Roles Of Users, Payers And Buyers

Consumer behaviour analysis is dependant on consumer buying behavior, with the consumer participating in the three specific roles of users, payer and buyer. Consumer behavior is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy products. It blends elements from psychology, sociology, cultural anthropology and economics. It endeavors to understand the customer decision making process, both separately and in communities. It studies characteristics of specific consumers such as demographics and behavioural variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. It also will try to assess affects on the buyer from groups such as family, friends, research groups, and contemporary society generally.


Consumer behaviour can be defined as 'the dynamic connection of affect and cognition, behaviour, and environmental incidents by which humans conduct the exchange aspects of their lives'. There are at least three important ideas in this classification: (1) consumer behaviour is vibrant; (2) it consists of connection between affect and cognition, behaviour, and environmental events; and (3) it consists of exchange.


First, the definition emphasis that consumer behavior is dynamic. This means individual consumers, consumer teams, and society most importantly are constantly changing and growing over time. It has important implications for the study of consumer behavior as well for developing marketing strategies. In terms of studying consumer behaviour, one implication is that generalizations about consumer behaviour are usually limited to specific intervals, products, and individuals or groups. Thus, students of consumer behaviour must take care not to over- generalize theories and research findings.

In terms of growing marketing strategies, the active aspect of consumer behavior implies that people must not expect the same marketing strategy to work on a regular basis across all products, markets, and sectors. While this might seem noticeable, many companies have failed to recognize the need to conform their strategies in several markets.

Further, a technique that is successful at one point may fail miserably at another point because of the dynamism of the consumers and the marketplaces, which is why is online marketing strategy development such an enjoyable, yet challenging, job.


Many companies have developed extensive database that permit them to target individual consumers. Here are a few of them: -

NESTLE thought we would launch a new pasta product through the post alternatively than through tv. It is cheaper for them to develop a repository of the right socioeconomic profile of pasta-eaters than it is to market via tv.

UNILEVER uses data source marketing to target their loyal customers, wanting to make loyalty previous. In Sweden, they may be creating a data source with users of their Organics shampoo based on participants in a recently available competition. They also have sent out samples of a fresh Dove delicate crЁme douche to focus on segments to be able to create awareness.


A second important point emphasized in this is of consumer behavior is the fact it involves connections between affect and cognition, behavior, and environmental occurrences. This means that to comprehend consumers and develop superior marketing strategies, we should know very well what they think (cognition) and feel (have an impact on), what they do (behaviour), and the things and places (environmental events) that impact and are affected by what consumers think, feel, and do. Whether we have been evaluating an individual consumer, a marketplace, or a whole society, analysis of most three elements pays to for understanding and developing marketing strategies.


A final point emphasized in this is of consumer behaviour is that it consists of exchanges between humans. This makes the definition of consumer behavior consistent with current definitions of marketing that also focus on exchange. In fact, the role of marketing is to build exchanges with consumers by formulating and implementing marketing strategies.


Two broad groupings are enthusiastic about consumer behaviour - a simple research group and an action-oriented group. The basic research group is principally composed of academics researchers interested in studying consumer behavior as a way of creating a unique body of knowledge about this facet of human behavior. These analysts have backgrounds in anthropology, sociology, mindset, economics, and marketing, as well as other fields. Nearly all published focus on consumer behaviour is preliminary research, and this work forms the foundation of our wording.

Because researchers dealing with consumer behaviour have differing backgrounds, how they analyse consumer behaviour, the matters they focus on, the kind of theories they develop, and the sort of research methods they utilize differ as well. Some consumer research is very qualitative, with an focus on understanding a particular consumption event, a particular family's consumer behavior, or the success of a particular brand based on the context in which these phenomena happen and on the history before the event of the happening. Other consumer research specializes in finding regularities in consumer behavior that apply in a broad variety of contexts across time and space, like the effect of personal engagement in a purchase, on information seeking behavior or the result of sales deals on shopping behaviour in supermarkets.


Consumer have an impact on and cognition refer to two types of mental responses consumers have to stimuli and occasions in their environment. Have an impact on refers to their feelings about stimuli and events, such as whether they like or dislike something. Cognition refers to their thinking, such as values in regards to a particular product.

Affective replies can be favourable or unfavourable and vary in power. For instance, impact includes relatively intense thoughts, such as love or anger; less strong sense expresses such as satisfaction or stress; moods such as boredom or rest, and milder overall behaviour, such as liking McDonald's potato chips or disliking Bic pens. Marketers typically develop strategies to create positive have an effect on for their products and brands to improve the chances that consumers will get them.

