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Scientific perspectives on positivism and hermeneutics

The reason for this chapter is to spell it out the technique that how the work will be completed and what procedure we've chosen. The aim of this research design is to answer the primary questions. We'd also present the summary of the decision of methods used for data collection, evaluation and the results of the data.

Research perspective

There are two main scientific perspectives, positivism and hermeneutics. (Ann Lind, 2005), since you want to create understanding knowledge, a hermeneutic point of view is most beneficial for our research.

The aim of the hermeneutic research is wanting to make sense of the whole, and the relationship between people, the organization, and it (Michael D. Myers, 1997). Hermeneutics has been thought as "the theory of the operation of understanding in relation to the interpretation of words" (David L. Rennie, 2006). The written text could be any sacred and legal file. "Hermeneutics handled two areas of interpretation which will be came across again: first, the problems of analyzing texts in a manner that looked beyond the top features (e. g. of a parable), and second, the problems of verifying the analysis so produced" (Wallace, Ross, Davie, 2003). We can say that the hermeneutics deals with the interpretation of any facet of the technology. Hermeneutics opens the road of protecting the communal sciences from the violation of the strategy of the natural sciences, but the main concerns are always the similar as those acknowledged previously: i. e. to what degree are readings to be ordered and to what level are they objectively accurate or subjectively factual to the reader? (Wallace, Ross, Davie, 2003)

The hermeneutics deals with the difficulties of the text interpretation, examination of the written text and the confirmation of that evaluation. The qualitative analysis produces some kind of wording from the interviews or observation, the produced text needs to be interpretive because "Texts are not simply more or less meaningful, they are also more or less useful. " (Wallace, Ross, Davie, 2003). It will show the objectivity of the written text, we feel that the hermeneutic methodology with qualitative research is way better approach to choose. The qualitative research offers chance to the interviewee or respondents to answer in their own opinion rather than forcing them to choose or answer from preset answers

Every research design has some strengths in it beside with some negative factors. It is not possible to say that any research design a perfect design. A couple of mainly two research designs which are the way to obtain the today's research, one is qualitative research and other is quantitative research. "Qualitative analysts aim to accumulate an in-depth knowledge of human behavior and the reason why that govern such patterns. "(Wikipedia, 2010) and "The objective of quantitative research is to build up and use mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. "(Wikipedia, 2010)

The qualitative research contains the study that includes: to find the answers of questions by predefined group of options produces answer that may not be resolute beforehand and gathering of the proofs. The Qualitative research shares the characteristics which can be described and it can help to recognize any given research problem or subject matter. Qualitative research is particularly efficient in obtaining culturally specific information about the prices, opinions, habits, and cultural contexts of particular populations. The qualitative research provides textual metaphors of, the way the researcher experience a given research problem. A couple of three qualitative research methods that happen to be: participant observation, in-depth interviews, and concentrate communities. The participant observation depends upon the observation of the participant to be observed, in-depth interviews depend on the collection of data from the average person personally, and emphasis groups rely upon collection of data from the group of particulars. (Mack, Namey, 2005)

The quantitative way, on the other hand, has more good thing about producing data that is available to the statistical research, then one that is mainly imperative in a safety framework. The quantitative research way is the majority of the time is within simpler form, the representation of the data in quantitative framework (e. g. graphs or charts) then the disordered structure of the written text in qualitative data. (Wallace, Ross, Davie, 2003)

In this research we have use qualitative research methods with hermeneutic strategy, our research design will show how this work will be employed, and why we've chosen the procedure that we will work with. The research design will be beneficial to answer the study question, we use the procedure of the observations and the interviews in this regard. We will try to explore that what exactly are the requirements of an customer (visually impaired people) and the way the ticketing machine could be provided by the program that may be usable for an individual. This process will be relying on the conclusion and results that people collect from the interviews and the observation. We will attempt to broaden our perspective at the start of the work, since it could be very useful at the point, when we will be collecting data. We will assess that how a ticket machine system interfaces have an effect on a user who's in need of it.

