ICT) which includes been neglected for a long time. A good user interface offers a "user-friendly" experience where consumer will connect to computer software or hardware in a natural way and also intuitive way. A software programmer implements those ideas they have found useful themselves and they also think how it'll be beneficial for those specific users. But problem is that the majority of the users aren't software developer and they don't have experience connect to technology thats why their interacting way also different .
If we think for a minute about our typical day, just how many interactive products we used in our daily life? We used great deal of interactive products in our lifestyle like: cellular phone, remote control, computer, TV, soda machine, ATM, personal organizer, coffee maker, solution machine, in library access, photocopier, printing device, calculator, video gaming, and the list is endless. But if we think form a user point of view, how usable the products, how many are actually easy, simple and easy, and enjoyable to work with? Most of them, several or maybe one or two? We used many interactive products where users have to transport their task to interact with them. But haven't designed how they will interact with them like: buying a solution from online, photocopying articles, pre-recording a TV program. Users have been manufactured with those systems to execute established functions . Another exemplory case of that, when individual interact with system and something goes wrong end user found a message: "an error occurred code 127" users don't know what the challenge was and just why it was happen?  
The definitive goal of the look interface is to redress this type of concern by bringing in to the design process. The programmer has to be matter about their design process that is straightforward of learning, effective, security and safety, pleasure and fun to work with from end users perspective. The primary goals of usability that we want actually to achieve from a individual perspective describe in the bellow :
Easy of learning and memorizing: When designer will design a system then he/she have consider always about amateur user. How a novice end user will interact with the system easy way and how they'll memorize from that system.
Safety and security: A good custom made have to consider about the system safety and security that means custom made have to ensure that those system is not unsafe for users and also other user influenced by use those system. It ought to be protect users from a dangerous or undesired situation.
Effectiveness: Efficiency means those systems works well to utilize for a end user. It refers a individual can solve activity effectively and he/she can be handled all job.
Joy and fun: If the designer design something but it isn't fun for a individual or it's a pain for end user to have interaction them. Then usability goal will break so, creator must consider on that things.
Efficiency and operation: Designer has to ensure that that system is productive to user and functionality of the system is usable for a end user. An excellent design and user friendly system should allow for quick and well-timed work. Because people don't like hanging out that how system is work, they want system will start immediately and undertaking job without too much work.
When a custom will design a system they need to think about this things, otherwise usability will break of the system. And it depends on system like: when making an interactive game-for that interactive game developer have to focus on game might be joy and fun more important and effective is less very important to this game. Another example is a system for fireman, then custom has to concentrate on system might become more efficient and it could be less fun.
In this section express different steps to create a model, like framework definition, users explanation, users task examination, end user requirements, prototyping, how to evaluate, how to implements, who will assessments, and maintenance. Several models have been suggested to build design process like waterfall model, star model that is wide open and decision can be modified depending on user feedback. The design steps of model describe in the following  :
Context definition: Context explanation means designer should be define for what reason system will be use. It could be use for life critical or fun goal, it can use in office or home environment, or in a market. And it is also important to say that who is going to buy the product for what goal.
Users explanation: User information means customers will need to have to carefully examined because it's created predicated on context classification where each group make a difference immediately or indirectly.
And for that reason their physical and cognitive capabilities and their sociable and cultural track record can be have an effect on the way they interact with the machine.
Task evaluation: Task evaluation or functional evaluation defines that creator should find out how a end user actually solve their job currently, which kind of tools they used to sold their task, and how they can be interacting right now with existing system. The creator should gather that kind of information and they can acquire it from a user s informal interviews and observation.
Requirements: This is the important step and it ought to be first step of the traditional software development process. It really is called user focused design because it is dependant on knowledge of the users, individuals jobs and user context. The main thing is the fact that requirements can be modified in different iteration so when they will measure the system they can get better idea about the system.
Conceptual and formal design: The requirements and specifications of the systems are translated into the system components to create a conceptual and formal design.
Prototyping: Prototyping defines a fundamental version associated with an interactive system is built, examined, then reworked as necessary until a finer version. It can be very easy design sketch; it could be also working and complete version of a system which is depending on level of iteration.
