Seven quality tools

PART ONE: SEVEN QUALITY TOOLS

INTRODUCTION

For the reason of human being factor and individual consistency, it is inescapable that there may be occurred some kind of faults and problems even in well prepared and technically outfitted organizations and systems. The problems or unplanned risks that could be happened during the project, can lead the customer to have negative thoughts and opinions about the management team. Also some faults and risks might not being able to fix or might be very costly to triumph over it. Therefore a well prepared quality management plan is vital for an organization to be able to ensure that the management plan that the job team works on, meet the customer satisfaction and their needs. At this stage Ishikawa's seven quality tools are quite helpful to determine, identify and measure the problems, their triggers and ideas for a continuous improvement process. These tools can be detailed as; Histogram, Flow Chart, Scatter Diagram, Pareto Chart, Cause and Result Diagram, Check Sheet and Control Graph.

1. HISTOGRAM

1. 1 Purpose of Histogram

Histogram is used in order to explain the deviation and frequency of event of a couple of data in a graphical and numerical form.

1. 2 Description

In the majority of the aesthetic presentations, frequency syndication can be used, and all of them is made to be able to indicate how often that particular data occurs for in certain of your time. And the most common way to show the rate of recurrence of occurrence is one of the quality tools called histogram. They may look like pub graphs, but there are differs in some ways.

Histogram is a powerful tool in conditions of demonstrating the all data occur one diagram. It is helpful, when it's needed to show the comparison of one data to another. They are the visual way of indication and provide to investigate and measure the data visually. It is invented by French statistician A. M Guerry. As a distinct from the Pareto Graph, in histogram, only the regularity of occurrence of one type of property of the product is shown. The particular property of the product leading us to make use of histogram must be numerical and changing. The following shape 1 is given as an example. Here, a definite property of the merchandise, the amount of defective numbers in the next 1000 product and their possibility of occurrence are shown as numerically. As you see from the figure, a pile of defective number is in the middle of the distribution. It is shown such as a bell designed curve which is usually called normal distribution.

We usually use a Histogram when;

  • The data we use to visualize is numerical.
  • There is a need to evaluate if the procedure will probably meet up with the customer's need.
  • There is a need to identify the form of the distribution that the histogram will show, for that one data.
  • Making a comparison of the outputs of more than one process, to examine if they're differing from one another or not.

When making a histogram with the purposes described above, one should give consideration some details such as;

  • The review data should be changing.
  • The noticed data should place the X axis, while rate of recurrence should be place Y axis.
  • In one histogram only 1 particular quality characteristic is known as, and seen data values regarding with this attribute are positioned on X axis.
  • The column intervals should be same with one another.
  • In order to reach the more appropriate distribution, it should be taken notice of insert no less than 50 data things.

1. 3 Construction of Histogram

While making a Histogram, there are some steps that ought to be followed. These are shown as follows:

  • In order to attain more verifiable results, at least 50 data things should be obtained.
  • Finding the difference between the highest and lowest data tips, this is named as Range.
  • Collected data factors should be divided to X axis relating to their quantity. For example if we have below 50 data things, X axis should be split into 5 to 7 intervals. Precisely the same, for 50 to 100 data details, axis should be divided into 8-10 intervals. For over 250 data items, range of intervals must be between 15 and 20. Identifying the number of classes is the crucial step, since during the interpretation of the deviation in the info set, it will show the effectiveness of the histogram.
  • Each size of interval must be determined by the next formula ;
  • Size of Period = Range/ Range of Classes
  • By using the smallest and greatest data items, the boundary of the histogram should be defined.
  • Before the last step there is required to make the computation of frequency of each class.
  • Final step is sketching the Histogram and plotting the related data.

1. 4 Conclusion

Histogram is a good tool to recognize and make an interpretation for the deviation that is encountered in a couple of data. Anything we have to show or point out, we can do it by the quality tool of histogram in a simple and clear way. Nonetheless it is important to always consider that, histogram cannot give answers to the problems, nonetheless they can shed some lights on the improvement functions.

2. Stream CHARTS

2. 1 Purpose of Flow Charts

Flow Charts give a visual justification of the development of activities that happen to be had a need to complete an activity. The higher level flow charts help people who utilize them, to understand complicated techniques without details which cause misunderstandings. The detailed move graphs help people who utilize them, to investigate their functions to enhance the efficiency and optimize.

Also people who'll involved in creating process of move chart, learn to understand the procedure better. Since they are involved in, they begin to be more interested to the improvement of quality and process. They commence to determine the parts to improve the process. In addition they start to know how all the individuals and all the process involved and match the entire business.

2. 2 Information of Stream Chart

Flow graphs are visual graphs which show processes by wearing down them into activities. Also they show how these activities related to the other person from learn to finish.

To understand an activity, making a stream graph is the first step. Whether this technique is a managerial or production one, these charts provide a visible justification of the steps which are needed to complete the tasks. When we go through the flow graph, we can easily see how this technique and the steps of this process are contained in and match the entire business.

