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Review on Video tutorial Steganography Technique

  • Kamred Udham Singh


In the era of information security, Steganography is a most secure method, used for concealing lifestyle of magic formula data in virtually any digital cover object such as image, music, video and words files. Within the last several decades wide research has been done on image steganography technique due to their easiness of data embedding and data removal. Hide the presence of the inserted data in any digital subject is the key goal of steganography. The main key factors of steganography are Undetectability, robustness and capacity of the hidden data that isolate it from related techniques like cryptography and watermarking. Nowadays, video files are much more accepted because of large size and ram requirements. This newspaper intends to give a study on various video steganographic strategy and covering its important concepts.

Keywords: Video tutorial steganography, data hiding, spatial domains, Transform website, DWT, DCT.


Today's digital world it is vital for hidden knowledge communication of any personal information in safe and secure manner, it has generated new concern of information security. Here a most significant question arise whatever method we decide for formulated with its integrity and amount of security. Several methods have been suggested for addressing the issue of information security like cryptography, steganography and watermarking. In Cryptography information encrypted in such form so it becomes meaningless to eavesdroppers using any encryption algorithms such as DES but how strong is the encryption algorithm, it could be busted. Data can be easily replicated and distributed without owner's consent credited to lack of security. Watermarking revised the initial data by embedding a watermark comprising key information such as brand or copyright codes to protect the intellectual properties of digital content. Moreover, in a few situation it was essential to circulation of information without anyone discovering that the communication took place. So steganography comes come up in digital world to take care of this case. Steganography strategy is the skill and technology of invisible data communication. The term steganography originated from the Greek words and produced from two Greek words "stegos" which stands for "cover" and "grafia" which stands for "writing" [1].

Figure 1. The different disciplines of information concealing [21]

Steganography developed driven by the need to conceal the presence of a key data communication. Although steganography and cryptography both strategy are make an effort to protect data, but neither steganography nor cryptography together is perfect. Consequently it is better to incorporate both technique alongside one another to increase the amount of security of the machine [2]. Though steganography is technique for the communication being between two gatherings. So main concern of steganography is to conceal the living of the data communication and safeguarding the invisible data against any alterations that you can do during communication such as format change or compression but integrity should be maintain. The major difference between Steganography and Cryptography is that the cryptography helps to keep the material of information magic formula while steganography keeps the life of information secret [3].

As video steganography is the concentrate of the review paper that can be considered an extension of image steganography. Really, video recording is a blast of a series of successive and evenly time-spaced still images. So several image steganographic techniques are relevant to videos as well. Hu et al. [28], ], Langelaar et al. [38], Shang [74], and Sherlyetal [76] expanded various image data concealing techniques to video tutorial.

Video steganographic techniques

There are various applications such as cleverness agencies and military services communications where training video steganography may be employed [4]. Rest et al. [5], Yilmaz et al. [6] and Robie et al. [7] suggested another types of applications like video error correction during communication and for transmitting more information without demanding more band-width [8]. Training video steganography was used for covering data in a video tutorial captured by a security system was shown by Zhang et al. [9].

There are various indication handling transform like DWT, FFT and DCT, anybody of them can be utilized as video stenographic strategy to cover data in the occurrence area of the cover thing. Top secret data can be hide either on per pixel basis or group of pixels called blocks [10]. Video tutorial steganographic techniques can classify in several ways. Sherly et al. [11] categorize them corresponding to compression, compressed techniques [12, 13] and uncompressed video tutorial techniques [15]. Video steganographic techniques can be classified based on domain name of embedding, they are transform domains techniques [14, 16] and spatial domain name techniques [17]. Shirali-Shahreza [18] explained that video steganographic techniques can be also categorized on the basis of considering the training video as a collection of still images [17, 19]. Or utilizing the video saving format for data concealing [20]. Or finding new proportions in the training video which assists with the steganographic process [12, 15]. The fallowing shape depicts these possible classifications.

Figure 2: Various Classification of video recording Steganography

This newspaper will discuss classification based on embedded domain name and cover-up all the literature related to training video steganography.

