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Roles and Tasks Adult and Learning Disability Nursing

District nurses work within the principal health care team. They support patients at home or in residential care. They also provide a teaching role by enabling patients to look after themselves or by assisting family members learn to look after their family members. (NHS, 2011)

Nurse consultants spend at least of 50% of their time working in direct associates with patients. They are experienced and are accountable for growing personal practice. They are involved in research, development and teaching. (NHS, 2011)

Specialist nurses are also called medical nurse specialists. They specialise in a particular area of nursing, for example, patients experiencing diseases such as cancer, diabetes or infections. . Some medical nurse specialists also have a coaching and advisory role. They could also be engaged in advising medical and nursing staff about caring for patients with particular conditions and/or in educating nurses and other specialists. (NHS, 2011)

Practice nurses work in a GP surgery and are part of the primary health care team, that involves other medical researchers such as doctors and dieticians. In greater practices, there may be several practice nurses posting duties and responsibilities however in smaller ones, you would be focusing on your own, taking on many roles (NHS, 2011).

Asthma is a long-term condition that can cause a cough, wheezing and breathlessness. Asthma can be well controlled generally in most people most of the time. Whenever a person with asthma comes into contact with something that irritates their airways (an asthma result in), the muscles across the surfaces of the airways tighten so the airways become narrower and the liner of the airways becomes inflamed and starts to swell. Sometimes sticky mucus or phlegm builds up which can further filter the airways (NHS, 2011). Salbutamol is a beta 2 agonist. Salbutamol functions by functioning on receptors in the lungs called beta 2 receptors. When salbutamol stimulates these receptors it causes the muscles in the airways to relax. This enables the airways to start. Side effects of these kinds of medication can include nervousness, tremor and pain. (BNF, 2011)

Angina explains the pain and breasts tightness - and sometimes breathlessness or choking sense - triggered when blood flow in the arteries supplying the heart is restricted (BUPA, 2011). Glycerol Trinitrate are a good idea in minimizing angina attacks, rather than reversing angina began, by supplementing blood vessels concentrations of nitric oxide. Side effects from Glycerol Trinitrate include, headaches, dizziness, and diarrhoea, queasy and flushing (BNF, 2011).

Congestive cardiac failing is something that occurs when a heart doesn't have enough durability to pump blood around your body properly; this contributes to fluid collecting inside the lungs and body cells, which then leads to congestion. It tends to affect the elderly. It is a permanent condition and can be monitored with medication and lifestyle changes. Among the treatments available for utilization in congestive heart failing is Furosemide, which really is a diuretic. Diuretics get rid of excess liquid and sodium from a patient's body, but in turn your body produces extra urine. They reduce swelling in ankles, make deep breathing easier and probably increase life expectancy.

Cerebrovascular incident is the medical term for a stroke. THE ENTIRE WORLD Health Company (WHO) says that: 'A heart stroke is induced by the interruption of the blood circulation to the mind, usually just because a bloodstream vessel bursts or is obstructed by a clot. This slices off the supply of oxygen and nutrients, causing injury to the brain tissues. ' Aspirin can be used in both treatment and in the prevention of strokes. It functions by thinning the blood, therefore reducing the risk of clots. Common area effects include stomach problems such as vomiting and pain. Long-term effects can be serious you need to include a small risk of internal haemorrhage, which could lead to death.

Diabetes is a problem in which the body produces too much glucose therefore of a decrease in the quantity of insulin that is present in the torso. In a wholesome specific the pancreas produces insulin which really helps to regulate the quantity of glucose that remains in the blood stream. In the torso of someone with diabetes there isn't enough insulin in the blood stream to break down glucose and create energy. You will discover two types of Diabetes known simply as Type 1 and Type 2. In Type 1 diabetes your body is unable to create insulin alone and is diagnosed generally during junior mainly during the teenage years. It is very uncommon as it is an inherited trait and only 5-10% of all people who suffer from diabetes fall into the Type 1 category. With type 2 diabetes, the illness and symptoms tend to develop gradually. This is because in type 2 diabetes you still make insulin (unlike type 1 diabetes). However, you develop diabetes because: you don't make enough insulin for your own body's needs, or the skin cells in your body do not use insulin properly. That is called 'insulin level of resistance'. The cells within you become resistant on track degrees of insulin. This means that you need more insulin than you normally make to keep carefully the blood glucose level down, or a blend of the above mentioned two reasons. Diabetes is associated with short term problems such as hypoglycaemia which can lead to death and many permanent health issues which can develop therefore of the illness. The risk of these potential health problems can be reduced through lifestyle and diet management. Fabricated Insulin can be used in the treating type 1diabetes in a carefully prepared insulin therapy programme to displace the insulin that is not produced by the pancreas. The longer a person has type 2 diabetes the greater the risk that they can have to begin insulin therapy sooner or later throughout their lives.