Comparison of quantitative and qualitative research approaches

Quantitative Qualitative

General framework

  • Seek to verify hypotheses about phenomena
  • Instruments use more rigid design of eliciting and categorizing responses to questions
  • Use highly organized methods such as questionnaires, surveys, and structured observation
  • Seek to explore phenomena
  • Instruments use more flexible, iterative design of eliciting and categorizing replies to questions
  • Use semi-structured methods such as in-depth interviews, concentrate teams, and participant observation

Analytical objectives

  • To quantify variation
  • To predict causal relationships
  • To explain characteristics of the population
  • To describe variation
  • To describe and clarify relationships
  • To describe individual experiences
  • To describe group norms

Question format

  • Closed-ended
  • Open-ended

Data format

  • Numerical (obtained by assigning numerical prices to reactions)
  • Textual (extracted from audiotapes, videotapes, and field notes)

Flexibility in research design

  • Study design is secure from beginning to end
  • Participant replies do not affect or determine how and which questions experts ask next
  • Study design is subject to statistical assumptions and conditions
  • Some areas of the study are versatile (for example, the addition, exclusion, or wording of particular interview questions)
  • Participant replies affect how and which questions experts ask next
  • Study design is iterative, that is, data collection and research questions are adjusted according from what is learned

Research strategy

We need to check out the existing method and routines, perhaps to build up and improve them. Once a specific task is underway, we might need to gather information to keep an eye on this program and review its effectiveness. Is it get together its target? Could it be fulfilling its customers? (Paul Nichols, 2006). The study strategy we will follow during the research is comprising the collection of the information through the interviews and the observations then we will review the potency of the info and try to answer the questions that Nichols asked.

There are two types of research strategy approaches.

  • Exploratory research
  • Descriptive research

Exploratory research

An explorative analysis is conducted when the researcher would like to follow a new interest or when the subject area alone is relatively new and unexplored. Desire to for such a study may be to create a much better understanding, to check the feasibility of further research or even to develop a method for further research. (Ann Lind, 2005) Explorative studies are most significant when getting into new territories where they almost always can create new understanding of the research area. (Babbie, 1995)

Descriptive Research

Descriptive research is also known as Statistical Research. The primary goal of the type of research is to describe the info and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this kind of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly correct, it generally does not gather the causes behind a situation. (Anto, 2007)

We have chosen the exploratory approach as our research strategy, because you want to follow a fresh knowledge. This area has been unexplored and is a new one, this area have to be of better understanding for the further exploration in the area. The interviews and the observations are also meets well with exploratory approach, because they'll create better understanding of the situation and towards the perfect solution is of the issue. By the use of the exploratory method, will help us to get better understanding and make the interface of the ticket machine system better and functional. By descriptive, we will be able to easily get our guidelines from theories now days for a design process of a solution machine system and the top features of visually impaired people.

Once the stage of interviews and the observations will be done, we will try to create a prototype that will assist to book seat tickets for the visually impaired people for the experimental goal. Our effort is always to get a better knowledge of how users perceive the user interface of the solution machine system and how exactly we can make more improvement in the interface to be useable for the aesthetically impaired people. To create better design of the device to research further on to make it more reliable for users. If we recognized and witnessed that today the machine called as self-service systems, always need to be increased and need some kind of updating and replacing in it to help make the performances better, improved and even more users friendly.

The role of theoretical study

The role of the theoretical research is to explore the literature related to the materials which is relevant about the research topic. Regarding to Oates (2006, site 72) the goal is to gather and present evidence to support your claim that you have created some new knowledge. The theoretical research is used to recognize the theory's tips and suggest theories that they might explain the info that, the researcher has gathered from the field of analysis. The theoretical analysis provides the foundation for any kind of research. The theoretical study is based on the books resources like catalogs, journals articles, convention documents and catalogues.

In theoretical part we will make basics for the empirical survey, which will down the road be implemented. We have inquired different ways for the executing of interviews. We have to keep in brain that what is considerable to think about and what we should do to attain, validity and persistence when we carry out the theoretical study. We have read various theories about the usability, solution machine system, human-computer conversation, and interface and design concepts.

The role of Empirical study

According to Oates, (2006, webpage 2-3) the research within information system has an extended tradition of undertaking field research (often called empirical research) in order to discover what happen, when information system are requested, developed and utilized by folks. The empirical research's end result can be utilized as the confirmation to sustain the valuable development and usage of any information system. When the merchandise is actually implemented in the real world the empirical analysis are a good idea to learn what happen actually, and when you want to develop the system in a desire successful way, there should be proof empirical study to support the research, the theoretical analysis may also be enhanced by making use of empirical research. (Oates, 2006)

Our motive is to acquire an enhanced knowledge of how the customer recognize program in the ticket machine system and what measurements we can take to make the interface of your ticket machine system better for the handicapped (visually impaired). This is done by making use of the empirical research because the role of the empirical research is to validate the results of the theoretical study.

