Posted at 12.01.2018
This article analysed the skills and competencies of change leaders with the support of literature references and real life samples. Later, the article focussed on the problems of change market leaders during the implementation of these skills and competencies on change processes, and how these skills and competencies are varying across different degrees of leaders within an organization. Finally, the final outcome is drawn based on critical analyses on change control and recognized the likelihood of behaving as a change leader by anyone.
For the past two decades, the amount of significant change that the organizations faced in order to make it through has greatly increased, and lots of the researchers argued that this situation will continue and demand more of future leaders (Wren & Dulewicz, 2005; Senge et al. , 2002). Leadership is such an essential component for going through these changes, and identifying the key the different parts of leadership is very important to the success of these transformation attempts (Beverage & Nohria, 2000). Kotter (1996) considered that, authority is the key to creating and sustaining the successful group, since it helps the organization to condition its future and preserve its growth. In addition, control competencies are also necessary to lead the change functions in an effective way (Christensen & Overdorf, 2000). Corresponding to Sanchez et al. , (1996), control competencies have a cognitive aspect, in terms of knowledge and skills the leader possesses, and an action aspect that permits a head to deploy their competencies in a coordinated manner. Leaders' competencies and skills will impact the actions, set ups and techniques that improve the change and it further strengthen the effectiveness in employing change (Gilley et al. , 2009). This essay will critically analyse whether anyone can adapt these authority skills and competencies which is essential to be a successful change head. The research will be done based on the references of academics research that is already conducted in this field.
Necessary Skills and Competencies to be always a change leader
Leadership is different from management; control matches management but it does not replace it. Because management is approximately coping with intricacy but the management is about coping with change (Kotter, 1990).
The leadership-skill requirements will change predicated on the leaders' positions and their levels. The most important skills where the leaders have to be possessed are cognitive skills, business skills, proper skills and social skills. Across all the authority levels cognitive skills are founded to become more important. Furthermore, social skills are required for a head in greater level than business or tactical skills (Sparks & Gentry, 2008). For instance) during the group work on simulation game, the leader of the successful team experienced contributed a great part by understanding the views of the team members and through the business of team meeting. This helped the team to bring out productive ideas and programs uniquely and also it helped the group market leaders to stress their cognitive and social skills effectively. Compared to other skills, the significance of business and tactical skills is more necessary for the leaders in managerial level (Sparks & Gentry, 2008).
Possessing these command skills in change management has been linked to causing effective and successful business change. Although, some of the factors are believed as the barriers for the success of the change, they are simply lack of understanding of change implementation techniques and the inability to improve one's leadership style or organization functions (Bossidy & Charan, 2002; Gilley, 2005). The other obstacles discovered by the examination include the failure of the leaders to encourage others to improve, poor communication skills, and failing to prize or recognize the people who make the effort to change (Kotter, 1996). Hence the capability to understand and take care of the change processes is valued as a required capability of change leaders. Lots of the scholars described this potential as a cultural cleverness skill, which is the ability to understand one's own and others' thoughts, behaviours and thoughts in interpersonal situations and respond appropriately, which includes emotional potential (Burke, 2002).
Finally, leaders' thoughts and skills are manifested through the activities of implementing change across the organization. Within this stage, the leaders need to be aware about keeping away from coordination issues when the various functional groups within an organization work on a common task. Because lack of coordination will raise conflicts in employing change and it decrease the success (Kuhl et al. , 2005). For instance, while working for the multi-product process, having less coordination across the leaders from different departments influenced the execution of change. There have been lot of issues aroused in allocating the budget across each section of the business and therefore it led to the inadequate change execution.
As per Zaccaro (2002), effective management requires social reasoning skills to understand, judge and identify social situations effectively, and relational competencies to react to the change and manage them effectively. Since change implementation involves the knowledge of multiple level of people (i. e. , specific, group and organizational), social-emotional competency is looked upon to have a direct impact on the capacity to lead change. It functions as a greater predictor of leading change than taking care of intricacy. Social-emotional competency includes observing the employees' views, providing constructive opinions, encouraging the co-operation among team members, maintaining effective social associations with others and treating others regarding no matter their position or list (Mathew, 2009). For instance) while working for the simulation game, in a few of the teams, there was an extended debate happened among the list of associates about the implementation of change strategies with different views and therefore conflicts aroused. The leaders of those clubs were also didn't maintain cooperation within the team. This led these to choose inappropriate change strategies and aimed towards failure to attain their focus on. But while enquiring the team who come to the target, I came up to realized that the team head got delegated the roles to each associates predicated on their knowledge about the overall game and by providing constructive feedback on their views. This helped them to maintain a good assistance within the team without presenting the ways for just about any conflicts and and yes it provided ways to reach their aim for within enough time limit and budget.
