Rinchen Shah (1320-23) was a prince in Ladakh, called rgyalbu Rinchen, rgyalbu means "prince" (King's kid). His father was Lha-chen dnos-grub (1300-1325) who ruled Ladakh. Not much has been written about rgyalbu Rinchen's early on life. Unlike others he didn't succeed his dad, and the precise reason is not mentioned anywhere. Corresponding to Walter R. Lawrence, Rinchen Shah emerged as an adventurer to the Valley after having quarrelled along with his father. Corresponding to Wazir Hashmatullah Khan, Rinchen Shah cannot become ruler in Ladakh anticipated to some politics conflicts with his king father and he was compelled to migrate to Kashmir in the beginning of the 14th century along with some Ladakhi traders. Whatever the reason why Rinchen Shah was an ambitious and incredibly considerably sighted prince. He emerged to Kashmir along with his friends including Ladakhi professionals and became the first Muslim king of Kashmir. It seems he emerged to Kashmir via Zojila and settled down somewhere in north Kashmir. Matching to M. L. Kapoor he settled down in Gagangir, a community in the Lar valley.
In 1320 Kashmir was ruled by the ruler Suhadeva. He was an extremely weak king. It had been during this time that the Kashmir was invaded by Dulacha, a general of the Mongol king of Khwarezm with a huge army consisting of 17, 000 calvary and few thousand of ft. soldiers. Matching to Rajatarangini of Jonaraja Dulacha brought with him sixty thousand mounted forces contains Turks and Mongols. He came into Kashmir through american gate of Baramulla. Along the way he didn't received any major level of resistance and difficulty, as the moves and the gate ware not properly guarded. The king Suhadeva and his federal government were poor and received paralysed with dread. Under such circumstances the Ruler ordered collection of a special duty from all castes including the Brahmans in order to buy off of the Mongol invader. The Brahmans, who considered themselves superior to other castes, opposed the ordered. But the king could be successful to avoid the invader and the Dulchana and his army continue to boost into Kashmir. Suhadeva sought safe practices and ran away to Kishtwar and his commander in main Ramachandra shut himself up in his castle of Lar. At the moment, Dulchana entered in to the valley and harassed people. Rajatarangini of Jonaraja brought up that 'Dulchana, like a flame brand, harassed the united states, and the people of Kashmir became like insects in that fire'. The cities and villages suffered incredible horrors of vandalism. After spending about eight a few months in the valley the Mongols made a decision to leave anticipated to apprehension of getting close winter plus they required the Shopian route, that was shorter. When Duchana and his military come to Pir Panchal range, it snowed. And all of them were demolished in snow surprise near Tarabala move.
The Mongol invasion was a turning point in the annals of Kashmir. The condition of the country in those days presented a good opportunity to anyone who acquired the will and power to determine his specialist. Suhadeva having fled to Kishtawar, the throne of Kashmir continued to be vacant. There have been several warlords seeking to sit on it, including Rinchen Shah, Shamamira and Langar Chak. Ramachandra who had shut himself in the fort at Lar, thought himself the rightful contender to the throne of Kashmir. Corresponding to Fida Hassnain; Ramachandra proclaimed himself the ruler Kashmir instead of Suhadeva, who fled from Kashmir. In the mean time the Abhiharas clan, also called the Khasha tribe, rose to seafood in the trouble waters. Ramachandra were able to obtain the allegiance of Shamamira and Rinchen Shah against Abhiharas. He deputed Rinchen Shah with a substantial army to operate a vehicle out the raiders, who possessed reached very near to the capital. It was the first proper problem to Rinchen Shah showing is capability and durability. He succeeded in travelling out the Abhisara. Within this campaign, Shamamira aided him. Rinchen Shah, as the defender of the kingdom not only defeated the invaders but also made them captives. Whatever treasures he obtained out of this war; he directed these to Ramachandra. Instead of honouring Rinchen Shah, Ramachandra became apprehensive of growing ability of Rinchen Shah. And the king tried to make an impression on Shamamira towards his part to damage Rinchen Shah but failed. Now Rinchen Shah decided to remove Ramachandra, who was the sole obstacle left to be the Ruler of Kashmir. Rinchen Shah sent his followers disguised as fabric merchants to the city of Lar, and 1 day they were able to gain entrance into the fort with their weapons concealed. They astonished Ramachandra's men from within and Rinchen Shah himself attacked from outside. Consequently, Ramachandra's men were defeated. The Rajatarangini of Jonaraja described:
(Sic) Ricchana deceitfully sent a few Bhottas every day who enter into the fort of
Lahara under the pretence of selling clothes. So when Bhotta people had
thus entered Lahara, Rinchana caused their weapons to drink the honey like
blood of Ramachandra.