Appendectomy - Removal of Appendix in circumstances of acute appendicitis.

Total Knee Alternative - Substitution of the complete knee joint. Used to take care of severe leg pain, trauma, long-term arthritis and flexibility problems.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft - A medical procedure used to treat cardiovascular system disease. It diverts blood vessels around narrowed or clogged elements of the major arteries, to improve blood circulation and oxygen supply to the heart and soul.

Total Mastectomy - A complete mastectomy is also known as a simple mastectomy. It really is an operation that removes all the breast tissue of your affected breast. The most common form of the surgery, referred to as traditional total mastectomy, includes removing the areola and nipple. However, the surgery can be performed using epidermis and nipple sparing techniques. In addition, it leaves the muscle under the breast remaining intact.

Prostatectomy - A prostatectomy is the surgery of most or part of the prostate gland. Blockages like tumors of the prostate make a difference the normal stream of urine in the urethra. A prostatectomy can help with this.

Laparoscopy - A laparoscopy is a medical procedure that is carried out using a laparoscope which really is a small, flexible pipe with a camera onto it. Utilizing a laparoscope means that a surgeon can access the within of the stomach and the pelvis without the task being invasive because large slashes are not needed; Sometimes known as keyhole surgery.

According to The office of Health (2005) MRSA stands for Meticillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. It is a very contagious pressure of the Staphylococcus type of bacteria. It can cause various infections and a few of these can be very serious. About 3% of the population are known service providers of MRSA and it could be transmitted by the carrier to another person or themselves via an open wound or into the blood steam. In order to reduce the risk of disease of MRSA medical care staff can practice proper hands hygiene and they can encourage patients to wash their hands after heading to the bathroom. Gloves can even be used with known providers.

The Office of Health (2007) talks about that Clostridium Difficile is a bacterium which is the major reason behind antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis, contamination of the intestines. It mostly affects older patients with other underlying diseases. It is present in a little proportion of the population but is usually stored in balance by the nice bacterias. When this good bacteria is not present condition develops. People who have been cured with antibiotics are most at risk. The condition can be pass on by healthcare staff, therefore washing hands after contact with an individual can help prevent the spread and reducing the utilization of antibiotics can lessen the injury that the bacterium can cause.

Adult nurses use old and adults with a number of health issues, chronic and acute. They get excited about many functions including caring, counselling, handling and instructing to increase the quality of a patient's life, often in challenging situations. Adult nurses can take positions for the most part levels of the NHS profession framework. Adult nurses work at the centre of your multi professional team that range from doctors, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, pharmacists, radiographers, professional medical assistants among others workers. They evaluate, plan, put into practice and evaluate look after individual patients. Adult nurses can work in both clinic and community configurations.

Learning Impairment Nursing

The World Health Organisation defines learning disabilities or LD as: "a state of arrested or imperfect development of mind". Learning disabilities can be an umbrella term encompassing a range of disorders and deficits that induce problems for an individual in relation to learning. People who have LD frequently have physical problems that go together.

Learning disabilities tend to be diagnosed by psychologists, through the combination of intellect testing, academic accomplishment testing, class room performance, and social connections and aptitude. The areas of assessment may include perception, cognition, storage, attention, and language abilities.