Evaluations: The designers shouldn't think that everyone is like them and they also shouldn't expect that their design guide ensures good usability. Evaluation is the procedure to check on that user may use the system and user likes to use the machine.
Implementation, test and maintenance: After prototyping and evaluation they will get your final version prototype that is full fill up the look goal. And then they can execute that last prototype. Ensure that you maintenance of the machine is also important in design process, to allow them to help further improvement of the machine.
For create a good interface these design steps are the building blocks. In every interactive system they are really vary general and also their also valid. So, without user involvement we cannot derive system requirements from interaction goals. Without taking these steps system will be fail. Many ubiquitous computing prototypes are made totally technology powered where creators actually focus on different smart device, network and new infrastructure. But they don't target their design effort on users.
Fig-1: Superstar model for user-centered design 
Evaluation and prototyping is the most important process for iteration to designing smart and user-friendly interface for ubiquitous computing. Because using analysis process designer can find difficulties of the machine, they can find idea from user experience and they can try to find the ways to improve the system. To designing the smart user interface designer have to examine these things, like what is occurring in existing system for that reason, where they have to start? Which process or method will apply? When they have to stop? Why it's important to evaluate for an connections designers, stated in the next :
In the initial stage don't need any system, can make demo system. Then try to create a real one and that'll be easy in the initial stage. They are able to use different methods like, sketching, Wizard of Oz, mock-ups, and prototypes.
Sketching: Sketching is the design method where artist just attract paper or over a blackboard from his/her idea which is looks like a genuine system. And users and expert customer will examine that design idea and they can change their basic idea if they fault anything . You will find three purposes to make the sketching. The first one is, it is way to believe where design ideas can develop and grow in the talk between eyes and hand. The second reason is, it is straightforward way to talk because design ideas are created designed for other inspection, criticism, appropriation, and development. The final goal, it is way to persuade where in the design process other stakeholders may be persuaded of the worthiness a design idea through sketches .
Wizard of Oz Tests: Using wizard of Oz experiments designer can easily see the reactions of people as they connect to to be developed systems. And after tests designer are certain to get reviews that will inform to design way and selection of development technologies going forth. The main goal of this technique to gather the information about the type of the conversation, test and check which input strategy and sensing system will better to represent better connections, find out the problem, and test the relationship of the device before building the efficient model Wizard of Oz tests is very good to test move forward system (e. g. NL-systems and such) .
Mock-ups: In the design process mock-ups can be used for collect responses from users about designs and notion of this design. It is includes low-fidelity (e. g. electricity point) materials. Users will "appear and feel" about the design. Mock-ups are "very early on prototypes" that means in this level doesnt included the true functionality of the machine. The main features of this technique, mock-ups be able to usability assessment early in the development process, mock-ups experiments is incite and legalize that is why it is inexpensive to change, and mock-ups concentrate on their content and their features and turn away from details of design design.
Prototypes: In the look process prototype is an easily improved and extensible model. Where it has been including program and type/output or actual functionalities of the mark system. A couple of two types of prototypes: low-fidelity and high-fidelity. Low-fidelity is a couple of drawings (e. g. paper, pen, cardboard, etc) don't look like final system which is static, non-computerized user interface where high-fidelity look like your final system. High-fidelity is consists software tools such as Photoshop, HTML, CSS and Java Script  .
To evaluation the system uses different methods or process. With this section, describe different methods or process and explain which methods or techniques are better for which situation. There are plenty of factors are regarding to choose the right strategy, like budget of the system, nature of the system and maturity of the design. When creator will choose the method they have to ensure that the analysis method and tools using properly.
Quantitative or qualitative methods: Quantitative methods offer with numbers that can be measured like period, height, cost, error rates, compilation times, consistency, efficiency of your program, etc. Quantitative methods provide this type of information and this information is not hard to analyze statistically and reasonably reliable. Where qualitative methods deal with observation and collecting data from users commentary, impression of users, and subjective ranking is collected in case studies or interviews or questionnaires.
Field study or analysis in the laboratory: Field studies methods is an investigator viewing users or to see the real condition about the machine that where in fact the system actually use. The investigation can maintain any office or home of the users. Which analysis may be either immediate or indirect. Within the direct observation, investigator will present during the job and in the indirect observation investigator can easily see the duty using training video recorder. Where lab studies method, need more effort to simulate the conditions.
