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Slum and Squatters Resettlement in ASEAN Countries

Introduction

The urban populace on earth is widening in generally with Asia being projected to hold 60% of the upsurge in world's urban people over another three generations. Out of 23 towns with populations greater than 10 million people, nine metropolitan areas are in Asia and the number is projected to increase in the near future (Giok and Kai, 2007). Although urbanization is an indicator of economic development portrayed by inhabitants growth in urban areas, concurrently poverty is also urbanizing. Countries like the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia are experiencing speedy urbanization also due to push from the rural areas where in fact the job opportunities are driving a car migrants to places. The awareness of economic development in a few towns and particularly the largest implies a populace explosion in very short periods of time that subsequently severely studies the coping capacity of city government authorities. One of the most visible benefits of the fast urbanization has thus been the persistence and formation of slums real estate. United Nations Individuals Settlements Program (UN-HABITAT, 2006) identifies a slum household as several individuals living under the same roof structure in an metropolitan area who lack a number of of the following:

  • Durable housing of a permanent nature that protects against extreme environment conditions.
  • Sufficient liveable space which means only three people showing the same room.
  • Easy usage of safe normal water in sufficient portions at a realistic price.
  • Access to enough sanitation by means of an exclusive or public toilet shared by a reasonable number of people.
  • Security of tenure that stops required evictions.

Issue at Stake

One billion people or 1 / 3 of the world's population is estimated to be moving into either slum or squatter settlements. The major proportion of society moving into slums in the world is in the Asian region, where urbanization speeds at speediest rate. In 2001, Asia got 554 million slum dwellers, where 28% of the slum and squatter settlement population existed in Southeast Asia (UN-HABITAT, 2001).

Slum and squatter settlements have made mainly due to failure of city government authorities to plan and provide affordable real estate for the low-income segments of the metropolitan inhabitants. Therefore, squatter and slum enclosure is the cover solution because of this low-income urban people. In the mega urban regions or urban centers, part of the situation would lie in the coordination among different authorities that are responsible for economic development, metropolitan planning, and land allocation. Such coordination issues also exist between the city and national government authorities (Giok and Kai, 2007).

For the range and rate of urbanization that is occurring in expanding countries of Asia, most municipal government authorities are unequipped actually, fiscally, politically, and administratively to handle the issues of providing the basic infrastructure services with their people. In a situation of limited source allocation, the urban poor are frequently badly placed to compete for essential services. In Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam, neither the government nor the private designers have the ability to provide the casing necessary for 50, 000 migrants per time. An additional 20, 000 young urban households are produced annually who go into the real estate market. The ensuing growth in squatter and slum settlements now includes 15% of casing in the location (Marr, 2005). The slum casing in the location has generated various negative results, which need immediate and appropriate alternatives that are advantageous to all get-togethers.

Slum and Squatters Resettlement in ASEAN Countries

Thailand

The Urban Community Development Office (UCDO) was create by the government of Thailand in 1992 to address urban poverty. During the 1980s and early on 1990s, Thailand's economic success had positive impact to the poor communities. Many of these poor people lived in house where the housing conditions had deteriorated. In addition, as the land prices and demand for central city sites increased, their settlements were also at the chance to be evicted. There is also reputation of the necessity to develop more participatory types of support for low income organizations, and of the options of doing so through helping community-based cost savings and credit organizations. Various local and international NGOs employed in Thailand experienced also shown the options for improving cover by dealing with low-income neighborhoods and networks of neighborhoods.

UCDO was given a All of us$ 50 million as capital base where they provided loans, small grants or loans and technical support to organized neighborhoods in order that they could carry out activities related to casing, land acquisition and making income. UCDO were able to developed links with a variety of community organizations, conserving teams, NGOs and government organizations.

In 2000, UCDO was integrated with the Rural Development Account to the city Organisations Development Institute (CODI). At the time 950 community conserving groups have been established and backed in 53 Thailand's provinces where they provided real estate loans and technical support to 47 housing projects including 6400 households, grants for small improvements in infrastructure and living conditions have been provided in 796 neighborhoods, benefiting 68 208 households plus more than 100 community systems had been create. The worthiness of lending options provided at that time was more than 1 billion baht (around US$ 25 million) where one half of the loans had been fully repaid. It was also estimated that assets of some 2 billion baht have been generated by the tasks. The special fund to help savings groups facing financial complications possessed helped many areas and community systems to manage their money and continue their development activities.

CODI continued to support the UCDO programmes until UCDO had been located within the Country wide Housing Power thus making CODI's different legal status as an independent public corporation. This provided it with increased possibilities (for example, being able to connect with the annual federal government budget for money), greater versatility, wider linkages and new alternatives for supporting cooperation between urban and rural teams. The main objective on assisting community-managed personal savings and loan categories and community sites remains, but it now covers 30 000 rural community organizations as well as the urban community organizations, and many community systems that CODI helps include both rural and metropolitan community organizations. Much like UCDO, CODI also offers a board which includes representatives from federal government and from community organizations.

In 2003, Baan Mankong (Secure Housing) Program run by CODI was set up to support procedures designed and monitored by low income homes and their community organizations and networks. These neighborhoods and networks work with local governments, experts, colleges and NGOs in their city to review all poor communities in order to plan an upgrading program. The program seeks to improve conditions for each one of these within 3 to 4 years. Following the ideas have been finalized, CODI stations the infrastructure subsidies and cover loans right to the communities. These upgrading programs build on the community managed programs that CODI and its own predecessor UCDO have reinforced since 1992, and on people's capacity to manage their own needs collectively. They also build on what slum neighborhoods have previously developed, recognizing the top investments that areas have already made in their homes.

