Posted at 10.16.2018
"The Taliban was part of our own past as well as your recent. The ISI and CIA created it collectively. It had been a monster created by all of us, but we forgot to produce a cure than it. . . They're kind of the tumor created by Pakistan and America, and the earth. "
Asif Ali Zardari on Taliban
By 1994, after having overthrown the Soviets, Afghanistan got disintegrated into a patchwork of contending groups and shifting alliances. The predominantly cultural Tajik authorities of Leader Rabbani held Kabul and the northeast of the country, as the Northern provinces continued to be under the control of Abdul Rashid Dostum and other warlords. Ismail Khan controlled the Traditional western provinces around Herat, and the area south and East of Kabul were in the hands of warlords such as Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. The Eastern border with Pakistan was held by a council of mujahideen, and the South was separated between ratings of ex-mujahideen and bandits, who used their control of the roads to extort money from the cross-border trade with Pakistan.
In late 1994, a new movement surfaced in the South, seizing control to begin Kandahar and then of the encompassing provinces. Its market leaders needed the name of their group Taliban, from the plural of talib, an Arabic term denoting an Islamic pupil.
The most widely circulated theory is usually that the leadership of the Taliban surfaced from between the disgruntled young Afghan refugees learning in the spiritual classes around Quetta and Peshawar.
Soon after the Soviets sent their soldiers into Afghanistan to get the communist plan in Kabul, Basic Mohammad Ziaul Haq, the then Leader of Pakistan, founded a chain of 'Deeni Madaris' (an offshoot of the old madrassa educational system) across the Afghan-Pakistan boundary. He does so to be able to create a belt of religiously-oriented students who would assist the Afghan mujahideen to evict the Soviet forces from Afghanistan. The students in these Deeni Madaris were an assortment of Afghans and Pakistanis, with around 80 percent of these being Afghans. The teaching staff were both Pakistanis and Afghans. After the semester of Dr Najibullah, religious schools began functioning in Afghanistan as well, especially in the eastern provinces and in Herat.
The madaris not only imparted spiritual education of sorts but more than that, they organised the students into militant categories who would be prepared to use make to subdue their rivals. Those that produced the fighters were sent to Afghanistan to evict the communists and later to fight those who they assumed were not adding an Islamic routine in their country. That's the reason they reportedly developed a dislike for the existing Afghan groupings, that they blamed for brining about much of the death and damage in their homeland. The Taliban argued that these were creating a well balanced Islamic state that the leaders of the jihad resistant to the Soviets cannot create.
Immediate Triggers. The pitiable condition in which the Afghans found themselves during this time period (1992-1994) could be attributable to the existing mujahideen factions. In Sep 1994, Mullah Mohammad Omar, a jihad veteran from Maiwand region, of just West of Khandahar, made a decision to work towards bringing about peace by evicting the pro-communists and bringing out Islamic values in Afghanistan.
Omar been to various mosques in his village to assemble support for his mission, and formed several Talibs along with weapons and vehicles, that was provided to him by way of a mujahid commander of Hizb-e-Islami. With this the Taliban motion had begun. The formal name directed at the recently created political faction was Tehreek-i-Islami-i-Taliban Afghanistan. Later, permission was also given for the commanders in the National Islamic Leading of Afghanistan (NIFA) in Khandahar to become listed on this new music group of black-turbaned Islamic warriors by their key, in the desire that Taliban would bring about peace in Afghanistan. The strength of the Taliban soon swelled. The age groups of their people mixed from 15 to 50. The young students who made the group primarily were soon joined by experienced fighters who was simply active up against the Soviets through the Afghan jihad. They too joined in assisting the 'warfare effort'.
A central shura was set up in Khandahar, with Mullah Omar specified as the top. The war work and all plans were being directed from his headquarters in Kandahar, which nearly became the capital of the Taliban-controlled regions of Afghanistan. The Taliban leadership, headed by Mullah Omar, surfaced as a pressure that would get rid of the country of factionalism, corruption, and violence that had prevailed ever since the Soviet withdrawal.
While there is no solo cause that brought the Taliban Islamic Movement of Afghanistan into prominence, several factors have been cited: -
Pashtun identity; lots of the warlords were from northern ethnic groups.
The combination of their visible, although not fully recognized, piety, in conjunction with resentment against warlords perceived as Islamic.
Financing, both having sources of it, and being able to bribe difficult opponents.
Support from Pakistan, especially Inter-Services Intellect.
Due to irritation and war-weariness among the population in the south, the Taliban was primarily well received. Its forces advanced quickly through Southern and Eastern Afghanistan, capturing nine out of thirty provinces by February 1995. The movements received strong support from Pakistan's ISI, which helped in the recruitment of members and provided weapons, training, and complex assistance. In 1996, the Taliban captured Kabul and, despite short-term setbacks, conquered the north metropolitan areas of Mazar, Kunduz, and Taloqan in 1998.
By 2001, the Taliban manipulated virtually most of Afghanistan. The only real exception was a small sliver of land North East of Kabul in the Panshjir Valley to which Ahmed Shah Massoud and his North Alliance forces had retreated. The Taliban instituted a repressive version of shari'a law, banning music, banned women from working or going to institution, and prohibited flexibility of the press. Afghanistan also became a breeding earth for jihadists and terrorists intent on attacking america and other countries.
The withdrawal of the Soviets in 1989 put an abrupt end to the American aid being provided to the mujahideens. Eventually, through the period from 1993 to 1996, which were crucial in building the Taliban, both political and armed forces management of Pakistan determined in Taliban, a proxy army they could exploit to meet their targets. In 1994, the federal government of Pakistan under the authority of Benazir Bhutto, looked for the assistance of the Taliban in making sure safe passage of their convoys through Afghanistan; a task which the Taliban executed successfully by overpowering the neighborhood warlords in the region. Their quest to conquer grew roots plus they did continue steadily to record and rule most of Afghanistan (practically 90%), till 9/11 reversed their fortunes.