Teenage pregnancy cases figure are on the rise nowadays. Teenage pregnancy lead to teenage parenthood. Teenagers are minors and not capable for bearing another child psychologically, physically and financially. teenagers who engage in parenthood at adolescent level of life have a tendency have incomplete education, low standard of job and have busted marriage. Being a side effect, the teenage mothers and child encounters the results. Besides that, the young mothers pay less focus on the youngster, less tolerant to their child's disobedience, very negative parenting styles approached towards the kids and more prone to damage their children's. Newborns of teenage parents are in increased risk for low birth-rate weight, low cognitive development and educational attainment, behavioural problems and teenage parents themselves.
keywords: teenage parenthood, adolescent, pregnancy
On calendar year 2010, the Star newspaper exposed the teenage being pregnant statistics. Between your month of January to Apr, the reported number of teenage motherhood in Malaysia by the welfare department was 111 ("Teen pregnancies", 2010). On the newspaper report, reports implies that teenage pregnancy incident have been increasing throughout the years in Malaysia. In calendar year 2008, the amount of reported cases was 107 and in calendar year 2009 was 131 instances. One thing to be considered is that, the number of unheard situations is unknown numbers. Not only in Malaysia, but this immoral phenomenon have been growing in many countries too. Teenage motherhood can be defined as conceiving of newborn in a women who is below legal adult time which varies matching to countries (Kaplowitz, 2006). Teenage being pregnant is just the start of a major problem. Teenage motherhood eventually pilots a pregnant teenager to teenage parenthood. This transition regarded as a poor development because teenage parenthood brings about many other problem and links one to the other problem and continues on. Parenthood can be described as a state to be a mother or father (Cambridge Dictionaries Online). In specific, parenthood is an ailment where participation in the Childs growth, raising and responsibilities relies. Parenthood doesn't only advance based on the biological romance. Teenagers are not considered as adults because they are still young to endure a child and be ready for a family group and to increase a kid mentally and bodily ("Teenagers aren't ready", 2010). They are also kids which need advice. They have no stable economic status and be based upon their parents; therefore it's impractical for teen to be inspired to get heavy with child. They have a baby and misguided due to the emotional and hormonal changes taking place at that period of time. When teenagers are kids and various style of parenting is required to raise them, could it be realistic to allow them to raise a youngster and fit into parenthood? How will these teenage kids' kids would be?
First of all, there should be fundamental cause for each and every phenomenon. There are several promotions run by administration, non-government organisations, schools and other sources regarding the fallbacks of teenage being pregnant and teenage parenthood. Thou this happening are increasing. There could be some instinctive causal factors which point children's towards this occurrence. Among the reason which contributes to teenage being pregnant is one parenting. Kids living with single parent caused by divorce or parting are unchangeable factor. These kids tend to have greater chances to engage in early motherhood in comparison to those who demised one with their parents. Children of single parents also have a tendency to engage in sexual activity earlier compared to children's of normal family. Female children's are likely to become teenage parents because their parents either have authoritarian parenting style or neglectful parenting styles. Besides that, greater communication between parents and the female child also relates to higher chance of prevalence on early on pregnancy. Not only that, feminine children's who also communicate their sexual behavior with the parents also tend to engage minimal in sexual activities which evade early pregnancy. Also, kids who don't develop up with their natural parents are more likely to become adolescent parents. (Wellings, Wadsworth, Johnson, Field and Macdowall, 1999).