Rinchen Shah raised himself to the status of Sultan or king. Rajatarangini of Jonaraja further explained the event as follows:
(Sic)The country was weary of troubles and disorder, and Shri Rinchana
Suratrana provided it relax under the shalter of his arm. Once the dark
days vanished, the people of Kashmira witnessed again all the
festivities that they possessed beheld under their previous kings.
He appointed Ravachandra, the eldest boy of Ramachandra, as his councillor and granted the principalities of Lar to him. Besides, at his coronation he wedded Kota Devi, the little girl of Ramachandra. She was awarded the entitled of Rani or queen, and henceforth was to be called Kota Rani instead of Kota Devi.
At this time any difficulty. there is much confusion when it concerns religion in Kashmir, and Rinchen Shah who had no strong convictions found it necessary to adopt the religion of his subjects to help expand strengthening his position. He approached Devaswami, the head of the Brahmanas to admit him into their fold. His demand was turned down because nothing of the Hindu castes would confess him with their brotherhood. The Rajatarangini of Jonaraja referred to the event as follows:
(Sic)The king asked Shri Devasvmi to initiate him in the mantras of Shiva, but
as he was a Bhotta, Devasvmi feared that the ruler was unworthy of such
initiation, and didn't favour him.
Thus, he could not become Hindu so he determined to leave his religion to chance. He made a decision to accept the faith of the person, whom he'd see first in the morning. And in the morning he noticed Bulbul Shah Qalandar at his prayers and admiring that form of devotion he decided to take up Islam taking the name of Sadr-ud-din. Relating to Fida Hassnain the after the ruler becoming Muslim, his councillors, his Ladakhi retainers and body guards, his Kashmiri nobles and officials of the federal government became Muslims at the hands of Bulbul Shah Qalandar. The Rajatarangini of Jonaraja gives the name of Suratrana to Rinchen, which is the same as a Sultan in Persian terminology. Thus, he had become known as Sultan Rinchen Shah, the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir.
One of the most crucial accomplishments of Rinchen Shah was steadiness and calmness. He defeated and helped bring almost all of the war-lords and tribes under his control. To substantiate to this reality the Rajatarangini of Jonaraja brought up that Rinchen Shah has brought the festivities and calmness to the folks of Kashmir again. The other most significant contributions were his administration of justice to the people, regardless of caste or status. The exemplory case of his dispensed justice impartiality has brought up in the Jajatarangini of Jonaraja that the boy of a robust lord, known as Timi, who got forcibly taken dairy from a maid and drank it. The milk girl instantly complained to the King who ordered Timi's belly to be cut to ascertain the reality. He was also a great builder. He founded the city of 'Rinchanapur' now part of Srinagar city. He built a mosque in Kashmir. He also built the great Shrine of Bulbul Shah, known still as Bulbul Lankar. It is stated that primarily it was a general population charity kitchen, at Ali Kadal in Srinagar and later on it emerged to known as Bulbul Lankar after the great saint, Bulbul Shah.
During his end of 3 years ruled a rebellion was raised by some feudal lords headed by Tuka, his past primary minister. Through his courage and presence of mind he been successful in putting it down, but in this deal with, he received a severe wound on his mind. And Rinchen Shah the first Muslim kings died in 1323 due to the wound. He was buried in the ingredient of the Khanqah Bulbul Shah in Bulbul Lankar. Following the deceased of Rinchen Shah, his boy, Haider, who was an infant, didn't do well him. Kota Rani assumed ability but only for a short period.