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Roles and Functions of Bones and Muscles

TAQ 1 - In a short account clarify skeletal and bone function which aid perform its roles. Be sure you link structure and function for both.

The human skeleton is made up of bones, these bone fragments are composed of any mineral called calcium mineral. For this reason mineral bone is an extremely hard substance, minus the presence of calcium bone becomes soft and plastic like. There are two types of bone that happen to be spongy and small, spongy bone has a lot of small areas that are filled with marrow, this type of bone is found at the ends of long bone fragments including the femur. Compact bone is very densely compacted bone, this makes up the key shaft of the bone fragments, this dense compaction is exactly what gives them strength. Bone has different constructions, included in these are the diaphysis which is the main shaft of the bone, the epiphysis which is the extremities of the bone, the articular cartilage which forms a joint and is also a thin level of cartilage which covers the epiphysis of the bone. The periosteum is the difficult fibrous coating that covers that contains nerves, blood vessels and lymph vessels that go into the bone, in addition they act as a spot of attachment for ligaments and tendons. The marrow cavity is the space in between the bone which is made up of either yellow or red bone marrow, yellow bone marrow produces white blood skin cells whereas red blood vessels marrow produces red blood vessels skin cells. The skeletal system needs bone to be tough as the body uses the skeleton as support. In addition, it uses the skeleton to be able to move, with the use of joints between the bone fragments such as fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial bones. Without these bones and joints the body would not be capable of assisting itself or locomotion.

Word count number: 271 words.

TAQ 2 - Joint table


Joint Type

Movement Range

Suture - Interconnection of plates on the cranium.

Fibrous - A fibrous joint is a set joint that has no join cavity, the bones are held as well as fibrous connective tissues.


Vertebrae joint parts -Joints between the vertebrae in the spinal column.

Cartilaginous - A cartilaginous does not have any sign up for cavity, the bone fragments are held together with cartilage which is called intervertebral cartilage.

Flexion, expansion, lateral flexion and rotation.

Knee - Joint between top and lower calf.

Synovial - A synovial joint has a joint cavity between your two articulating bones, the surface of the bones is protected in articular cartilage which reduces friction between your bone fragments, whilst absorbing the great shock of influences. The joint is bounded by an articular capsule that has two tiers. The outer layer consists of dense fibrous tissue, this is strong and prevents dislocation and the inner level is the synovial membrane which secretes synovial smooth which provides lubrication and nourishment for the articular cartilage. The knee joint has bursae that are constructions that are lined with a synovial membrane which fills the bursae with fluid, this is to further lubricate the knee joint as there is certainly persistent movement.

Flexion and expansion.

Shoulder Joint

Synovial - Just like the leg joint the shoulder joint is a synovial joint, nonetheless it is described as a ball and outlet joint therefore it has a larger motion range than the knee joint.

Flexion, expansion, hyperextension and rotation.

Word count number: 232 words.

TAQ 3 - Part 1 - Describe what joint and muscle activities get excited about running and how are they included? (200 words)

Part 2 - Explain what joint and muscle activities are participating at a pc within an office and exactly how are they included? (200 words)

Part 1:

The most usual muscles used in the body in running will be the quadriceps, the calf muscles, the hamstring and the gluteus maximus. Muscles must move the composition of the skeleton. The quadriceps are being used to move the hip joint, which is a synovial ball and socket joint that begins the body moving off forwards, then the hamstring agreements which moves the low leg, this happens as the calf muscle deals which moves the ankle which in turn propels the body forward. Every one of the muscles that contain contracted and also have been used to propel your body forwards relaxes and their antagonistic match to that muscle group then contracts moving the leg back into the resting position whilst the other leg propels your body forward. The hands also play a large part in the momentum of working, this consists of the pectoral muscles pulling the shoulders forward and the tricep muscles contracting and stretching the forearms. The trunk muscles get excited about working by keeping the backbone straight to maintain balance through the process of running. The back combined with the abdominal muscles are using tonic fibres that are being used as poor, involuntary movement that provides your body with balance.

Word matter: 200 words.