Bit Substitutions Methods

Least Significant Tad (LSB)

Bit Substitution-based steganography techniques replace the cover little with the binary equivalent of secret data tad. The main advantages of bit substitution methods will be the simple implementation and the high data covering capacity in comparison to other techniques. Bit Substitution-based approach have many methods such as Least Significant Bit (LSB) method, Little Airplane Complexity Segmentation (BPCS) and Tri-way Pixel Value Differencing (TPVD) etc. A minimum of significant little bit (LSB) insertion is an oldest & most famous tad substitution-based methodology for embedding data in a carrier document like training video or image which is with the capacity of embedding huge key data. Least significant bit technique operates by changing LSB bits of the cover document to conceal the trick data little bit.

Most of the little bit substitution-based methods that exist are really encouraged by the LSB technique. Data hiding strategy developed to cover the secret data in distinct frames of the training video record and in certain position of the shape by LSB substitution using different polynomial formula. In this system data will be hidden based on stego key which is in the form of polynomial equations with different coefficients [22]. A. T. Thahab [23] proposed Digital Color Video tutorial Steganography Using YCbCr Color Space and Dynamic Least Significant Tad technique is apply to hide video recording data file inside the other training video cover thing. This techniques also on the basis of least significant tad algorithm.

Bit Aircraft Complexity Segmentation (BPCS)

Normally the theory behind the LSB strategy is to change the least significant items of the pixel with the binary equivalent of key data. If more significant bits are used to hide the data then it deteriorating the quality of image. Because of this disadvantage of this technique contributes to development of other approach which seeking to overcome this disadvantage. Kawaguchi and Eason suggested Bit Planes Complexity Segmentation (BPCS) technique [24] and Chang et al. suggested Tri-Way Pixel-Value Differencing [25]. BPCS strategy can be employed in the both spatial domain and transform domain name [26, 13] to handle this problem. The basic notion of BPCS technique is to break down an image/framework into the bit planes and every bit plane cured as a cut of the image which is composed from all the bits of a particular significant location from each binary digit. Locations in the bit plane are classified into informative and noise-like from then on noise-like regions are substituted with the trick information and maintain the perceived quality. Jalab et al. [19] implemented the BPCS way of concealing data in MPEG video tutorial format frames. This technique works in the YCbCr colour space rather than red, renewable and blue (RGB) the different parts of a pixel for removing the correlation between the RGB and also lessening the distortion produced by data embedding process. It really is well-known that Human Visual System (HVS) are sensitive modifications in simple parts than noise-like. Therefore, the BPCS method was applied for computing the difficulty of each region in the cover frame. The complexity of each region of the little bit plane is computed as the amount of on advantage transitions from 0 to at least one 1 and 1 to 0, both vertically and horizontally.

Tri-way Pixel-Value Differencing (TPVD)

It is another tad substitution-based method is the Tri-way Pixel-Value Differencing (TPVD) [13] which really is a altered form of the Pixel-Value Differencing method. To keep the visual quality of cover thing it is intuitive to think that data should be hidden in complex parts of the object. It hides the info in the difference of two neighbour pixels value that are classified into runs, bigger range index shows a sharpened area where more secret data can be concealed and smaller range index shows a soft area where less magic formula data can be hidden. In the data hiding process first partitioning the cover object image/framework into non-overlapping chunks of two neighbour pixels and its own range are driven. After that quantity of secret data pieces to be hidden is computed predicated on the range index. Lastly, the essential number of key data pieces is extracted from the trick data and related their decimal value is utilized to generate a new difference and the pixel worth are adjusted consequently. This method provides high capacity and imperceptibility for human eye-sight of the concealed key data. Sherly et al. [11] applied this technique to hide data in MPEG compressed videos and explained that hidden knowledge data are concealed in the macro-blocks of the "I" body with maximum picture modification and in macro-blocks of the P and B structures with maximum magnitude of action vectors.

Transform domain techniques

Although Little bit substitution-based methods will be the simplest way for data covering, but vulnerability is main drawback to any cover alteration like compression, format change, etc. This data embedding techniques can be easily damaged by an attacker. Transform domains methods are more complex than Bit substitution-based methods and try to improve the perceptual transparency and the robustness of the generated stego-objects. Any transform-domain strategy contains of at least these stages, first altered the cover thing into the occurrence domain, in second phase top secret data is concealed in some or all the changed coefficients. In final phase modified coefficients are transformed back to the initial form of the cover. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are types of transform website. Raja et al. [27] Stated that DFT methods add round-off mistakes which do not make it perfect for data concealing applications. So because of this reason Discrete Fourier Transform methods are not popular in steganography. But, few techniques in steganography used DFT based steganography like McKeon [28] used the 2D DFT for steganography in videos.

Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)

Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is a very popular transform and broadly used with image and training video compression methods. Chae et al. [29] provided an algorithms in this field using feel masking and multidimensional lattice composition and used MPEG-2 compressed videos. Key data and the cover video frames both are altered using 8x8 8 non-overlapping blocks. The trick data coefficients are quantized and then encoded by the multidimensional lattices, after that concealed in to the cover framework DCT coefficients. Data concealing is adaptive to the local content of the video recording body blocks. Steganographic techniques facing the task of improving the info embedding capacity without influencing visual quality. Variety of secret data can be embedding in the cover video recording is main aim of High bitrate techniques. A higher bitrate algorithm is suggested by Yang et al. [16] which works on H. 264/AVC Compressed videos. This method first convert the cover video tutorial casings to YUV coloring space and then 1 data tad is inserted in each 44 DCT coefficient stop. Strength points of the algorithm are large amount of data embedding capacity, sturdy to H. 264 and MPEG-4 video recording compression techniques and also tamper resilient.

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is popular in indication processing and video/ image compression. Wavelet transform fragmented a signal into a set of basic functions called wavelets. The DWT has many advantages over DCT like providing a multi-resolution description and permitting for better modelling of People Visual System (HVS). DWT gives a multi-resolution research which analyzes the transmission at diverse frequencies produce different resolutions. Temporal quality is main benefit of DWT. It captures frequency and structure location information. At each degree of transformation, a structure which is changed with Haar wavelet transform [30] is decomposed into four bands. One of them is approximation band which symbolizes the input frame after implementing a minimal pass filtration and compressing it to half. Other remaining three rings are high go away filtration system and called information music group. High-resolution sub-bands allow simple recognition of features like corners or textured parts in transform area. DWT doesn't need to decompose the suggestions cover thing into non-overlapping 2-D blocks, which decrease the preventing artifacts.

Wavelet transform produces floating point coefficients which are being used to perfectly rebuild the original sign. Some video tutorial steganography techniques respected on the integer-to-integer wavelet transform. Xu et al. [15] suggested an approach on this technique. In suggested system data is inserted in the motion component of video due to these two reasons first is no more damaged by compression and second is HVS aren't more delicate to capture the changes in action areas of video recording. The methodology of the algorithm is the fact that, in first rung on the ladder motion element of video tutorial is computed from frame-by-frame basis, from then on computed motion part are decomposed in two-level wavelet decomposition. In last step secret data little are hidden into low regularity coefficients which derive from the principles of coefficients. This technique maintaining the quality of video after the data embedding process. Requires a cover training video with large movement part because data concealing capacity is be based upon motion element is the drawback of the algorithm.

Adaptive steganographic techniques

Adaptive steganography approach is a particular case of both ex - techniques which is also known as ''Statistics-aware embedding'' [31], ''Masking'' [32]. An adaptive approach basically put in place by studying the statistical buildings of the cover thing before changing with the trick data which helps to identify the best locations to inserted data [33]. Sur et al. [34] suggested an algorithm on temporal redundancy which select macro-blocks with low inter shape speed and high prediction error as their regions-of-interest (ROI). Furthermore, the amount of DCT coefficients used for data covering is adaptively computed predicated on the relative stability of the prediction error stop. This algorithm offers a very low data hiding capacity.

Mansouri et al. [12] proposed a method which mixed the top features of both spatial and temporal of the video tutorial and employed a spatial key property. The aim of this system is increasing both perceptual invisibility and robustness by choosing structure regions that happen to be perceptually unimportant. High data covering capacity as it uses both temporal and spatial top features of the cover video recording stream is the primary advantage of this algorithm.


This paper presents a brief review on video recording steganographic techniques and the main element algorithms of video steganography. Steganography, cryptography, and watermarking technique and their variations is also mentioned. A synopsis of steganography is shown and mainly focus on video steganography and its own applications. Various video tutorial steganography techniques and classification of the prevailing training video techniques are described which derive from spatial domain, transform domains and other techniques. Benefits and drawbacks of the techniques are targeted. Steganography techniques are mainly struggling for achieving a high data embedding rate. It is a good swap route for hide data in video recording files since it have many fantastic features such as large capacity and good imperceptibility. This newspaper provides effective review on the look of a training video steganographic system.

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