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Skills And Knowledge For Successful System Development Information Technology Essay

There is no doubt that information system analyst is participating in an extremely important role in almost all of the successful system job development. To do this, information system analyst must have a variety of qualities which involves appropriate skills and skills as well as sufficient knowledge in the utilizing system of users supports and performing of business. It needs to be considered that information system analyst holds tasks to analyse and knows the intricate needs of recruiting, people skills, specialized understanding and process facilitation and it is in essence applied from the first day of the machine project's existence. It is crucial for each information system analyst to acquire dynamic project clubs that are not static and unchanging concerning ensure that they are in a position to articulate the needs that are associated with the key problem to be fixed or chance to be realized. There are also several barriers are present in gathering and interpreting of system development that needs to be worried by information system analyst as this will have an effect on the results of the system and the potency of system development. This newspaper is critically emphasized on the abilities and understanding of an information system experts and exactly how these skills and knowledge have impacted in the successful in system job development. The framework of the paper will commence with the advantages, terminologies section, knowledge required by system analyst, most significant skills and competencies for a system analyst and a bottom line as the summarization of the whole topic.

Keywords: system analyst, system examination, knowledge, analytical skills, technical skills, social skill, managerial skills, communication skills

1. 0 INTRODUCTION

Initially, information system analyst is highly necessary to run something project. Lacking any information system knowledge and appropriate expertise, it is rarely to accomplish project's goals. There are various formal and informal jobs that system analyst play in creating successful. In a nutshell, every system analyst in a task has their own tasks that take both formal and casual process and sometimes also, they are assigned to perform in a big or small job concurrently predicated on the project requirements to attain project successfulness. Essentially, something analyst performs an important role along the way of system development life circuit tasks which included project planning, evaluation, design, execution and support process. Each process requires a system analyst to execute a different process and they must possess an array of skills with sufficient knowledge. That is important as system development is an extremely difficult activity that needs very careful planning, control and execution.

With the introduction of information technology, system has become more and more role in most of the organization. In fact, a good system becomes the only sustainable benefit for organizations to gain an absolute position in the current highly competitive world. Parallel start, the duty of something analyst becomes more difficult because they need to deal with some other group with different requirements. Corresponding to Misic and Graf (2004), systems analyst perform their job is characterized by a regular changes where in fact the change of the environment and uncertainty places forces the machine analyst to regularly and constantly updates their task and activities. Meaning here, the machine analyst should be able to adapt to the environmental changes. For your, something analyst must learn the culture or environment for each corporation that they designated to develop a process in order for them to effectively perform their job and meet the project's goals. In addition, they also have to have full knowledge of system development and try to put it within the organization with the support of knowledge and skills as it is very important and necessary to ensure the organization gain value and outperform rivals.

Numerous articles have been discussed system analyst skills and knowledge by many creators. Various creators have portrayed different viewpoints on the skills that needs to be possessed by a system analyst such as analytical, specialized, managerial and social or communication skills. You can find two key skills that are had a need to perform system analysis responsibilities, fact-finding for the research of system requirements and modelling of the business process based on the system requirements (Satzinger, Jackson and Burd, 2009). Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide comprehensive information on the areas of responsibilities, knowledge and important skills of today's system analyst as well as to identify the impact of the aspects towards the effectiveness of system development.

2. 0 Meaning OF TERMS: SYSTEM ANALYST, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS

There are many of definition of something analyst have been determined by many professionals. The meaning of the terms can vary greatly from various writers depending to business process, workflow and self-discipline where it is used; however, the idea of a system analyst remains the same. According to Dennis and Wixom (2003), system analyst can be defined as the people who make ideas and recommendations for how information technology can improve business procedures, define new functions by using an enterprise analyst, design a new information system and ensure that all the typical information systems managed. In contrast, Whitten and Bentley (2007) have defined system analyst as an expert who is dependable in discovering and study the organization problems and needs as to regulate how people, data, operations and it can contribute to the business advancements.