Cognition refers to the mental buildings and processes involved with thinking, understanding, and interpreting stimuli and situations. It includes the knowledge, meaning, and values that consumers have developed using their experience and stored in their remembrances. It also includes the processes associated with paying attention to and understanding stimuli and occasions, remembering past incidents, forming evaluations, and making purchasing decisions and alternatives. While many areas of cognition are mindful thinking functions, others are essentially automated.


1. How do consumers interpret information about marketing stimuli such as products, stores, and advertising?

2. How do consumers choose among choice product classes, products, and brands?

3. Just how do consumers form assessments of products and brands?

4. How can memory affect consumer decision making?

5. How do have an impact on and cognition affect behaviour and conditions?


Behaviour refers to the physical activities of activities of people that can be directly observed and assessed by others. Additionally it is called overt behaviour to distinguish it from mental activities, such as thinking, that can't be observed directly. Examples of behaviour include shopping at stores, buying products, or using bank cards.

Behaviour is critical for marketing strategy because it is merely through behavior that sales can be produced and profits gained. Even though many marketing strategies are made to influence consumers' have an impact on and cognition, these strategies must eventually bring about overt consumer behaviour for them to have value for the business. It is therefore crucial for marketers to analyse, understand, and influence overt behaviour.


1. Just how do behaviour approaches differ from affective and cognitive methods to studying consumer behaviour?

2. What is classical conditioning, and how is it employed by marketers to influence consumer behavior?

3. What's operant conditioning, and how is it used by marketers to effect consumer behavior?

4. What is vicarious learning, and exactly how is it employed by marketers to influence consumer behaviour?

5. What consumer behaviours are appealing to marketing management?


The consumer environment refers to everything external to consumers that influence what they think, feel, and do. It includes cultural stimuli that affect consumers, including the actions of others in cultures, subcultures, communal classes, reference communities, and families. In addition, it includes other physical stimuli, such as stores, products, advertisements, and signals which can transform consumers' thoughts, emotions, and actions.

The consumer environment is important for marketing strategy since it is the medium where stimuli are positioned to influence consumers. For instance, marketers run commercials during TV programmes that their target markets watch in order to inform, persuade, and remind them to buy certain products and brands.


1. In what physical surroundings do consumer behaviours appear?

2. How do environments affect consumers' influence and cognition and behavior?

3. Just how do consumers' influence and cognition and behaviour affect the environment?

4. What effect does indeed culture have on consumers?

5. What result does indeed subculture have on consumers?


Each of the three elements can be the cause or an effect of the change in the other element. For example, a consumer might see an advertisement for a fresh laundry detergent that claims to wash clothes cleaner than OMO. This may change what the consumer considers the new brand and lead to a purchase of it. In this case, a big change in the consumer's environment (the advert for the new detergent), led to a big change in cognition (the buyer thought the new detergent was better) which resulted in an alteration in behaviour (the consumer bought the new brand).

Another possibility is a consumer might be dissatisfied with his or her current brand of laundry detergent. Within the consumer's next visit to the grocery, other brands are inspected, and the one which guarantees to get white clothes whiter is preferred. On this example, a change in have an effect on and cognition (dissatisfaction) brings about a big change in the consumer's environment (inspecting other brands) which brings about change in behavior (purchase of another type of brand).

While there are other ways changes could occur, these examples provide to demonstrate our view of consumers. Specifically, that not only do consumer processes involve a strong and interactive system, nonetheless they are also a reciprocal system. A reciprocal system is one where the elements could be either a cause or an impact of your change at any particular time. Affect and cognition could change consumers' behaviour and environment; behaviours could change consumers' have an effect on, cognitions and conditions. Environments can transform consumers' affect, cognition and behavior.

There are five implications of viewing consumer functions as a reciprocal system including affect and cognition, behavior, and the surroundings. First, any extensive analyses of consumers must consider all three elements and the interactions of them. Explanation of consumers in conditions of only one or two of the elements is imperfect.

Second, it is important to recognize that the three elements would be the starting point for consumer research. While we feel that marketing strategists should start with an evaluation of the precise overt behaviours consumers must perform to accomplish marketing aims, useful analyses could start with affect and cognition by exploring what consumers think and experience such things as the various brands of a product.

Third, since this view is dynamic, it recognises that consumers can constantly change. While some consumers may change little throughout a particular time period, others may frequently change their have an impact on, cognition, behavior, and environments. Keeping up to date with consumers therefore involves constant research to identify changes that may affect marketing strategies.

