Posted at 11.02.2018
The building industry is one of the very most dangerous industries in the UK. For this reason, the CDM Legislation (2007) were launched to generate a culture of basic safety on the market as a whole and, through this, to lessen the number of accidents experienced. The purpose of the laws was to enhance the overall management and coordination of health, safeness and welfare throughout all periods of a development project. The CDM Legislation (2007) place a work on all those involved in building assignments to ensure that their take bill of health insurance and security at every level from design through engineering to procedure and maintenance of a building (PROjEN plc, 2010). However, information issued by the Health and Safety Executive (2011) show that regardless of the launch of the CDM Laws (2007), the building industry remains the industry with the most significant amount of fatal injury, with 2. 2 deaths per 100, 000 workers in 2009/10. That is a loss of 32% in comparison to the previous yr, however still the highest compared to all the industries. The industry was responsible for 35% of most reported injuries affecting dropping from a level and 24. 8% including electricity (HSE 2010). It is clear, then, that the CDM Legislation (2007) experienced some results on security within the industry. It is also clear that we now have further changes needed.
The HSE (2011) have given suggestions on risk evaluation and management within the structure industry with the aim of reducing injury to all those included, like the site workers, people to a niche site and the general public (HSE 2011). This newspaper deals with the health and safety hazards and risk management of building a particular house in a domestic area.
Risk management consists of identifying, assessing and choosing ways of keep doubt and risk at a tolerable level. Good risk management will not automatically eliminate a risk nonetheless it does permit a contractor to cope with potential dangers (Weatherhead et al. 2005).
In risk management, all potential dangers are identified combined with the consequences of this risk. A contractor may then formulate a response to a risk, by handling it, preventing it or transferring it. Risks can be managed by eliminating that one element of the work, by redesigning an factor or by using a different method of structure. A risk is also manipulated by giving more staff training or increasing guidance on site (Edwards 1995). Alternatively, the risk can be used in the party who's best placed to take care of that risk like a specialist sub-contractor (Smith 2003).
It is assumed, that the Castleford Homes will be the primary company on site, with design details provided by a structural engineer and specialist contractors will be utilized as necessary.
The work is divided into two levels, site mobilisation and construction.
Inadequate information regarding program of work
All site operatives and sub-contractors
There is not any obvious program of work. A programme of work is essential to ensure control of a job (Cooke &Williams 2004: p. 108). This data is essential to ensure that the correct staff are on site with the necessary materials at the right time.
Contractor to get ready detailed program of work
Contractor to prepare resource and vegetable schedules.
Programmes to be prepared before site work starts off.
Method claims for individual tasks to prepare yourself by contractor or nominated person.
Contractor to recognize safety workers including medical official and planning supervisor.
All site workforce
Welfare facilities- Rules 22 of The Health and Safety at Work Action requires that the company provide welfare facilities with supply of water, sanitary and cleansing facilities. The site plan indicates a location for accommodation, however will not provide specific details. (Chudley &Greeno 2006: p. 10).
Contractor to check adequate facilities provided before site work begins.
Hazards to general public
General public have to be aware of the website and they should not enter into without consent.
Contractor to ensure that site boundary is obviously defined and covered by secure fencing.
Contractor to provide site signage relative to CDM laws 27. 2.
Water hazard - Working close to river
All Site personnel Visitors
The site is bounded using one side by a river.
Contractor to ensure at site induction that all personnel should be produced aware of the potential risks of working near a waterway.
Contractor to ensure satisfactory, clearly apparent, safety recovery equipment should be available at rivers advantage, in accordance with Health and Safety Legislation (Chudley &Greeno 2006).
Safety at site
The site is accessed from Wey Highway, which is apparently a residential street. The access is very thin and with reduced space for unloading/turning. Sight lines can also be obscured because of the presence of trees with tree cover orders.
Extend the width of the gain access to and lean vegetation.
Assign a niche site operative ( in high visibility clothing) with responsibility for access/egress and turning of vehicles to site.
Contractor to ensure adequate site traffic turning signage on route
Safety on home road
Limited airport parking for site staff. Parked cars could potentially block highway and cause protection hazard.
Contractor to provide on site car parking.
If possible Contractor to instigate car showing or pick up point off site.
Unforeseen services and obstructions
Pipelayers, Trench operatives
The data on the job drawings is dependant on a site with existing buildings and does not show the location of existing services, drainage or other potential obstructions. That is major risk.
Contractor to obtain backup of existing data organised by creator/structural engineer.
Contractor to supplement data as necessary with pre-construction survey of the site.