Flow graphs can prepare yourself in many types. Pictures, symbols or maybe circles and squares can be used to draw a movement chart. Also these charts can show an activity or only a part of an activity or many procedures together. There is not a great way to draw a circulation graph and also there is no incorrect ways to sketch a flow chart. The size of how well a flow graph is, should be parallel with how well the folks who draw and utilize it, understand it.

2. 3 Building of Move Charts

While preparing a flow graph, the people who'll be involved in, should be recognized correctly. These folks ought to be the ones who basically perform the process and stakeholders of the procedure.

Since to create a flow graph takes more time then expected, enough time should get out to the associates to complete their work.

In the development process of circulation chart, the crucial step is asking questions. Here are the examples of questions that will assist to construct a flow graph:

  • Which thing will happen first? (defining start point)
  • Which will happen next? (listing major steps in order)
  • To where do the outputs of this process go? (defining the route)
  • From where do the inputs of this process come? (defining the course)
  • How do the inputs reach the procedure?
  • Which thing will happen last? (defining stop point)

After defining the info to construct a flow chart, standardized graphical symbols are being used to document the process. Then the results can be assessed to compare to real process and to confirm if it is right and complete.

2. 4 Types of Stream Charts

There are four general flow graph types. These fluctuate matching to different perspective of individuals who modeled them:

  • Document Flow Graphs: They display controls on the document that circulation through something.
  • Data Flow Graphs: They screen controls on the data which moves in something.
  • System Flow Graphs: They screen manages in a source of information or physical level.
  • Program Flow Graph: They screen the control buttons in a program in the system.

Whereas there a wide range of classification of flow charts like this is demonstrated in the up.

2. 5 Conclusion

Flow charts give a visible illustration and description of process to user. These charts are the first steps to comprehend each process. Also these charts encourage team work and engagement to the business enterprise by staff.

3. SCATTER DIAGRAM

3. 1 Reason for Scatter Diagram

Scatter diagram is mostly used when there is a need to recognize the correlation of two variables that somehow have an impact on each other, to see the altering in one varying when the other is changed.

3. 2 Description

Using Scatter Diagram allows us to anticipate the type of function is more desirable to present the connection of two parameters. Two ways to show the relation between the variables are to look for the degree of relation numerically and graphically. Indeed, Scatter diagram shows the way and level of the linear relationship of two parameters. The way and the amount of the linear relationship of two variables are measured and defined with a phenomenon called correlation coefficient which is shown as "r". This r value is always between -1 and 1. In the event r=0 means, there is no relation between the variables. The higher "r" number closer to 1, the more positive correlation between your variables. On the contrary the lowest "r" number nearer to -1, the more negative correlation.

In the shape below, the correlation between the hanging around collection between eruptions and the eruption length of a geyser in USA. In the relation of two factors, everything we can conclude out of this diagram is, there are two types of eruptions. "Short wait-short duration eruptions" and "Long wait- long length eruptions". The closeness between the points represents the level of correlation between factors, that are put in X and Y axis.

3. 3 Building of Scatter Diagram

While making a Scatter Diagram, there are a few steps in order, that should be followed:

  • Choosing two items, that we want to look at the correlation between. Usually, it is best to utilize two parameters that are prospect of a cause and effect romance. For instant, an effect and its own cause can be the inputs for the scatter diagram
  • Data gathering. Such as the histogram, using approximately data will lead us to have significantly more verified and correct results.
  • Placing the info points on to X and Y axis.
  • Plotting the each set of paired data to coordinate axis. You will see dots is determined by just how many data points we collected.
  • Evaluation of the Chart and results.

3. 4 Analysis of the Scatter Diagram

The interpretation of the results we can discover from the diagram can vary depends upon the relationship presented indiagram. If there is a strong romance between two variables, a change in one item will automatically affect the other someone to change. But when there is no relation, an alteration in one will not have an impact on the other one whatsoever. So, the interpretation is split into 3 categories;

  • Positive marriage: The varying on the X axis is boosts as the other one on Y axis boosts, or vice versa. The slope of the greatest fit collection is positive.
  • Negative relationship: As the adjustable on the X axis increases as the other varying on Y axis decreases, or vice versa. The slope of the greatest fit range is negative.
  • No relationship: There is no relation defined between your factors on X and Y axis. Their altering does not affect each other.

3. 5 Conclusion

Scatter diagrams presents the user the correlations between a quality characteristics and a factor that could be influenced with it. What make this quality tools so useful is that; it is simple to utilize, to interpret and also to communicate to others.

4. PARETO CHARTS

4. 1 Purpose of a Pareto Chart

The Pareto charts place priorities within the issues to choose which problems must be tackled first. Since no company has enough resources to cope with all the issues, the prioritization is important. A pareto chart lists graphically the primary points in a brief and shows the connected importance of different things between data groups.

The reason for Pareto chart is to stress the main between group of factors. In quality control, it usually symbolizes the most regular origins of deficiencies, the defect types which may have high occurrence or the client complaints' most usual reasons and etc. The Pareto charts are especially useful to improve the process in creation.