Within an alteration specific context Higgs and Rowland (2000, 2001) suggested a cluster of change management competencies associated with coaching and expanding others. Furthermore, Giglio et al. (1998) also emphasized the importance of market leaders' training role in the change process. Just because a good innovator should motivate their workers in order to make them aware of the change process. This will likely be done by giving appropriate instruction to them. Relating to Hudson (1999), coaching skills enable market leaders to deal with situations from new perspectives also to question the position quo. Furthermore, the market leaders who coach their workers can enhance their renewal capacity and resilience, which includes significant impact on organizational success. Finally and more importantly it allows others to make and learn from mistakes.
Huq (2006) argued that the management competencies can help create the six sigma cadre within an corporation. He argued that the non-public and corporate competencies play a essential role in creating this six sigma cadre. Personal competencies include the technical knowledge and charisma of the first choice. Whilst the organization competencies include the combinations of skills and knowledge or experience that enable a head to execute the change program effectively. However, the available information implies that, even the experienced leaders were deviated from these competencies in a few circumstances. The newest examples of immediate commercial implosions (Enron, Lehman Brothers) have apparently raised concerns about the type and effect of bad leadership. Higgs (2009) have discovered that the causes of this leadership failure were credited to combination of personal imperfections and performance shortfalls. While exploring this concept, he also determined a range of causal factors for these implosions that happen to be skill deficiencies, being insensitive to others, betraying trust, arrogance and being overly ambitious. He argued that the non-public defects were more vital than skill deficiencies as drivers of derailment.
Finally, Northouse (2010) emphasized the value of charismatic/value-based management in change management. Value-based management reflects the ability to inspire, motivate and to expect significant performance from others based on core ideals of the change process. This kind of leadership includes being visionary, decisive, inspirational, dependable, self-sacrificing and performance focused. The powerful exemplory case of value-based leadership is the life span and work of Mahatma Gandhi.
Challenges on utilizing authority Skills and Competencies during change
Initiating and taking care of organizational change is a significant concern for today's market leaders. The leader's role in change process is to make their employees to understand about the necessity of change. Understanding organizational change includes analysing types of change within the organization. Regardless of its size, any change has a ripple influence on an organization (Gilley et al. , 2009). In the macro level, regular organizational change focus on strategy and business models, technology, product and services, structure, operations, culture, acquisitions or enlargement or downsizing (Lewis, 1994). As a result, it issues the leaders of all level in an organization in terms of controlling the complexity of the change (Biech, 2007).
One of the problems that good market leaders often face is dealing with the unsatisfactory performance of the staff in an effective way. Leaders who didn't clarify their expectation to employees and to respond openly up against the performance problems are considered to be an ineffective leader (Redfern, 2008). While focusing on the multi- product activity, in some of the groups, the leaders did not clearly respond contrary to the performance problems of the team members. It is not possible to expect all the associates in an organization to work well, but the market leaders could give previous instructions to the each individual about their expectation from them. Hence lots of the groups lacked the complete participation of all members in their team. As an effective leader, they should make all the associates to try a work to achieve success.
The crucial task that lots of of the leaders consider is the level of resistance to change, and it have a noticeable impact and affect upon the success of an organizational change project. Resistance is often seen as a behavior which is not congruent with the endeavors of the change leader (Bartunek, 1993). In cases like this, the leaders should analyse the level of resistance from motivational point of view and, more particularly, from an identity-based point of view, that is analyzing the employee behaviour to the change and their own behaviour to the resistance (Dijk & Dick, 2009).
Some of the literature evidence shows that changing organizational behaviour is the essential task for a leader while leading organizational change (Argyris, 1993; Kotter & Kohen, 2002; Burke, 2002). Burke (2002) emphasized that market leaders should offer with competition for resources, ability and political dynamics; dispel resistance; and exemplify desired behaviour change. Finally and moreover, the distinctive feature that leaders need to have is the capability to identify the right person for the right job and train employees to succeed at their careers. To succeed regularly, good leaders have to be skilled not merely in assessing people but also in assessing the abilities and disabilities of these firm all together.
During change implementation the leader must be sure that the right communication has been communicated through right approach. Implementation could very well be the most unfavorable stage of change. On this stage, communication performs a substantial role during the throes of the implementation phase. Without a highly effective human being communication, the change process cannot be implemented efficiently. Hence the implementation of change challenges communication skills of the leader (Russ, 2008). Furthermore to communication obstacle, the leaders may also face the task on time constraints to put into action the change. This sort of challenge impacts the success of the change process, just because a change process which is not completed with time budget cannot be considered as an effective process (Meyer & Stensaker, 2006). For instance) through the simulation game, lots of the groups were not in a position to reach the given target with time. Hence the clubs which didn't meet the concentrate on in time were considered as unsuccessful teams.