Data collection procedures

For the answer of the situation of design issues of the ticketing machine system for the visual impaired people, we use the interviews and the observations. During the interviews, we will ask the questions from different aesthetically impaired people about their thinking about such kind of system. The interviews from the standard humans, who travel regularly, can help us to sort out the availabilities and problems of the existing ticketing machine, and get the theory how they think about the current system to improve to make functional for the visually impaired people. Through the observations, we will assess and argue the various responses distributed by the interviewer and can make an effort to reach some results.

Theoretical study

Our theoretical groundwork is based on articles, catalogs and books review as well as material which is pertinent to our research in our problem area. The literature review is done by searching for these keywords, usability, interface, human computer interface, information service and user interfaces etc.

Theoretical sources

The theoretical source is an instrument of qualitative research, for the theoretical way to obtain the empirical studies, we've selected to undergo the comprehensive analysis of books that is related to our research, which is compose of the publications, catalogs and articles in the study area. We can make analysis of the challenge by causing predictions, understanding and explaining the problem.

Our theoretical groundwork is comprised of articles, catalogs, internet and books review as well as material that is relevant to our analysis in our problem area. The books review is done by looking for these keywords: usability, software, human computer program, information service, customer interfaces etc. For these keywords we will definitely consider that the creators are more trustworthy than others. In our theoretical study, this thing will be posed with the websites, books, articles and journals because this provides quality in our data.

Empiric Survey

The empirical analysis is related to balance using what the theory says, here the theory is original point and the prep of questions related to interviews is dependant on it. The empirical analysis will have observations and interviews will be conducted at different places.

We will also try to collect the info by the interviews from the blind or visually impaired people would bring on direct quotations from them and also yields their pervious encounters, pervious knowledge, emotions and judgment about the ticketing machine or scheduling system (Michael Quinn). The observation will provide the handicap people's behaviour, activities activities and their interpersonal relationship with other assistive technologies they have used. The research of data from written documents contains the analysis of articles, publications and literature related to the blind people or people with aesthetic impairment and scheduling systems.

Empirical sources

The empirical source will be made up of lots of interviews and observations, which will be conducted arbitrarily from normal consumer on the spot after or before buying ticket form ticket reservation machine, and from the blind or aesthetically impaired people, from Eyes middle Boras.

According to Briony J Oates (2006, web page-202, 203), to observe mean 'to watch' and 'to give consideration to'. Watching is something almost all of us execute a lot almost all of enough time: seeing, ability to hear, noting, examining, formal ideas, making inferences, imposing so this means. He further says that, for data generation methods the experts use observations to determine what people actually do, alternatively than what they say they are doing when questioned. Most of the time the observation includes looking and viewing, but it can entail the senses other than sight: reading, smelling, coming in contact with and tasting. Briony J Oates presents many different kind of observations that could be for the observations, out of which we will use three kind of observations which includes, short period observation, record keeping by using simple notes and could be camera as well(if required) and third you are that no feedback is given to the experienced people. Folks detected would be only the people with the visually impairment disabilities. (Oates, 2006)

Highly systematic observations of pre-defined types of events

Observations of anything and everything

Narrow focus on particular type of event

Broad focus

Observation calls for no part in the proceedings

Observer participates completely in the proceedings

Facts of Observations occurring is known to all

Fact of observation taking place is known to nothing except the researcher

No reason, or false justification, given for occurrence of observer-researcher

Full explanation given for the presence of the observer-researcher

Short duration-could be less than 5 minutes

Long duration-possibly years

Record-Keeping uses only note taking

Record-keeping uses technology (e. g sound tape, camera, stopwatch, two way reflection, computer program)

No feedback given later to the observed

Full opinions given later to the observed

FIGURE 2. 1: Different Kind of Observation (Briony j Oates, 2006)

We will attempt to see and describe the interaction between your handicap people and the ticketing machine or the booking system, and the info and the info which obtained by the method of observations and activities. We focus on a theory as starting place then we will formulate interviews which will bottom on that theory.