IQ or Intelligence Quotient is an attempt to assess intellect using standardized testing. According to the English Institute of Learning Disabilities (2006) it is used to classify the level of intellectual impairment in someone with learning disabilities. Below 20 would be classed as a serious learning impairment; 25 to 35, Severe; 35 to 50, Average and 55 to 70, Mild.

Errors in fetal development. Problems during pregnancy. Contaminants in the child's environment. Cigarette, alcohol and other medication use. Genetic factors.

According to the English Institute of Learning Disabilities (2006), between 1 and 2 percent of the united kingdom people have a learning impairment.

According to Autism. org. uk, autism is a developmental disability that lasts for a lifetime. It affects the way they make sense of the world around them and exactly how they speak and relate to other people. It really is a spectrum condition so even though people who have autism share challenges, their condition will be personal to them and can affect them in several ways. People who have autism sometimes experience over- or under-sensitivity to looks, touch, likes, smells, light or colors.

According to the NHS (2010) Epilepsy impacts the brain and can cause repeated seizures, also called works with. Epilepsy usually commences early in someone's life, though it can potentially start at any era. The severe nature of the seizures may differ in several people. Some may experience a 'trance-like' status for a short time, while some others lose consciousness completely and have convulsions where they tremble uncontrollably.

Down's syndrome is a hereditary condition in which a person inherits a supplementary copy of 1 chromosome. This additional hereditary material can lead to characteristic physical features like a flatter than normal face and also intellectual features which can vary from modest to severe LD.

Cerebral palsy is not really a learning disability, but is common to have a LD if you also have cerebral palsy. It is a health that impacts the movement and control of a body. It is caused by a insufficient development partly of the brain during pregnancy or years as a child. The severities of problems are reliant on which part of the brain is damaged (Mencap, 2010).

When discussing people with LD, dual examination identifies the comorbidity of learning disabilities and mental health problems. People with LD often experience depression or anxiety.

It is important for nurses to be aware of the common conditions in LD because they may easily be missed if they're not actively searched for. It could be much more difficult for someone with LD to communicate a problem with the health insurance and also, symptoms can be missed anticipated to diagnostic overshadowing which means that secondary illnesses are overlooked because the symptoms are mistaken to be related to the principal disorder.

Most people with LD live aware of help from people and day health care services.

Care for individuals with LD is often provided by members of the family with support from a variety of healthcare employees and professionals such as nurses, psychologists, talk therapists, physiotherapists and specialist behavioral therapists; medical assistants and day personnel.

Direct payments are created by councils to the people receiving social good care services, instead of the council providing the service immediately (direct. gov. uk).

LD nurses work in a number of setting which include the home, family, adult education, education for young people and community/domestic settings (NHS Professions Website).

Social Role Valorisation is the name given to a concept developed by Wolf Wolfensberger, Ph. D in 1983 which follows the theory of normalisation. Normalisation is a couple of key points that underlie the theory that people with a learning impairment should are in normal places, doing normal things, with regular people: essentially experiencing the 'normal' patterns of each day life.

The five service achievements recognized by O'Brien and Tyne (1981) were: Community occurrence; Romantic relationships; Choice; Competence; Value.

Person Cantered Planning is way of seeing and working with everyone with disabilities. It helps people with disabilities plan and organise their future in a far more typical way. Fundamentally the individual reaches the centre and family and friends are made full companions in the program. The plan should reflect what is important to the person and the capacities that they have. It should also help a person to produce a respected contribution to contemporary society.

People with learning LD have been referred to as patients, clients and service users. Service consumer is the current term used within medical but the term client continues to be employed by some and probably depends on who you are speaking with.

The four principles of the 2001 white paper 'valuing people' are: right, freedom, choice and inclusion. Right means that individuals with learning disabilities must have the same privileges and options as every person else. Independence means the people who have LD should be helped to reside in lives that are as unbiased as is feasible. Choice means that folks with LD should be empowered to get choice in the procedure they get and the lives that they lead. Addition means that individuals with LD should be included in society, get access to services and helped to get valued social assignments within society.

One of the issues with LD nursing is mental health. People with LD often also experience mental health issues. There is a distinctive difference between a person getting a mental health issues and a learning disability,

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