Part 2:

Within any office, our body itself is not moving very considerably in conditions of distance therefore is not investing in a great deal of effort to go the skeleton. The main muscles that are used at your personal computer within an office environment will be the muscles within the fingertips that are using twitch fibres that are providing voluntary movements to the hands in order to press the secrets to type on the computer. Additional twitch fibres are being used within the tricep, bicep and the forearm muscles are being used in order to move the mouse using the pc. The trunk muscles like the trapezius and latissimus dorsi with the abdominal muscles including the transversus abdominus and the inner oblique muscles use tonic fibres that happen to be poor moving involuntary fibres that are being used in order to maintain balance for your body on the chair. Other muscles use twitch fibres to make voluntary movements like the muscles in the eye, including the cillary muscle that goes the eyes in order for the person to either go through the screen, sight or a bit of work on the office.

Word matter: 192 words.

TAQ 4 - Skeletal muscles have complicated structures that allow them to move, what are these structures as well as how to they allow the muscles to carry out their jobs? (300 words)

Skeletal muscles are permitted to move with a voluntary, conscious, action. They do this by the mind sending a power transmission to the spinal-cord which sends the motor unit neurons the same electrical signal. This electrical power signal then causes the muscle specific muscle to contract and therefore motion is achieved. A good example of this would be in the arm you have the bicep and the tricep muscles. In case the arm needs to be bend (flexion) then your brain sends the electrical sign to the spinal-cord which send the electric powered indication to the motor neuron that control buttons the bicep muscle which makes the bicep muscle agreement and for that reason move the low arm move towards your body. If the arm needs to be straightened the process is the same however the muscle that contracts is the tricep and the bicep relaxes as there is no electrical signal delivered to the bicep, only the tricep. The skeletal muscles are made with what is called twitch fibres (fast fibres) which is striated in appearance. The muscle can move the bones of the skeleton as there is a structure that is named tendons. Tendons are fibrous tissue that is both strong and adaptable, this enables the muscle that deals to go the bone without snapping or stretching which stops dislocation of the joint. Once the muscle deals this shortens the length between your tendon and the joint itself and therefore allows the arm to go towards the body. If you look at a joint that is expansion as well as flexion such as the shoulder joint which really is a ball and outlet joint, it has several sets of tendons that allow the upper arm to move in several different directions with the contraction and relaxation of different muscle groups.

Word count number: 300 words.

TAQ 5 - Movement requires muscles and all muscles have 'antagonistic pairs'. By using this as a title write a short bill of how muscle contraction and antagonism is essential for the co-ordinated motion of an organism (200 words)

The contraction of an muscle to go a joint requires the use of muscle, tendons, ligaments and bones. The contraction of the muscle commences with motor neurons from the spinal cord which send out a sign to the muscle that the mind wants to deal, this electro-signal therefore deals the equivalent muscle and therefore the joint moves in the flexion or expansion motion. While using exemplory case of a bicep and tricep muscle of top of the arm, if the indication is delivered to move around in the route of flexion then your bicep muscle contracts which shortens the bicep muscle which pulls on the tendons of the bicep muscle on the funny of the individual therefore the top arm movements in a flexion way. In case the tricep didn't relax at this time and contracted, i. e. shortened at the same time, then the higher arm couldn't move in a flexion or expansion way. Extension is the same but with the contraction of the tricep muscle and the relaxation of the bicep muscle. This is one way the limbs of the person move, they use both pairs of antagonistic muscles to be able to create movements.

Word count number: 191 words.



Principals of Anatomy and Physiology, Tortora and Grabowski, 9th edition, 2000, Von Hoffman Press, internet pages 241 - 263.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Human being Skeleton and Muscles, Distance Learning Centre, 2014, All Pages.

http://quizlet. com/18020629/muscles-that-move-the-lower-leg-flash-cards/

http://www. fitstep. com/Advanced/Anatomy/Back. htm

http://www. betterhealth. vic. gov. au/bhcv2/bhcarticles. nsf/pages/abdominal_muscles

http://www. popsugar. com/fitness/Ligaments-Tendons-What-Diff-145043

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