4. 2 Explanation of Pareto Chart

Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto developed the Pareto strategy by depicting the consistency distribution of your population's given characteristics. Pareto chart is a kind of chart which include both a line graph and bars. The bars shows the ideals in going down order, and the range graph exhibits the cumulative sum up of every category, left to right.

Pareto charts arranged the data's priorities from highest occurrence to lowest. These charts determine the " vital few " classes which points out the largest linked frequencies and placed apart the " unimportant many ".

The Pareto chart provides answers to the questions which will be beneficial to find the most significant issues that the business enterprise or team is facing, to get the highest rate of improvement where in fact the team should target their work.

4. 3 Building of Pareto Chart

To begin to attract a Pareto graph, the range of data should be segmented into groups (segments, categories, bins, etc. ). Then your categories or columns should be ranked order (begin with the highest frequency column on the departed and continue steadily to the right). Then the variety of data details which are present within each group should be driven and the image should be prepared by paying attention to match the categories with frequencies. Above the info categories, a linked frequency brand should be determined and placed. This is the cumulative of every categories ratio.

The start point of building of any Pareto chart is to choose a process which is not producing produces. If the procedure requires rework or scrap, then your reasons for this rework or scrapping these parts are recognized and a list is made for the causes of problems. Now, we've enough amounts of data to produce a chart. After making Pareto graph, it can see which problems are the most effective to cause trouble, there should be several which are outstanding. Then we can focus to these problems which are most bothersome. After using Pareto graph to improve the process, to check on how the improvement did the trick, we can do another Pareto chart and the issues that are causing the largest harm and must be tackled, will be shown in this graph again.

In the Pareto graph example, regularity of occurrence demonstrated in the kept vertical axis. Plus the right axis represents the cumulative percentage of final number of occurrences. Since the numbers of reasons decreasing, the condition of the cumulative function is concave function.

4. 4 Conclusion

There is not a incorrect problem or wrong process choice to utilize Pareto charts. To boost quality, the most important thing does something and beginning with somewhere. To decide where your business has problems, if you commence to use Pareto chart, you will see out a number of things about your business or procedures and you will learn where you can develop.

5. CAUSE AND Impact DIAGRAM

5. 1 Reason for Cause and Result Diagram

Cause and impact Diagram takes on an important role in order to create a good outcome from a project and to provide a continuous improvement process since it gives us the theory about the root cause or causes of the snacks and problems throughout the project. One who selects the reason and impact diagram as a graphical display will have the thought of what is the essential root cause that leads us for that particular quality problem.

5. 2 Description

Cause and effect diagram is also one of Ishikawa's seven quality tools developed in University of Tokyo in 1943. It has been using to be able to determine, check out and show the main causes of a problem or result. This diagram is also useful to display both all the related factors behind problems with the situation, in a single diagram. This allows us to be able to see all the things in one web page and will clear the problem. The Problem, result or the problem that people want to work on is written on the right side of the diagram, while all the possible related triggers are written on the kept side. As can be seen from the body 5, the sub-causes are associated with the main triggers, and they all together forms the fishbone. Since the shape is more or less look like a bone of seafood, it is also called as "Fish Bone Diagram".

It is clear that we can wrap up with the complexities by beginning with the problems by using statistical methods. But after that, what the cause and impact diagram provides us it shows the immediate and explicit relationship between the effects and their triggers, visually. And the complexities to show are mainly split into 6 main categories; Man/People, Measurement, Machines/Equipment, Materials, Methods and Environment.

5. 3 Construction of the Cause and Effect Diagram

The steps should be adopted when making a reason and result diagram showed as the following:

  • A job team for pulling the reason and Result Diagram is shaped. It should be paid attention that the each member of the group gets the pre-knowledge about the product quality concern. Among the members is decided on as the facilitator. S/he is the dependable to listen and observe the ideas and thoughts provided by the other associates in a simple and understandable manner.
  • The matter which is related the problem and would have to be advanced must be determined as an impact, and sketch a box around it and add an arrow towards to it.
  • The next thing must be the brain storming that must be kept by the team members about what may be the entities leading to this effect that is recognized at previous step. Also the likelihood of relation between these causes, must be looked into.
  • This step must be used with the previous step. Because here, the sub-causes that are in some way related and influence the main triggers must be determined and analyzed. Make sure that all the possible factors that contributing the key cause are defined. When preparing the diagram, environmental and business factors must be identified details. And each team member's thoughts and opinions should be studied in order to identify all the possible causes to the issue.
  • The last step must be centering the causes more in detail which a noticable difference plan can be developed for by using other quality tools and techniques. The complexities will be concentrated must agreed by the team members.

5. 4 Conclusion

Cause and Impact diagram are very effective and powerful among the quality tools in the manner that making an improved understanding on our task. This diagram takes a team work, and pre-knowledge about the process project that people will work on. Since this diagram provides us a noticable difference for our job, it needs knowledge for certain. Because the more information that team members have, a lot more opportunity to improve them to come up with better outputs.

6. CHECK SHEETS

6. 1 The goal of Check Sheets

Check bedding provide to accumulate data from an activity in a systematic, organized and easy manner.