Some people get baffled the meaning between system analyst and computer programmer. Essentially, something analyst is not a computer programmer; he or she is individuals that chose what form of information technology to be used in the development of a system, whereas a computer programmer is individuals that are responsible in adding appropriate instructions with specific code into your computer system. However, both Information System specialists have similar skills needed in system development, which is emphasized on complex skills (Lee, 2002). Systems analyst and computer programmer are related in some way or another, however they are not a similar. Systems analyst requires different skills. Instead, computer programmer is focused on a specific emphasis of the study. Systems analyst and computer programmer like other professions were forced to truly have a sense of ethics. As viewed by Kagan and Sobolo (1987), systems analyst job entails analysis of the condition or needs information on the business and resolve the problem through the look of an efficient design of information stream from the source data into the computer. In different point of views by Green (1989), system analysts are service providers who are work closely with users as to identify, develop and apply computer based system to be able to meet business and other requirements. The engagement of users must help the machine analyst to do analysis and synthesis duties on a particular system. Almost similar with Misic and Graf (2002) views, system analyst functions as problem solver where they work directly with users and management in collecting and analyzing home elevators current and/or future computer-based system.

Information system knowledge and appropriate skills for effective jobs and duties is required to be an outstanding system analyst. Several creators reviewed knowledge as an actionable or relevant information available in the right format at the right time and at the right place for decision making. In other words, people seek knowledge because it assists them to boost performance and succeed in their work. Knowledge also is the most valuable therapy for complexness and uncertainty. Further, the procedure of system development will depend on greatly on knowledge so that, by having right knowledge, corporation can produce a great decision making with producing good product and services to ensure meet the business requirements. Regarding information systems, knowledge can be referred to as content or complex information had a need to do an satisfactory job which is usually purchased through formal education, on job training and information multimedia including the manuals (Cheney, Hale and Kasper, 1990).

Meanwhile, skills are described the precise psychomotor processes essential to meet up with the current requirements of job a particular job. Skills also include facilities to choose from between your repertoire of action that may be most appropriate for their specific actions (Cheney, Hale and Kasper, 1990). Environmental tasks varies from an organization to group and job to job, however, some skills will help in almost any environmental task. These skills include understanding the changes and understand how the organization works within the public, political and physical. Vital that you realize, understanding the value of system analyst activities and the related skills and knowledge may be critical in successful of system development.

3. 0 KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED BY SYSTEM ANALYST

Before needs to analyze and design a system, it is vital for a systems analyst to possess sufficient understanding of the various domains of knowledge is dependent mostly on the obligations and level of development of the system. Predicated on Vitalari (1985), there are six key concepts of the data bottom have emerge, specifically, core system evaluation domain name knowledge, high-rated domain name knowledge, application website knowledge, functional domains knowledge, organization specific knowledge and understanding of methods and techniques.

Vitari (1985) said that primary system analysis domains knowledge is vital components of system analyst's knowledge to accomplish satisfactory degrees of performance. It is very important to meet the needs of an individual to guarantee the output of the system development will produce high satisfaction to the users. Important to realize that, systems analysts need to really know what commitments are expected from an individual and the user also knows what's expected of the systems analyst. In addition, insurance firms this knowledge it help the system analyst to avoid committing blunders and delaying the project to be completed. Whereas high rated site knowledge is referred to the knowledge that distinguishes high graded experts from low ranked analysts. Application domain name knowledge is a knowledge related to many information system applications such as expert system, decision support system, deal control system and person computing.

4. 0 MOST IMPORTANT SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES FOR SYSTEM ANALYST

The system analyst needs certain skills to execute system development. They need the abilities to do systems research and design, where they have to know very well what stakeholders (users, clients and technological staffs) need concerning analyze the movement of data or enter data in a systematic, process or transform data, store data, and result information in the precise context of the business (Kendell and Kendell, 2010). Systems analysts try to improve and develop information systems and it to get the best benefits for business especially in handling the business problems. Essentially, job skills support the primary information system capacities to determine the effective exploitation of technology advancement for IT organizations (Lerogue, Newton and Blanton, 2005). You will find number of opinions that describe the abilities that system analyst should be possessed to reach your goals. Following is the main skills and competencies for a system analyst as pointed by various authors.

Analytical skills

According to Misic and Graf (2002) in their article entitled "System analyst and skills in the millennium", analytical skills were considered the main skills in the system development. Analytical skills can be explained as the capability to take a look at things critically and/or minutely, to separate the clear picture into its individual components (Misic and Graf, 2002). As indicated by Misic and Graf (2002), these skills provide the most important basis for a person to adapt to changes in technology and by focusing on the development of their current employees and / or recruiting new employees that strong analytical skills of focusing mainly on a technical track record, management information system will form a team development to be successful today and also when confronted with the next wave of unavoidable change and stress in their technical procedures. In addition they indicated that, this skill is applied in defining and analyzing requirements and insuring the fit within the organizations information system environment. In other hands, analytical skills were mixed up in examination process where it is the task to understand the whole of something by breaking it down into important components. By understanding its components and how they fit along in a larger whole, it leads to understand the complete better.