The Baan Mankong Program supports updating existing settlements whenever possible. As an example, if relocation is necessary, a site is sought close by to reduce the monetary and public costs to homeowners. The Baan Mankong Program has place a concentrate on of improving casing, living and tenure security for 300 000 households in 2000 poor areas in 200 Thai places within five years. This signifies at least half the metropolitan poor communities in Thailand.

According to Boonyabancha (2005), the Baan Mankong Program differs from regular approaches predicated on following:

  • Urban poor community organizations and their systems are the key actors where they control the money and the management. In addition they undertake most of the building making funding go much further and brings in their own contributions.
  • It is demand powered by communities alternatively than supply motivated as it facilitates communities who will be ready to implement improvement jobs and allows a great variety of responses, designed to each community's needs, priorities and opportunities.
  • The programme does not specify physical outputs but provides adaptable finance to allow community organizations and local partnerships to plan, implement and manage immediately. Government agencies are no more the planners, implementers and construction managers delivering to beneficiaries.
  • It promotes more than physical upgrading. As neighborhoods design and manage their own physical improvements, this helps energize deeper but less obvious changes in sociable structures, managerial systems and self-confidence among poor communities. It also changes their connections with local government and other key stars.
  • It helps result in popularity of low income neighborhoods as legitimate parts of the city so when associates in the city's much larger development process. It works to build up urban poor areas as an integrated part of the city. People plan their upgrading within the city's development framework, so their local casing development plan is included within city planning and city development strategies.
  • Secure tenure is negotiated in each instance locally and this could be through a variety of means such as cooperative land purchase, long-term lease contracts, land swaps or end user rights. But in all circumstances, the emphasis is on communal, rather than specific tenure.
  • Its concentration is city large development with a commitment to reach all low income areas within a three to four year period, drawing on local resources.

Johor Bahru, Malaysia

The State Government of Johore has taken some managerial methods in order to handle the slum settlements in Johor Bahru. It offers offering land tenure, Short term Occupation Licenses (TOLs), moving to low cost housing named Projek Perumahan Rakyat (PPR) and enforcement of Land Take action. Usually the Malaysian government acquired implemented two programs in order to eliminate the presence of slum housing. The first program presented was the Zero Squatter Insurance plan which aspires to clear the slum and squatter settlements. The next program is the general public Casing Program where general public housing was built for the slum areas. Both of these programs were also being implemented by the Johor state.

Land tenure is the normal method being employed by the Johore state government in whereby in this technique the state relocates the slum communities back at the land that they resolved in the first place. It caused reduction in the worthiness of the land because the state had to change the status of the land from no man's land to man's land. However this act it is much better because the state government is able to reduce the amount of costs government have to invest in paying reimbursement if these slum communities were to relocate somewhere else. This method has been applied by the Johore state government in few slum settlements namely Kampung Seri Serdang, Kampung Sri Jaya Baru, Kampung Sentosa Dua, Kampung Sri Aman and Kampung Melayu Gelang Patah.

The next method is TOL, whereby in this method the state provided the slum communities with TOLs to prevent them being illegitimate residents of this area. The licenses were provided to permits the residents living there but in the near future if the government decides to get back the land back, the residents won't receive any settlement from the federal government. This technique also will save costs in conditions of providing settlement to the slum areas. This method was applied to several slum property in Kampung Tawakkal, Kampung Paya Kenangan, Kampung Bunga Ros, Kampung Ulu Pandan and Kampung Lembah Murni.

The Johore state government also relocated the slum areas to an inexpensive housing area known as Projek Perumahan Rakyat (PPR). In this technique, the total cost and costs of growing the new cover area will be carry by the party who wishes to develop that slum settlements. Therefore, this technique is cost eating and has been implemented in Kampung Laut, Batu 10 Skudai and Kampung Lembah Jaya, Tebrau.

The enforcement of the Land Action was also released by the Johore state government in order to handle the slum settlements. Section 425 of the National Land Code 1965 stated that action must be taken on the slum communities residing at the region especially foreigners. Largely foreigners engaged are from Indonesian, Myanmar, Cambodia, India, Bangladesh, etc. The act of encroaching reserve land by a person is considered as officially wrong in particular when it involves foreigners that are likely to be unlawful immigrants. Which means enforcement of land law must be taken seriously to be able to overcome this issue. Slum settlements that contain been named settlements of foreigners are Kampung Pertanian Masai, Kampung Pasir Dalam, Kampung Sungai Tiram and Kampung Sc Batu 2.

Now let's have a look at the No Squatter Policy. This coverage was launched by Ministry of Casing and MUNICIPALITY (Kementerian Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan, KPKT) in 2005 to eradicate slum settlements in city and other areas involved as well. The program premiered nationally including in Sabah and Sarawak. Census at the slum casing was conducted in order to look for the exact volume of slum residents that exists. Eradication was done after taking into consideration various aspects including execution cost and the welfare of the slum areas.

Last however, not least, is the general public Housing program. This program was framed by Majlis Tindakan Ekonomi Negara (MTEN) with the cooperation of KPKT to provide new settlements for slum neighborhoods all over the country. Among techniques being created are Program Perumahan Rakyat Bersepadu and Program Perumahan Rakyat Dasar Baru where homes for rentals and sell are given. Many of these programs mentioned previously are in parallel with the objective of zero squatter execution to overcome the challenge arises from slum settlements.

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