6. 2 The Explanation of Check Sheets

Check sheet is a straightforward document which we use for data collection instantly and in the location where the data is established. The check sheet is normally a empty form which was created to register the needed information in an instant, efficient and easy way.

Since the data collection is the start point of statistical research, it is very important and can sometimes become messy and unorganized exercise. Check sheet is a straightforward form that people may use for data collection in a organized manner and we can convert it into useful information easily. Check bed sheets present information in a visual format effectively. The sheet is an application or table which can be used to join up data as it is gathered. Also check bedding help to set up gathered data by category. They screen that just how many times each particular value happens, and the info that check bed sheets provide, is becoming more helpful as more data is gathered.

The check linens' main software is to join up data that presents how often different problems happen, and also to register the rate of recurrence of happenings which are thought to be reasons of problems.

Check sheets are being used to identify clearly what's being observed. The situations that are being noticed should be classified clearly. The info collection process should be taken easy and the info should be grouped in ways which makes data reliable and valuable. Similar problems must be in similar categories. A format which will supply the most helpful information with the less work should be created.

Check sheets are effective ways to display data and they are easy to use. They show the main reason of problems. Also check mattress sheets will be the first steps to create other graphical tools. It offers an organized standard data collection.

6. 3 Building of a Check Sheet

To make a check sheet first step should be defining the happenings, problems or functions to be documented and categorize these occasions. If there are occasions that are not easily categorized into the existing group, then a category of other should be added for these events.

Then for the data recording, suitable intervals and durations should be recognized. This time interval should be representative. And the check sheet should be designed to be used during data saving and it should be easy to comprehend. All columns should be properly categorised. The info collection should be performed through the agreed time interval, and everyone should comprehend the jobs and situations that are saved. The info should be analyzed to identify occurrences with unusually high or low frequencies. Then the information should be plotted on a check sheet.

There are four main types of check linens:

6. 3. 1 Faulty Item Check Sheet

To identify what forms of flaws or problems appear through the process, this type of check bed linens are used. In these check bedding there is usually a set of problems or defects that can occur through the process. When a defect or problem occurs, a make is located in the column of the problem. The info that can be used is countable in this type of check sheets. The desk below shows an example for a defective item check sheet used in wave solders make process.

Defect Type

Insufficient Solder

Cold Solder

Solder Bridge

Blow Holes

Excessive Solder

Frequency

xxxxxxx

xx

xxx

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

xx

Total

7

2

3

14

2

Table 1. Wave Solder Defect Count

6. 3. 2 Faulty Location Check Sheet

This kind of check sheets helps to find the location of defect or problem on the product. These are being used if the exterior appearance of products is important. This sort of check sheets generally consist a picture of product. To indicate the area of problems that are developing on the top of product, marks can be produced on the picture.

6. 3. 3 Defective Cause Check Sheet

This type of check sheets are used to get the causes of flaws or problems. During data collection, more then one variable is watched for this type. For instance, the data about type of machine, night out, time and operator can be watched in the same check sheet. Table below can be an example of this type of check sheets. As it sometimes appears from the desk, almost all of the error is happening in the evening change and in the machine 2. This means that machine 2 has problems when it's used in the day shift.

   

Machine 1

Machine 2

Operator A

Morning

X

X

 

Afternoon

XX

XXXXXX

Operator B

Morning

X

XX

 

Afternoon

XX

XXXXXXXXX

Table 2: Defect cause check sheet

X= Number of times that there surely is an error occurs

6. 3. 4 Checkup Confirmation Check Sheet

To being sure that proper techniques are being applied, this type of check bedding has been used. This sort of check bedding generally has a set of tasks which are required to be accomplished before the action will be studied. Final inspection, operation investigations, service performance, machine maintenance check bed linens are the examples of checkup confirmation check sheets.

6. 4 Conclusion

Check mattress sheets are helpful methods to collect data. They are simple to operate and understand and also they let individual to gather data within an easy, structured and systematic manner. There are many types of check bed sheets are being used. The most common types are faulty item, defective location, faulty cause and checkup confirmation check linens.

7. CONTROL CHARTS

7. 1 Purpose of Control Charts

It is a tool used to ensure that if the business or development process is under control continuously also to help the improvement of the process performance by the learning variation and its source. Using control graphs can help us to help make the adjustments of the quality of output of the procedure where it is necessary.

7. 2 Description

Control charts are formed in order to examine if the process is statistically in charge and the variant of the process within time. Control graphs give us notice in advance of possible issues that can be took place in forseeable future. By the control charts you can interpret about the variance that are from the info of a process and keep carefully the process in charge. And the method used is named Statistical Control Process. The aim of the control graphs is to keep carefully the variations that might be occur during the project in the product quality manner within appropriate the top and lower restrictions. Control graphs only give notice to us about the lifestyle of defect; it does not give any solution to overcome it. Here are some advantages to use Control charts;

  • To expose the fundamental changes of the quality properties.
  • To strategy quality change performance.
  • To determine the common level of the quality properties.