Fourth, while our example centered on a single consumer, consumer examination can be employed at several levels. It can be used to analyse not just a sole consumer, but also a group of consumers that make up a marketplace, a larger group of consumers which will make up all of the purchasers of a product within an industry, or for an entire society.

Finally, this framework for analysing consumers highlights the value of consumer research and research in developing marketing strategies. Consumer research and analysis should be key activities for developing marketing strategies. Consumer research includes many types of research such as test marketing, advertising pre-tests, sales advertising effects, analysis of sales and market talk about data, pricing tests, traffic and shopping habits, brand attitude and intentions, and many more.

Consumer research and evaluation shouldn't end when a strategy has been applied. Somewhat research should continue to investigate the consequences of the strategy and whether maybe it's changed to be more effective. Thus, marketing strategy should involve a continuing process of researching and analysing consumers, developing strategies, applying them, and constantly increasing strategies.


Once the consumer has recognized issues, they seek out information on products and services that can solve that problem.

Sources of information include:

Personal sources

Commercial sources

Community sources

Personal experience

The relevant internal mental process that is associated with information search is perception. Perception is thought as 'the process by which an individual receives, selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a significant picture of the world'.


Stage Description

Selective exposure consumers select which promotional information they will expose themselves to.

Selective attention consumers choose which promotional emails they will pay attention to.

Selective understanding consumers interpret messages consistent with their beliefs, behaviour, motives and activities.

Selective retention consumers keep in mind messages that tend to be more significant or important to them.

The implications of this process help develop a powerful promotional strategy, and select which resources of information are far better for the brand.


At this time the consumer compares the brands and products that are in their evoked place. How do the marketing corporation increase the probability that their brand is area of the consumer's evoked (awareness) arranged? Consumers examine alternatives in terms of the efficient and mental health benefits that they provide. The marketing organization needs to understand what benefits individuals are seeking and for that reason which features are most significant in terms of making a conclusion.


Once the alternatives have been examined, the consumer is preparing to make a purchase decision. Sometimes purchase purpose does not cause an actual purchase. The marketing organization must facilitate the buyer to act on their purchase motive. The provision of credit or payment terms may encourage purchase, or a sales advertising such as the opportunity to receive a premium or type in a competition may provide an incentive to buy now. The relevant interior subconscious process that is associated with purchase decision is integration.


It is common for customers to see concerns after making a purchase decision. This comes from a thought that is recognized as "cognitive dissonance". The customer, having bought something, may feel that an alternative would have been more suitable. In these circumstances that customer will not repurchase immediately, but will probably switch brands the next time.

To manage the post-purchase stage, it is the job of the marketing team to persuade the potential customer that the merchandise will satisfy his / her needs. Then after having made a purchase, the customer should be motivated that he / she has made the right decision. It is not affected by advertising campaign.


Consumer behavior is affected by: demographics, psychographics (lifestyle), personality, desire, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and emotions. Consumer behaviour concern with consumer need consumer activities in direction of satisfying needs leads to his behaviour of every individual depend on thinking process.


Consumer behaviour is influenced by: culture, sub-culture, locality, royalty, ethnicity, family, social class, reference organizations, lifestyle, and market mix factors.


From a consumer perspective, a online marketing strategy is a couple of stimuli put in consumers' environments designed to effect their influence, cognition, and behaviour. These stimuli include such things as products, brands, presentation, adverts, coupons, stores, bank cards, price tags, salespeople's marketing communications, and occasionally does sound (music), smells (perfume), and other sensory cues.

Clearly, marketing strategies should not only be designed to impact consumers, but also needs to be affected by them. For instance, if research shows that individuals are disgusted (have an impact on and cognition) with the advertisements for Armani jeans, the company may want to change its adverts to better appeal to the marketplace. If research implies that consumers in the target market do not shop (behavior) to get where a company's product is highlighted, then the distribution strategy may have to be transformed. If the study implies that consumers desire to be in a position to get information from a company's homepage (environment) and nothing exists, the business may choose to create one. Thus marketing strategies should be developed, carried out, and changed predicated on consumer research and analysis.


Peter J. P, Olson J. C and Grunert K. G (1999) Consumer Behavior and Marketing

Strategy, McGraw-Hill, Berkshire, Britain.

Schiffman L. G and Kanuk L. L (1995) Consumer Behaviour, Prentice-Hall of

India, New Delhi.

INTERNET Resources:

Consumer Behaviour curled from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/consumer_behaviour

Consumer Psychologist curled from http://www. consumerpsychologist. com/


Consumer Impact and Cognition

Consumer Behaviour

Consumer Environment

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