Interviews are thought as a particular type of dialogue between people. Usually one individual has the purpose of commencing the interview: they want to gain information from the other(s) ( Briony j Oates, 2006). The goal of interviews is always to produce useful information for the study. In interviews we will try to do the things that Oates recommended (page-187) like gain detailed information, explore emotions, experiences or feeling that cannot easily be viewed and investigate very sensitive issues or privileged information, that respondent might not willing to create about on paper for a researcher they have not satisfied. We will use unstructured interviews; we begins by introducing topic to the interviewee and allow them to develop their own ideas about the topic allow interviewees to speak their brain.

The conditions for the selection of the sources of the interviewer or the person to be viewed will be the amount and type of the information required for the empirical analysis. For example if we wish the user necessity we will interview from the users (visually impaired people) if we have to know that how the ticket machine works normally or for the standard people we will interview public for this.

For the analysis of a group of individuals, (visually impaired people) we are visiting various people with aesthetic impairment disabilities at the handicaps service center in Boras for interviews and observations. The choice conditions for the interview and the observation will depend on the information and data required for the empirical research i. e. the user (visually impaired people) and the standard traveler.

Most part of our own observation will be undergo whenever we will be performing interviews, because the visually impairment people might not be able to give us quite a while for observation. There are very less chances that people found these folks personally getting together with ticketing machine even as will get normal people interacting.

Data research procedures

At this stage of inspection, we will evaluate the data we received from our observations and interviews, and then revise them and compare them between real findings and experience. The evaluation method means to produce a top quality by making use of evaluation, so we can authenticate all the obtained data to be able to get new information. It ought to be done sooner than we begin with our conclusions.

Interviews will be arranged for the users, who are employing the ticket machine systems in colaboration with the observations and unexpectedly different question would be asked from them. We can give the idea of the challenge in the user's mind. In this way we will easily reach to your goal of what we need and what are problems in the software, which can create more problems for the user (visually impaired). Then make a comparison of interviews with various users' viewpoints, what hurdles they could face during interaction with such program. By the end we will review of all data that we have gathered through the interviews and compare them with this theory.

Strategies for validating findings

According to Collin Robson (2004) analysis refer to as assessing the worthiness (or value or merit) of something. The 'something' focused on here is some kind of innovation, or treatment, task, or service. It involves people in one or more ways, perhaps as the professional of the service, or in setting up and operating the treatment, almost inevitably as individuals in the creativity or project as consumer of the service (Collin Robson, 2004).

The evaluation method is employed to make a good quality of the study, that ought to be of great importance that we evaluated for the quality of the study, So we will able to validate all the materials that we gathered. There are many options for the qualitative research as: (Kaplan, Maxwell, 2005)


-data quality


We will also use these analysis methods in our research, corresponding to Bonnie Kaplan and Joseph A. Maxwell (webpage-14) validity in qualitative research addresses the necessarily "subjective" nature of data collection and evaluation. As the researcher is the tool for collection and studying data, the analysis is subjective in the sense to be different for different experts. Different researchers may approach the same research question by collecting different data or by interpreting the same data various ways. We will compare the results of interviews and observations extracted from differing people. (Kaplan, Maxwell, 2005)

Data quality will unveils us that the info we collected is at detailed and different enough that it will provide a complete and showing a full picture of, what is going on and what processes are participating. Data quality will help us to deeply start to see the entire process and expanding some results.

This is the solo most significant way of ruling out the likelihood of misinterpreting the meaning of what participants say and do, or the actual researcher have seen (Kaplan, Maxwell, 2005). The responses will imply the gathering the response about the conclusions from members. We will attempt to check that our interpretation is practical to the aesthetically impaired people; this thing can help us in collecting additional important data if required.

We want to keep the structure of the study flexible and feasible, which would provide easiness and comfort to the reader. We will have empirical aid because of interviews and observations that we would perform from handicap people and the device ticket purchasers. The goal is to create consistency in the study such that it becomes easy to see that how the several parts to the study fit along.

On the basis of the two different observations and interview types, we will attempt to join the results from both scenarios and evaluate the results and try to give a clear picture of the situation area, that we are studying, from which the future viewers can identify and connect their study.

Result display method

After analyzing all the observations, interviews and the books, the study results of our thesis would be provided in the form of mainly prototype to certain degree, combined with the little bit of data, model and diagrams as well. We will demonstrate our results in form of prototype for the use of handicaps with aesthetically impaired people.

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