In-situ services to be plainly identified for any staff to see.
Restricted Access to material store
Material Store is situated to the rear of the site. This location will never be easily accessible due to existing TPO and demolition work.
Contractor can improve examine by making certain area to east of proposed house is cleared first. As demolition advances, an gain access to could be formed along the east of the site. Contractor to assign site operative for deliveries.
Hazardous stored material
Storage area is identified on site, however no more details in standards.
Contractor to assign site operative with training and responsibility for organising material store, separating dangerous materials as necessary.
Material store to be fenced off with access limited by accountable site operative.
Contractor to plan deliveries to minimise volume of material stored on site.
Risk of flooding of material store area
Material store at 11. 3m OD. River has flooded to 11. 39m OD with maximum registered level of 11. 86m OD (EA 2011). Some materials stored may react with drinking water.
Contractor to ensure materials vunerable to water damage and mold to be lifted above 11. 86m OD
Risk of car accident credited to TPO trees and roots
There are lots of trees and shrubs with preservation orders (TPO). A TPO prohibits affecting the trees, with fines including halting the works and concern potential penalty of up to 20, 000. However, the trees and shrubs form an blockage and their origins potential tripping hazards.
Contractor to ensure that all tree must be shielded, with a protective 1. 2m high fence erected prior to the start of works, such that the area covered around the tree is either the length of the crown spread of the tree or half the height of the tree, whichever is higher (CLG 2009).
Risk of water in excavated trenches
Excavating operatives and machine drivers
There is no data available on earth conditions and normal water table level. If river rises, water table likely to rise and better chance of surface normal water in trenches. This increases odds of trench collapse.
Contractor to establish water table levels.
Contractor to possess pumping equipment available or design momentary drainage to de-water trenches.
Risk of open trenches
Machine motorists, site individuals.
Open trenches crossing the website present a risk for machine motorists and site employees.
Contractor to plan trenching operations to minimise time trenches open up. Assign a niche site operative with excavating machines.
Risk of existing services
Machine motorists, site workers
High Risk - A couple of gas, electric, drinking water and drainage services on the webpage. These services have to be located as threat of slicing through services, especially electric and gas.
Contractor to locate and identify location of existing services.
Contractor to plan work near services that will require operatives to make use of palm tools as essential to confirm exact location before undertaking trenching works (HSE 2011).
Collapse of trenching
Pipelayers, site personnel, machines operators
The site is likely to flooding and this particular desk levels are therefore unstable. There is inadequate home elevators drawings regarding tube depths for services, drainage and rainfall harvesting reservoir.
Contractor to obtain additional comprehensive design information from custom made. Trenching to be shored using ideal temporary support to avoid collapse.
Dewatering equipment to be accessible as necessary.
Hazardous operation Demolition
Visitors to site
Residents next to site
The works include demolition of existing glasshouses, conservatory, garages, shed and shelter and existing house.
Contractor to prepare detailed method claims for each portion of demolition work, taking bank account old of structure, kind of building and weight of removed materials on above walk out.
Contractor to consider using specialist sub-contractor for work.
Site providers to learn in demolition techniques.
Noise and vibration
The level of noise and disturbance will rely upon equipment used. Also vibrating palm tools used to split up materials can cause vibration symptoms in staff.
Contractor to consider noise and vibration of activity while preparing method affirmation.
Demolition of existing complexes- comes from height, slipping debris
Visitors to site
Residents next to site
The works include demolition of existing house. There's a risk that operatives could fall from scaffolding. RISKY Task. There is a risk that employees could be struck with falling dirt.
Contractor must be sure that operatives are trained and outfitted to carry out the work. Safeness netting and other protective sheeting to be installed on scaffolding as necessary.
Work to be carried out relative to method statement
Demolition of a glass houses
Visitors to site
Residents adjacent to site
Residents of east part are near glasshouses that are to be demolished.
Contractor must be sure that operatives are trained and prepared to carry out the work.
Risk of safe practices to workers with demolition
Visitors to site
Rubble to gathered and removed site which requires vehicle movements in restricted residential access.
Reuse materials as hardcore to lessen vehicle motions on site. Residual risk of crushing rock and roll on site dealt with by using trained operatives and appropriate equipment.
Piling - unsafe operation.
The equipment used to operate a vehicle a pile is dependent on the type of pile, the depth to which it must be motivated and the soil conditions. Piles can be driven by falling weights; explosion; vibration and jacking against a reaction. Practically all methods are noisy.
(Tomlinson &Woodward 2008).