Besides that, According to, Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998), it could be concluded that feminine teenagers lower in educational intention expected to have higher chance to carefully turn out to be teenage moms than their highly-accomplishing colleagues. In a recent study, researchers reported that one out of three adolescent moms withdraw from university before conceiving (Maynard, 1995). Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998) also boasts that female teenagers who increase in poor economic status by one mother or father also lead to teenage parenthood of the kid. Moreover, parents' low educational level also pilot to teenage parenthood of the feminine teenagers. Adolescent member growing up in poverty casing area and solo mom house-holds are also at higher possibility in participating in teenage parenthood. Poverty performs an important role in leading teen to early motherhood and parenthood because these life encounters on poverty such as drawback from university, common unmarried parenthood instances, unemployment and lack of educational chances functions as underlying roots to teenage parenthood especially on females. These life experience causes thin life alternatives to the kids which may be said contributes to early pregnancy. Besides that, adolescent motherhood associates with other immoral behaviours as well such as alcoholic beverages and drug use. These activities are also to be said as the central reason behind direction towards sex (Paikoff, 1995).
In a study done by Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998) the primary reason leading to pregnancy is the least knowledge on erotic education. Adolescent childbearing important behavior is one's own decision. One have to decide whether to work with the contraceptive methods or not, and must bother making a choice whether to abort the child or not or even to raise the child or put the kid for adoption once the child is given to birth. In conjunction with statistics, teen didn't use any contraception method on the first sexual interaction. Teenagers use contraception however in an unsuccessful manner. It could be said they are seeking to avoid pregnancy in a way but unaware of the right method. Deficient in understanding relating to duplication and contraception, insufficient admittance to family planning and health services and inadequate capacity to forecast and to be ready for sexual activity are the causes of unwanted early being pregnant and child beginning among low income adolescents. Beyond that, research has explained that teenagers who've very low psychological support tend to be more active teenage motherhood. Teenagers attain psychological closeness through early intimacy and motherhood.
A analysis done by East and Jacobson (2001) has show the effect of teenage parenthood on the parent's siblings. The outcome clearly implies that the sisters of teenage parents are much mixed up in drug abuse instances, becoming alcoholic, heavy partying and more prone to conceiving a child at teenage themselves. All these behavioural problems are classified as precursors to becoming teenage parents. At the start of research, siblings from both genders are considered as research themes and females were more influenced by their elder's pregnancies than male. This might be due to their sense of envy which pushed these to outbid their elders. They also spend a great deal of time in assisting their elder siblings to improve the baby. This exposes the siblings to early on parenting plus they unconsciously are inclined to become teen parents themselves. Additionally, siblings from the same love-making are a lot more close to one another which will make the elder sibling as a role model to younger ones. In case there is elder sibling being a mother, younger ones look up to the too. From the research, it may also be concluded that siblings with teenage parents are more sexually effective and significantly loses their virginity more than people that have no teenage parents. There is also low degree of desire for education and are greatly involved with disciplinary complaints than normal kids. This might contribute to early on pregnancies among siblings with teenage parent or guardian siblings. To simplify, siblings of teenage parents are unconsciously agreeing to their elders frame of mind or decision to possess baby's at early on stage with their life, thus they lose in treats in all other aspects such as maintain good communal image and success in educations.
In Katz-Wise, Priess and Hyde's (2010) research role of mom and dad is clearly described. Gender-roles will be the visible mental health change in individuals as they proceed to parenthood. Women's biological process in parenthood such as breast feeding together with interpersonal norms places females as the homemaker. Men, performs a minor biological part in parenthood and often known as the worker. Based on the individual's perception towards their role in parenthood, females understand their part as something they "are", whereas the males understand their fatherhood persona as something they "do". The research also cases that the fathers role in parenthood is appear to be more as "helping" than "sharing" the parental tasks. Since males are only dependence on parenthood as source of income, teenage males have a tendency to degrade easily of their commitment as father. Besides, they only identify their role as what they "do" which shows less commitment on parenthood. This leaves kids under the parenting of mother, which then places the females to be the company for family members. They begin working and loose attachment with their kids. Less connection causes problems to the youngsters.