On control charts 3 levels must be identified. These are Higher control limit (UCL), Middle series (CL) and lower control boundaries (LCL). These limits or lines are calculated from samples that are extracted from this process. Plus the points in the graph refer to the examples and usually minimal 25 points are required to come up with a precise control chart.

According to the data type we've, selecting the best suitable control graphs, will lead us to reach the effect faster and effectively. Types of control charts can be defined mainly thought as the common and range control charts. The average control charts show the closeness of the procedure to the nominal design value, while range control charts indicate the quantity of variability and distributed around the nominal value.

7. 3 Building of Control Charts

Construction of the control chart includes three main steps:

7. 3. 1 Mathematical Model

Step 1: Data Collection

First we have to decide which quality characteristic of the procedure or product will be reviewed. Then m examples of n items are chosen for handles. For each device, the driven quality feature is measured and saved in a spreadsheet.

Step 2: Storyline data In each circumstance, the X axis of any control graph shows sample numbers. Data plotted depends upon the chart type for the Y axis:

Step 3 : Determine the central brand and control limits

The desk below shows the info about central lines and control limits for both types of control charts :

The coefficients found in formulas be based upon the sample amount n and they are shown in quality books.

PART TWO: THE SEVEN MANAGEMENT TOOLS

The seven management and planning tools are being used in isolation or in an integrated fashion, are designed to improve planning and implementation, it may require additional time during the planning stage, which is designed to save time later consequently of better planning.

The Seven Management tools will be the following;

  • The Affinity Diagram
  • The Inter-Relationship Digraph
  • The Tree Diagram
  • The Activity Network Diagram
  • Prioritization Matrices
  • The Matrix Diagram
  • The Process Decision Program Graph

1. AFFINITY DIAGRAM

The origins of the affinity diagram can be tracked to a data analysis strategy called the KJ Method, produced by Kawakita Jiro. The affinity diagram is basically a creative brainstorming process in which consensus is reached by visual (written) somewhat than verbal means. The affinity diagram can even be used as a management and planning tool that can help with the systematic analysis of huge amounts of data. It's best used for translating large amounts of complex, evidently unrelated information, into natural and important groupings of data.

Grouping related items really helps to identify underlying interactions that connect ideas together. Hints about potential approaches for overall problem dealing with are revealed that will help discover new a structural design in performance improvement relationships. This tool organizes terms data. Once brainstormed ideas are written on cards, they may be grouped together with similar ideas (affinities) a header cards is established which captures the meaning of each band of ideas. That is a creative, "right brain", activity. To be able to dilute the power of institutionalized means of considering a perceived problem, the affinity diagramming process induces a group to step outside their rational perceptions and apply their professional intuition. This technique is also an effective solution to use to generate a large amount of ideas in a limited period of time.

1. 1 Advantages of Affinity Diagram

  • A team can create a large variety of ideas in a comparatively short period of the time.
  • Encourages contribution because every person's ideas find their way into the process.
  • Encourages 'new' thinking when only 'old' alternatives are emerging from an organization.
  • Facilitates the exploration of new and reasonable thought habits by encouraging visitors to react from an innovative response level rather than the intellectual and logical levels.
  • An effective way to deal with large and complicated issues which may be 'paralyzing' the brainstorming of an team.
  • Consensus and support are come to on a remedy because all participants have 'ownership' along the way.

1. 2 When to use an Affinity Diagram

  • defining the nature of any problem or opportunity or offering covered problems or opportunities
  • helping to arrange and order fuzzy ideas
  • showing the correct direction to take in solving problems or getting together with opportunities
  • It is employed when the chaos is out there;
  • Broad issues / topics must be revealed.

1. 3 Making an Affinity Diagram

  • Assemble the right team: Four to six people with different perspectives who are creative and open-minded.
  • Phrase issue to be considered: A plainly stated, yet wide-ranging, neutral affirmation which is well known.
  • Generate & record ideas: Follow brainstorming guidelines & documents each idea on cards and flip chart with nobody word credit cards.
  • Randomly lay out completed credit cards: Over a table, wall, or flip graph;
  • Sort credit cards into related groupings: Quickly & in silence predicated on gut reactions. In the event that you disagree - move cards, do not discuss.
  • Create the header cards: These should be concise, but filled with no one word headers - they ought to make sense as stand-alones. This will capture the fundamental link in all ideas beneath it as well as what the cards say about that link. Place these at the top of each grouping and change sub designs into sub headers.
  • Draw the completed affinity diagram: Sketch lines connecting headers and sub headers with all the current credit cards beneath them. Bring together all the related groupings and then start review of the diagram by team members and important "non- associates".

1. 4 Affinity Diagram: Engineering/Interpretation Tips

  • Keep the team small;
  • Make sure that ideas are clarified, not criticized during brainstorming;
  • Avoid one term cards - they are generally ambiguous & cliche;
  • Write clearly - large characters - use believed tip points if possible;
  • Use flip graph to keep ideas noticeable because they are recorded on credit cards;
  • When possible, the assertion must have both a noun & verb;
  • Don't agonize over sorting;
  • Enforce the silence guideline during sorting - discussion is allowed when header credit cards are manufactured;
  • Keep the process moving -- prevent stagnation.
  • The "final" product should be evaluated by others and altered as needed.