Non Displacement Hemorrhoids or replacement piles are generally bored stiff piles; this system involves removing land by boring the bottom, the remaining gap is then filled up with either concrete or strengthened concrete. (Fleming et al. 2008). Hazards dependent on method used.
Contractor to obtain additional design information including exact location and kind of piles. Method statement to be prepared by specialist contractor and evaluated by company.
Risk of unexpected blockage reduced by ground condition study or trial pits.
Access to site reliant on pile type.
Reduce disruption to neighbours by move forward planning.
Site operatives to have protecting equipment for noises.
Risk of working at height
There is a limit within which a worker can access an activity from the bottom so temporary support required. As the wall space are built the workers will have to work from scaffolding. Ladders maybe used between scaffolding levels only.
Contractor to get ready method statements, determining work to be carried out, define method of reaching that work and equipment needed.
Contractor to provide training for operatives.
Safe and convenient working surfaces to be provided. Contractor to provide safe horizontal working systems. Builder to provide safe horizontal and vertical access to building work (Emmett &Gorse 2006).
Scaffolding to be built in with dual guardrail and boards.
Site operatives to be fixed with safeness equipment, hard hats.
Contractor to ensure that ladders are in good conditions and set into position on scaffolding for length of the work
Risk of working at elevation- roof
Working at height on a roof top is a higher risk activity; main risks include slipping through fragile materials, over advantage, through openings (HSE 2011). The roof on this program is a variety of styles and slopes which further complicates the duty.
Contractor to get ready method statement.
Contractor to work with experienced personnel with ideal training or consider using specialist sub-contractor.
Scaffolding to be provided to ideal height with advantage safety along perimeter of roof structure.
Crane access for precast floor slabs
The first and second floor slabs have to be lifted into place. Site is fixed with mature protected trees and small access. Risks include load slipping during lifting procedure, collapse of crane, site staff being struck by moving loads/machinery.
Contractor to get ready method affirmation.
Contractor to provide site access information to plant seek the services of company including site visit when possible.
Contractor to ensure that crane with the capacity of lifting required insert.
Contractor to assign experienced operative to supervise the lifting operation.
Lifting equipment to be analyzed on arrival on site with intervals through use.
Damage to overhead cables
Working at crane elevation may affect existing services
Visual check of overhead cables not shown on drawing.
Hazardous procedure - electrics
Design omissions as there are no services drawings for electrics including interior wall membrane sockets or light fittings. Area is at threat of flooding therefore cords and fitting should be positioned above flood level.
Contractor to obtain Light fitting and store schedule.
All work to be completed by competent electrician.
Hazardous procedure -gas services
Gas Heat to be installed and connected to mains gas source. Insufficient detail regarding service required - gas system no details of location of radiators or boiler or gas admittance to building.
Contractor to acquire additional information.
Schedule of fixings required.
Sub company to be notified of their time for delivery of operation.
Gas to be installed and commissioned by experienced plumber.
Risk - installing windows
Joiners, Glaziers, Site staff
Insufficient information on schedule for windows, however risk can be reduced if screen manufacturers off site and installed on site.
Schedule of glass windows required. Contractor to discuss use of off-site processing with developer.
Contractor to guide manufacturer of program of work.
Scaffolding to stay set up for window set up.
Below floor services clash
Insufficient information on drawing with respect to below surface drainage, link with mains or to house. No layout or depth. Potential clash with existing services.
Contractor to determine existing services review as above.
Information to be clearly indicated on construction drawing.
Hazardous hot materials - risk of compensation for injuries.
Working at elevation with hot materials on balconies, the material could potentially lose the personnel or spill right down to those working below.
Supervisor training required.
Experienced operatives with enough protecting clothing and equipment.
Hazardous hot materials - risk of fire.
Risk that using hot materials may lead to hearth on site.
Contractor to ensure that adequate emergency training for site personnel, including flames gathering point location off site and clear lines of obligations for site personnel, with effective treatment in place to raise security alarm.
All site staff
The site is bounded by River Wey that includes a background of flodding (EA2011).
Contractor to get ready emergency procedures in case of site flooding, including allocating responsibility for ensuring procedures carried out and staff alerted.
In each project a service provider has three principal objectives, a project delivered promptly, within budget also to a particular designed quality. A builder is also officially obligated to give a safe working environment and safe tactics for employees and the general public (Emmitt & Gorse 2006). A successful safe project may be accomplished through careful risk management. The construction industry could be a safer environment for those working in the industry and the general public through simple careful planning. It is obvious that this risk management should involve all parties including the client, the creator, the service provider and sub-contractors. .