Usability evaluation or expert analysis: In the program industry usability testing has proven to very attractive because usability trials involve with real test users. Many companies operate labs to perform usability testing and they have asked the users and complex people for to test the usability of the system. Usability testing is one of the popular methods because it works well with requirements powered system development. Where expert evaluation is more costly because it's costly to get the expert individual. Expert users have understanding of different technique to evaluate the system like, cognitive walkthrough, considering aloud method, discount evaluation, and their blend also helpful in some circumstance .
The development life cycle (design-prototyping-evaluate the machine) can continue forever leading to continuous improve the usability. But designer cannot end this routine without finish. It might be number of pattern fixed that they have to stop within like 4steps or have to say before when loop will minimize otherwise they can not go final design. For instance, their goal could be 93% of the test user rate which is very convenient of a system; another example is job compilation rate is 96% of a system with resolved time. In some circumstance we can say like this, "the system has gone out of budget" or "you have end within seven days".
In the prior section we have acquired knowledge about what exactly are the procedures to build a good user interface. The principles we have discussed before these are generic and additionally, it may connect with design smart and user-friendly interface for ubiquitous computing. Additionally it is appropriate for other user interface such as online interface or graphical interface. And these general processes of human focused design we can apply also non-IT product which we used every day in our life like caffeine machines, car design, and simple devices like sinks design, entrance doors design, telephones design and other object of our daily life.
On the other side, ubiquitous computing discuss about the integrating things into things which we used in our regular life. However, usability has potential to understanding and good maturity about ubiquitous processing to do with the usability of every day things.
The notion "invisible" originated from Make Weiser article "Some computer research issues in ubiquitous computing". He pointed out, invisible interfaces are by natural means functional or that are become from customer self-perception. From the idea of unseen, we can say a most simple example about physical items of the body parts. Where we won't need to think about what we will do with our hands, but we just do things that we want. Whenever we venture out from our house, we won't need to remember that to use our arms with us, we might need it today. It's already are present around and always prepared to use. So, when we speak something about ubiquitous computing interface that is "invisible" or computer that are "disappearing". That means, we discuss those ideas that are present and "ready-to-hand"  .
D. Norman stresses in his article "The design of Everyday things" that, a good design is allowing a good mapping. In which a design model is the artists conceptual model and customer model is the mental model which developed through conversation with system. In the figure brought up three things: design model from designer viewpoint, users model from customer point of view and system image that is must be design appropriate because if the machine in improper then end user cant easily use the look system. D. Norman has an idea of affordance, which is identified the real properties of any object that give clause to its operation. Like mouse pointer and scrollbars functionalities supplies the digital affordance for computer affordance and many metaphors on our computer sign. Where the mapping is supplies the relationship to regulate their impact .
Fig: Mapping of design model, mental model and system image .
There are variety of issues growing from the perspective of ubiquitous processing to interact. And these issues are talked about in the bellow :
Allow Mental Models: The look model have to aid mental model. People think from his / her point of view like, how use something plus they also predict the way the system actually react with their activities. The machine image should support what the people are planning then that will be easy to understand about the machine.
Respect cognitive economy: People always make an effort to use their own theory and their own idea. So, design model have to consider their idea and they can make a new idea that will be easy to comprehend for a new artifact.
Make things noticeable and clear: Design model have to consider the presence of something, like what's the position of something right now, is it filled right now or is it empty now. Determining the status of the machine user will be able to understand express of the device and the alternatives for action.
Design for mistakes: Sometimes system can be neglect to mapping between consumer models and the machine. People can make problem and most of the error originates from human problems and sometimes result from mapping error. That's why system must guide to users how to solve the making error or locating the solution against the incorrect job. Using undo-actions or sanity inspections technique can use for solve
Consistency in interior and exterior: To creating interface custom made have to consider using the elements for similar procedure that is end user can attaining their task. For example, forcing a red button for a tool this means stop these devices. So, this is and actions are consistent to enhance the capability to learn the system and can understand about the activities. Internal persistence with other elements in the machine and external consistency refers consistent with other elements in environments. It is harder to attain different system seldom take notice of the same design object.