2. INTERRELATIONSHIP DIGRAPH

Interrelationship Digraph practices the Affinity and identifies the principal issues predicated on root triggers. "It separates the essential few from the trivial many. " An interrelationship digraph is a visual screen that maps out the cause and result links among sophisticated, multivariable problems or desired outcomes.

2. 1 When to use an Interrelationship Digraph

The tool is extremely adaptable to both specific operations issues as well concerning standard organizational questions. It is equally relevant to core work operations (linking clients to resources) concerning support operations (developing the capacity to view sort out a prevention lens). An issue is sufficiently complicated that the interrelationship between and among ideas is difficult to determine, The correct sequencing of management actions is critical, There's a feeling that the challenge under discussion is only an indicator, also

  • Root triggers must be identified
  • A large numbers of inter-related issues need to be better defined
  • Scarce resources require targeted effort
  • When you will need to graphically map out the reason and impact links among all items generated.
  • Identify the issues/triggers that are most important among all the related items.

2. 2 Creating an Interrelationship Digraph

  • Identify the areas for which you wish to determine the interrelationships.
  • Clearly display the areas for the entire group to see.
  • Consider the partnership between each one of the areas two at a time. For instance, if you have 4 areas, consider two at a time, and ask the question, "Which of both most strongly influences the other?" Attract an arrow between the two that implies the route of influence. Notice that the influence may go both directions, but seek to determine which course the effect is strongest. Continue steadily to ask this question until all of the pairs have been considered.
  • For each area, count up the number of arrows going out and the amount of arrows arriving it. The area with the most arrows heading OUTWARD is the area with the strongest overall influence. It is, therefore, an important area to consider in the look place - it's influential. In the same way, look for the region with arrows coming INWARD. This area is the the one which is most often on the acquiring end of other factors. It also requires special focus on ensure that influences (arrows) coming to the region are coordinated so that the area isn't confused by competing affects. For instance, if front lines workers are faced with conflicting policies, programs and planning work, it troubles their capability to convert them into effective daily techniques.

3. TREE DIAGRAM

It is a way to systematically map out in increasing depth the full range of paths and jobs that require to be achieved to accomplish a primary goal and each related sub goal. It is known as systematic diagram, tree examination, analytical tree, or hierarchy diagram. It can be used to separate different categories into specific and finer levels of details. The tree diagram development helps us to go generalities to specifics pondering. The tree diagram starts with one item that separate into two or more parts, also each which branch into several parts, and so on. It looks like a tree, with trunk and multiple branches

3. 1 When to use a Tree Diagram

  • Broad aims must be divided into specific execution detail
  • All of the execution options must be explored
  • Assignable responsibilities must be created
  • It is employed when evaluating implementation issues.
  • It is a communication tool, which is a very brief justification to others.
  • It is used when figure out the major activities require to handle a solution.
  • It can be used when analyzing functions in detail.
  • It is used to recognize for the primary cause of a problem declaration.

3. 2 Tree Diagram Process

  • The first rung on the ladder to define the goal assertion and it must be written at the top.
  • The goal is in line with the SMART requirements, like S for Specific, M for Measurable, A for Achievable, R for Realistic and T for timely.
  • Also check that all necessary items are based on the level necessary for of the above mentioned level, also be sure all items at this level are present, also be sure it is sufficient for the above level.
  • The tree will be growing by placing new ideas and each idea must be a goal, problem declaration or target, and for each new idea we must use the SMART standards, so with the use of SMART conditions we can form the new tier of statements which can show the relationship with the above mentioned tier of goal or ideas with the help of arrows.
  • Continue this practice over and over and turn the ideas into subject statement, we must continue this process until we can reach to the fundament elements, and identify that what are the specific activities that may be completed.
  • Perform the required check again to the whole diagram, and verify that the things are sufficient for the objective, and verify that all the items were present and concur that it is enough for the objective to be performed.

Customer Satisfaction Improvement Plan

4. ACTIVITY NETWORK DIAGRAM

  • Developed by the U. S. Section of Defense
  • Also known as this program Evaluation Review Strategy (PERT) or Critical Journey Diagram
  • Tool used to control the length of projects
  • Takes into account many aspects of projects: task times, slack times, critical jobs, etc.
  • Designed for research and development-type projects
  • Determines a possibility distribution for a project
  • To plan the most likely program for the completion of any intricate task and most of its related subtasks.
  • It determines total execution time, simultaneous duties and key subtasks to be monitored.
  • The activity is complex
  • The subtasks are aware of known durations
  • The job is a critical organization target
  • Simultaneous implementation pathways must be coordinated
  • There is little margin for mistake in the conclusion time

4. 1 When to use a task Network Diagram

  • Brainstorm ideas of where activity network diagrams could be utilized in your business practices
  • Finding minimum completion times
  • Determining maximum conclusion times
  • Value of your time for each part of the project
  • Assigning given times for parts of the project
  • Creates an authentic program for the company