An effective leader used to display effective command behaviours in order to reduce the stress on change work, such as coordination with other market leaders in an group, matter for wellbeing of the staff, frankness and determination to require in two-way reviews, and self-awareness. They acknowledge and give importance to effort of others in an organization and support their initiatives. They will share problems, participate co-workers in their solutions, and try to achieve the goal in a manner that further problems do not happen (Redfern, 2008). But in real-time implementation, issues may arise between your change leaders of different departments or between the change leaders and employees. However, it could be avoid using available communication and through common coordination (Higgs, 2009). For example) even though putting into action the multi-product job, such kind of misunderstanding aroused between your leaders from different departments scheduled to different control behaviours. But the conflict could be prevented by focussing for the organization's objective rather than focussing on leaders' departmental goals. This could be done through effective negotiation and careful consideration of organization's current key change requirements.
The central areas of the change leadership are creation and promotion of dedication and trust. It is the leader's role to bring conditions for learning by stimulating fruitful conversations. Fruitful dialogue can take place only when the romantic relationships are characterised by trust, dedication and integrity. Hence the challenge of change authority is promoting dedication, trust and integrity in businesses. Obviously, change leaders cannot promote these qualities unless they themselves own these features (Nilakant & Ramnarayan, 2006).
The managers who focus solely on managerial tasks may neglect to provide strong control or to maintain the performance. Because over management of employees could lead to impairment of motivation (Redfern, 2008). Hence the market leaders should figure out how to acknowledge the sustainability obstacles and then develop appropriate skills and competencies to meet those difficulties (Ferdig, 2007).
Leadership skills of different levels
Based on the literature personal references on change control, lots of the researchers suggests that, an effective management depends on three basic personal skills, they may be complex, inter-personal and conceptual skills. Complex skill is understanding of specific type of work or activity and the inter-personal skill is ability to work with people. Finally, conceptual skills are talents to utilize different ideas and concepts. Leaders from different management level require different percentage of these basic skills. Market leaders from top management level mainly require inter-personal and conceptual skills rather than technological skills, whereas the market leaders from supervisory management level require higher proportion of complex and inter-personal skills than conceptual skills. But the market leaders from middle management level require all these three basic skills in identical proportion (Katz, 1955; Northouse, 2010).
As per the study conducted by Sparks and Gentry (2008), leading employees towards change and resourcefulness were found to make a difference for leaders across different managerial levels. Leading employees towards change includes preparing clear performance anticipations, delegating the change work to employees predicated on their skills and being patient and reasonable with employees. Resourcefulness includes being truly a strategic thinker; being truly a adaptable problem solver during any stage of change execution; understanding and working successfully with top management.
Charismatic authority usually stress the leaders at top management level during change (Waldman et al. , 2004). However, many of the literature evidences means that not only top-executives can motivate employees by formulating a engaging vision or by providing a behavioural role model, but also non-executives at lower management levels can have got charismatic control during change (Michaelis et al. , 2009; Seyranian & Bligh, 2008).
The above analyses and conclusions unveiled that effective leaders should have got cognitive skills, business skills, and strategic skills for the successful execution of change. However the available evidences show that, even the experienced skilled leaders have failed to possess the above leadership skills in certain circumstances. The organization implosions of Enron and Lehman Brothers were illustrating the same. Furthermore, during the simulation game, lots of the team leaders weren't able to lead their team towards success. This was due to great deal of issues and misconception prevailed within the team while utilizing the change strategies. Apart from this, some of the barriers also exist against change leaders which effects the change steps directly. They can be lack of knowledge of coordination in team, poor communication, lack of ability to recognize the right person for the right job and failure to encourage others.
And the examination on authority competencies demonstrates the social-emotional competency has a substantial effect on leading change over the organization. However, many of the challenges exist in employing the leadership skills and competencies during change. They are really resistance to change, changing the organizational behavior, communication concern, time constraint problem, and finally issue in promoting trust, determination and integrity in organizations. While focusing on multi-product activity, the team leaders were confronted these sorts of problems in implementing the change.
Hence, these kinds of issues, obstacles and difficulties on change lifted the question that whether anyone can act as a innovator during change. Because, the above mentioned analyses and evidences implies that many of team market leaders often faced issues while implementing the change and even the experienced leaders were also failed to lead the change effectively at some situations. So that it is not possible for anyone to be a successful head of change. The abilities, competencies and behavior of a person can only determine whether they can act an alteration head or not.