Analytical skill requires a system analyst to precisely in defining the issues. It is a fact that, knowing how to define a difficulty is a hardcore part. They have to discover a way to break things into elements and utilize those elements to understand the real situations. The machine analyst responsibilities might require visualizing, articulating, and dealing with sophisticated problems and ideas, and making wise decisions predicated on information available. Analytical skills assist the machine analyst to determine the needs of the organizations and then try to fulfill those needs with a new system development.

The growing use of technology has become a major area of the organization around the world. This led to the making the task of properly identifies the problem ever more difficult. The machine analyst should be more specific in defining the condition besides determining the opportunity of a new system. This is actually the activity where, system experts have to properly explain the possible problem and the mark where they aim to hit. Vital that you know that, if the condition is wrongly discovered it may effect on the machine development, like the new system won't well known, more time needed to do some research on a fresh system and many possible issues might be occurred. In contrast, if the issues are well identified with the analytical skill is applied to do that; the answers to this problem are usually clear-cut. Furthermore, to ensure the situation is precisely diagnosed, systems experts need to analyze and treat the available information, to know what information sources are good, to be able to access and to make effective utilization in creating a new system. Identifying very obviously defined and specific problem can be an important step to successfully put into practice the first solution.

Interpersonal skills and communication skills

Interpersonal and communication skills are other skills that required by every system analyst. Such skills are essential at various periods of the development process for interacting with the users and try to identify their requirements to be able to find out possible answers to that one problem. Social skills are related to individual skills had a need to interact with people that associated with an IS job. In other words, interpersonal skills can also be known as a behavior and behaviour of individual, social communication and group behaviour in the IS framework (Lerouge, Newton and Blanton, 2005). According to Lerouge, Newton and Blanton, (2005) in their research, IS professionals have viewed these skills as the most important place skills for a system analyst in impacting on IS success, whereas, for CIOs and end users indicated that technical skills were the most essential skills in successful of system development. Several creators indicated that behavioural, interpersonal, communication and soft skills are occasionally referred to social skills as its attribute represents the average person behaviours such as articulating and speaking skills to connect to the users, capacity to work in a team such as developers, analysts and other system professionals, personal inspiration and working separately, good listener, ability to write and many more. Based on Odini (1991), interpersonal skills are term use to describe variety of interpersonal and communicative skills that entail two way communication skills, styles of positive behavior, management and teamwork and knowledge of human tendencies and interpersonal human relationships in conditions of conversation with relevant individuals. In contrast, Misic and Graf (2004) have distinguished social and communication skills into two different categories. Social skills will be the ability to connect to other staff including customers, other system analyst, professionals and outside vendors. In the meantime, communication skills are referred to the ability of individuals to effectively write and speak clearly, in a position to summarize a doc and that doc must be understandable to the users.

Most of the company IT based discovered that social skills or communication skills in both speaking and writing and capability to work in a team are incredibly important and necessary to perform their task. A system analyst needs to have communication skills because they are necessary to write consumer requirements into complex specifications. It's true that, good communication skills is value to help the system analyst to connect to users to be able to identify their needs, to connect to system designers to aid them in developing of a system interface as well concerning communicate with the machine developer concerning keep track of system development. Corresponding to Green (1989), "system analysts believe that they need to count on behavioral skills to effectively connect to user during the crucial periods of problem description and analysis". As mentioned by Misic and Graf (2004), if a system analyst is able to interact well with users, it shows that he or she has the capacity to work with people of the task team. Moreover, a system analyst should spend some time getting near the diverse stakeholders such as users, client and technological staffs to be able to obtain information as they are the group of people who'll use a new system and can benefit most from it. Generally, social skill is an important factor in the success of a system analyst in producing system. The wonderful system analyst is involved with every aspect of the machine development process, and is also actively involved in the interaction design for the system. They know the various ways the stakeholder need to connect to the system, understand the different needs and to identify different aspects of design that will work for different stakeholders.