4. 2 Process of development

  • All preceding activities must be completed prior to the task can begin
  • The arrows shows the reasonable precedence of the project
  • Identify all necessary activities and identify the human relationships among them
  • Draw the diagram
  • Estimate each activity time, or node, in the diagram
  • Identify the critical path
  • Study the diagram for milestones and the prospective dates in the entire project

5. MATRIX DIAGRAM

The matrix diagram shows the partnership between different items or romantic relationship between 2, 3, or 4 categories. The information about the partnership is like its power or the role played by different individuals or measurements. "Six different molded matrices are possible: L, T, and Y. X. C. and Roof-shaped depending on how many communities must be compared"

L-Shaped

Two groups

A B or even a B

T-Shaped

Three groups

B A C however, not C B

Y-Shaped

Three groups

A B C A

C-Shaped

Three groups

All three all together (3D)

X-Shaped

Three groups

A B C D A but not A C or B D

Roof-shaped

Open group

A A when also A B in L or T

Stand 4: differently formed matrices

5. 1 L-Shaped Matrix Diagram

The customer's requirements are summarised in the L-shaped matrix. This is actually the most basic, important and common format of matrix. The name of customers are located horizontally as the numerical specification vertically and check grades are exhibiting the product packaging choice. The L- Shaped matrix is made an upside-down L.

 

Customer

X

Customer

Y

Customer

Z

Customer

W

Purity %

> 99. 3

> 99. 3

> 99. 5

> 99. 0

Trace metals (ppm)

< 5

-

< 11

< 25

Water (ppm)

< 10

< 5

< 11

-

Viscosity (cp)

22-35

22-30

10-60

15-35

Color

< 11

< 11

< 15

< 11

Drum

       

Truck

       

Railcar

       

Table 5: Customer Requirements

5. 2 T-Shaped Matrix Diagram

"The T-Shaped matrix is used to show the relationship between two different facets and the way to relate to another factor"[19]This T-shaped matrix relates different product models, (group A) Displaying their processing locations (group B) and the clients (group C). We can verify the matrix in several ways and gather different information. If we see to model A we see that in large volume of the product is stated in Texas with Alabama in little level. The major customer for group A is Time In while bit is bought by Arlo Co. Now if we see customers row we see that the customer for all model is Arlo, While only one model is bought by Zig. The minimal customer is Lyle and the Time is the top purchaser of an and D.

5. 3 Y-Shaped Matrix

The Y-shaped Matrix shows interconnection between inner process metrics, the involved section and the customer's needs. The effectiveness of romance is shown by symbols. Primary associations such as responsibility of production capacity by processing department. Secondary Romance as the link between the product availableness and register level and the Small relationship is the responsibility of distribution division for order business lead time, while no romance is on time delivery and purchasing department. In the matrix the principal responsibility for the customer's requirements is designated to syndication department's which is the most strongly related metrics to on time delivery will be the inventory levels and order lead-time. Circulation has the poor relation ship with order lead time and non-with inventory levels.

5. 4 C-Shaped Matrix Diagram

As the name of the matrix is C matrix this means cube, this is three dimensional. We can compare three categories simultaneously using software applications or 3 dimensional models. The next figure shows the relationship of customers, locations of processing and relating product.

5. 5 X-Shaped Matrix Diagram

The T-Shaped matrix is Prolonged into X-Shaped matrix when the partnership of goods travel (freight) with developing sites they provide and the users(customers)every axis of the matrix is from the two adjacent ones, but not to that one cross. So the sites of crops and the customers are related to the merchandise model nevertheless they aren't related to freight series.

We see in the following X-matrix that the red series and Zip inc appears to be small companies on volume founded, but will be the only 1 to serve Lyle Co. The customers for model C are Arlo and Lyle Co. At 3 locations Model D is manufactured while others are made of two.

5. 6 Roofed-Shaped Matrix Diagram

It is used with L or T molded matrix demonstrating one group of items. With a residence of quality it's mostly used. We are able to see in the amount that the client need are related to each other. Color and trace metals are firmly linked, while the viscosity is unrelated to any other requirements in the number below.

6. PROCESS DECISION PROGRAM Graph (PDPC)

The PDPC systematically find that what might continue wrong side in an idea under development. To avoid or offset the condition comes up countermeasures are developed. The PDPC helps both to revise the plan under development to prevent the forthcoming problems or also the best response when the condition occurs.

6. 1 When to use PDPC

  • We can use the PDPC before applying a plan especially in large and complicated plan.
  • In those plan which must be completed promptly schedule.
  • In those plan where in fact the failing of price is high.

6. 2 Technique of PDPC

  • For the suggested plan a tree diagram is obtained or developed. The diagram should be of high level, which shows the objective, the 2nd level purpose of main activities, and 3rd level of objective of broadly described tasks to perform the main activities.
  • Brain storms what could be wrong for every job on the third level.
  • The potential problems are review and any improbable are eliminate. The problem as fourth level linked to the given task.
  • Brainstorm possible countermeasures, for each and every potential problem. They are might be changes to the program that would put off the problems, which would cure it, took place. Shows the countermeasures as 5th level, jagged lines or layed out in clouds.
  • Decide how sensible every countermeasures is. The criteria like cost, the ease of implementation, enough time required and the success. The impractical countermeasures are proclaimed with X and the useful countermeasures with an O.

Example of PDPC

"Here's an example of medical group who is planning to enhance the patients care and attention with illnesses like asthma and diabetes through a fresh chronic health problems management program(CIMP)"[1]. The four main elements are identified by them and for each and every elements and key components the info is PDPC graph below. Within the chart the dotted line present the omitted part of the chart. The look team shows a few of the countermeasures and potential problems on the chart below.

With the patient's one of the possible problem "goal setting is back sliding. The idea of friend or sponsor with each patient is the thought of the team and which will be add to program design. The other areas in the graph help them to rollout, like the visit of personnel arrangement to their clinic with CIMP programme. But nonetheless one of the areas allows the group to aircraft beforehand for arising problems. Such as the training of the CIMP nurses that how to counsel the patients with improper goals.

7. PRIORITIZATION MATRIX

It is a useful approach and we can use with our associates or any other users for achieving the consensus about an issue. The matrix helps us to rank problems or issues by a particular theory, which is important to our business. Than we can, more evidently see the issues with priority to solve first.

7. 1 Who, Why so when to use

Member of any team or individuals in an organization who take part in the process. To know what our users or we members consider being the most serious problem with this program. Whenever we need to prioritize the issues, or even to achieve consensus about concern.

7. 2 Using a Prioritization Matrix

  • Brainstorm: first we have to execute a brainstorm time on the situation, which group customers or associates are facing.
  • After brainstorming the prioritization Matrix graph is complete with the group.
  • In the first column, the problem are written which are mentioned in the mind storm assembly.
  • In the second to fourth column requirements are defined. we've the following example of some criteria

Frequency: In this column we write that how repeated the situation is? Does this issue take place often or hardly ever on some events.

Importance: In the column we write that how important is the condition from the users point of view. What are the issues to be resolved?

Feasibility: What is the practical approach to resolve the condition? Might it be hard or easy to resolve it?

We can also choose other conditions, which better fit to the situation. For example we can truly add amounts like cost, timeframe and other numerical signals.

Rank: Each participant according to the desk above votes four times for each and every criterion. And every participant votes 12 times altogether of most votes: The full total votes clearly enable you to observe that how to prioritize the problems

CONCLUSION

In this seminar survey, we discuss about Seven Quality tools and Seven Management Tools, Inside our seminar record first part, we explain briefly the seven quality tools, At this stage Ishikawa's seven quality tools are very helpful to determine, identify and measure the problems, their causes and suggestions for a continuous improvement process. These tools can be shown as; Histogram, Stream Chart, Scatter Diagram, Pareto Graph, Cause and Result Diagram, Check Sheet and Control Chart. In the second part in our seminar survey we briefly explain about the seven management tools, The seven management and planning tools are being used in isolation or in an integrated fashion, are made to improve planning and implementation, it could require additional time during the planning stage, and it is intended to save time later because of this of better planning. These tools can be shown as; The Affinity Diagram, Inter-Relationship Digraph, Tree Diagram, Activity Network Diagram, Prioritization Matrices, Matrix Diagram and Process Decision Program Graph.

REFERENCES:

  1. www. cimwareukandusa. com/All. . . /ControlChartVar_Descr_ver3. doc
  2. http://workers. ky. gov/NR/rdonlyres/F974E25A-E77D-48B6-8435-0265CEE8D72C/0/CheckSheet. pdf
  3. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Check_sheet, November 13, 2009
  4. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Flowchart, November 27, 2009
  5. http://www. isixsigma. com/library/content/c010527a. asp
  6. http://www. artwork. net/ks/asq711/pdf/lazyboy_show. pdf, March 19, 2003
  7. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Control_chart, November 20, 2009
  8. http://course. et. byu. edu/mfg340/, November 11, 2009
  9. http://eisemp8. inonu. edu. tr/bildiri-pdf/yucel. pdf, May 25, 2007
  10. http://pdca. wordpress. com/, May 9, 2006
  11. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Scatter_story, October 14, 2009
  12. The Memory Jogger Plus+: Featuring the Seven Management and Planning Tools by Michael Brassard
  13. http://www. asq. org/learn-about-quality/new-management-planning-tools/overview/tree-diagram. html
  14. http://it. toolbox. com/wiki/index. php/Activity_Network_Diagram
  15. http://syque. com/quality_tools/toolbook/Activity/how. htm
  16. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Seven_Management_and_Planning_Tools
  17. http://www. affinitymc. com/Affinity_Diagram. pdf
  18. http://www. asq. org/learn-about-quality/new-management-planning-tools/overview/matrix-diagram. html
  19. http://www. docstoc. com/docs/4194232/Introduction-The-matrix-diagram-is-one-of-seven-new
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