Based on Green (1989), management must notice that successful system development will depend on both behavioral and technological skills. He added that, training to boost behavioral skills such as interviewing and hearing is needed. This is because they have to interact with many groups of men and women in a variety of businesses where this group of people provides valuable insights to ensure the system satisfies the business needs. Besides, system analysts also liaise with nearly every department of the business that is involved with solving the machine problem. In addition, management must also provide an orientation program for the users involved with new projects. This program is principally about the precise activities of system development and related skills needs for analysis. The program may accomplish the improvement of discussion skills and promoting higher consumer knowing of the importance of behavioral skills for systems development functions (Green, 1989).

Technical skills

There is no doubt that complex skills are areas commonly considered major to the computer related career including system analyst. According to Misic and Graf (2004) technical skills are the ability to use techniques like the development of systems of efficient decomposition, data flow diagrams, process specifications, object-oriented examination, data modeling, education, hardware and software knowledge and other tools that are proven to help in the introduction of something. Similar with Lerouge, Newton and Blanton (2005) technological skills referred to hardware, software and encoding aspects of information systems.

In different point of views, Gallagher et. al (2010) mentioned that technological skills can be divided into three major categories, foundational skills, operational skills and essential skills. Table 1, shows some of the technical skills that need to be possessed by every IT professional.

Table 1: Techie Skills

Foundational Skills

Operational Skills

Essential Skills

Programming

System testing

Desktop Support/ Helpdesk

Database Design / Management

Operating Systems

Voice / Data Telecommunications

Operations

Service Hosting

Continuity / Finding Planning

Mainframe / Legacy

Systems Analysis

Systems Design

IT Architectures / Standard

Source: Designed from Gallagher et. al (2010)

Based on the above table, it can be assumed that system analyst requires all three specialized skills as to stay competitive with today's energetic environment, especially in the introduction of the internet and intranet systems. This rapid change in technology forced the machine analyst to get ready and targets the system analysis and development of a system by learning all relevant technological skills. Groundwork skills are skills to be obtained beforehand by system experts for their basic knowledge for continuing career growth as well as before further develop to a higher level of skills. Whereas as suggested by Gallagher et. al (2010), "operational skills often specifically, nevertheless they are not often firm-specific. Though, they may be specific to technology providers such as, IBM mainframes or Microsoft server products". These skills are important to solve problems that are related to the computers and both hardware and software. On the other hand, essential skills are the most important skills in helping something analyst to execute task in analyzing and planning of system development.

There are changes in the system analyst technical expertise due to the development of technology. In addition, these skills have ever more emphasized across all IS job. Relating to Lee (2002), the skills included were desktop, operating systems, third generation dialects, database and plans as well. In contrast, Haga et. al (2007), have discovered three major specialized skills set that is listed in the job loan company, there are, repository skills, operating-system skills and other miscellaneous skills. Table 2, summarizes the technical skills necessary for something analyst stated in the job bank. A few of these skills are crucial for them to operate and apply the machine development.

Table 1: Technological skills necessary for system analyst listed in the work bank.

Database Skills

Operating System Skills

Other Miscellaneous Skills

Oracle

SQL & PL/SQL

Database

DB2

SQL Server

Powerbuilder

Sysbase

Data Mining/ Data Warehousing

Informix

Delpi

UNIX/LINUX

Win NT

Win 95/98/2000

AS400/ Operating-system400

Mainframe

JCL

Novell

Sun Solaris

DOS

MAC OS

MS Office

Internet/ Intranet Development

Networking/Telecom

SAP

Accounting (pay-roll, etc)

Peoplesoft

Tech Support/ Help Desk

ERP

Lotus Notes

uml

Crystal Reports

Vision

Source: Adapted from Haga et. al (2007)

5. 0 CONCLUSION

It can be concluded that excellent system analyst only can be developed through appropriate skills and sufficient knowledge. While producing an effective task associates, the team head also need to have multiple skills in managing those people in the project management. Relating to Tan (2004), scheduled to multi-disciplinary and multi-dimensional of task management, a good manager is an individual that can wear multiple hats and work in any willpower of development to plug up any shortcomings. For system analysts, it's important for them to fulfil the wonderful system analyst attribute in order to attain project goals on time and within the budget besides protecting against a conflict with others in the same project.

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