A analysis by Wellings et all, (1999) demonstrates, 4% of men and 13% of women have engaged in teenage parenthood. This difference is caused by the unawareness of men regarding the existence of the youngster, thus the females must bear all the responsibility of raising the kid. Teenage parenthood is not highly recommended because it is a being pregnant before full financial independence which guide towards poverty. Every negative results encountered by teenage parents are mainly related to poverty and socio-economical imbalance. This can be explained by the income of adolescent family is very low. This is because of the single parenting, just as the mom only sourcing for the family income. This shows females are more in charge in parenthood brought on by early motherhood. The female's responsibility comprises of emotional support, connection, and economic professional. For a teenage feminine, it is hard to move it all together.
Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998) characterise Father's role as very important in parenthood irrespective of age of the daddy. They state that paternal connection condition the child's growth and development. , it is found that teens who are fastened for some reason with their natural daddy or stepfather were good in their education, behavior and emotional performance than teens from weakened fatherly conditions. Another interesting factor is the fact, lost of involved fathers affects the child more negatively than no fatherly bond at all. This shows the value of fathers in parenthood.
Besides, functions of male young adults in teenage motherhood are not evidently implicated. Aspects like making abortion and adoption have arrived in insignificant research amount. Thou, researches eventually hollow out the causes of absents of male adolescent in teenage parenthood. One of it is financial responsibility of male teenagers also increases for the teenage woman and the infant they produced. Since male teenage parents also drop out of college to care for the family, the sole type of job they are available to is blue-collar jobs. As the blue collar job opportunities lessens in cities, directs to declining matrimony rates, which leaves youngster to have solo parent. A recent research also shows male adolescent role in parenthood is negatively oriented. In that token, large number of adolescent mother provide testimonial to have suffered with sexual mistreatment and forced erotic interaction proceeding to their early romantic relationship on sex and teenage motherhood (Moore, K. A. , Morrison, D. R. , Glei, D. A. , 1995).
The role of teenage mother or father in parenthood has some serious effects on the kids. From the educational development, Kids of teenage parents tend to score very low on developmental exams. They also have a tendency to perform suprisingly low in their education compared to their peers who had been born to old mothers. This may be the result of poor socio-economic status (Wellings et al, 1999). Besides that, children's of young mothers also have breakdown in cognitive development which starts off in preschool level and proceeds completely upcoming university years, contributing to continuity to getting unsuccessful grades. (Moore, Morrison, and Greene, 1997). In can be simplified that one parenting triggers poverty and poverty links to poor educational attainment in kids too.
Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998) stated that young moms are regarded as pleasant, thou they don't really talk so much, not of the loving type and friendly types with their children. Consequently, adolescent mothers much more likely to produce lifeless environment at home. They also find their children to be more complicated and also to have impossible trust towards them. This low accessories and poor knowledge attainment of young parents kids leads the kid to have frame of mind trouble. They tend to be more aggressive. Because they grow, male teens have more tendencies to activate in criminal behaviour and imprisonment. Feminine teenager of young mothers engage in sex earlier which lead to being pregnant (Moore et all, 1997). Not just that, children of teenage moms, especially the later-born have an increased chances to be harmed, deserted and delivered to homes. This is actually the aftereffect of low connection of mother and children. (Coley and Chase-Lansdale, 1998).
According to Wellings et all, (1999) in Regards to biological factor and Health sensible defect on toddler due to teenage pregnancies are low-birth-weight of babies, prenatal mortality of infants and higher incident of abortions.
Low educational level and poverty doesn't have only roots in leading to teenage parenthood, it also uses up from early parenthood level. Teenager's motherhood put up with difficulties in executing effectively in few factors. Their prospect is narrowed as unfortunate adolescent. These regrettable involve lower internal implementation, lower degree of education achievement, marital instability plus more children's before marriage, unstable jobs, more welfare use, increased economical scarcity, even more higher health troubles for mother and children. Lower education level implicit among teenage motherhood because teenage moms drop out of institution after having a baby to child, thus leading to lower educational achievement. It is also has been found that giving birth before 18 years old contributes to less probability graduating from senior high school. (Coley and Chase-Landsdale, 1998)
By the same creator, it has been found that, early on child birth contributes to marriage instability. Teenage moms have higher chances in engaging in early marriages due to many reasons. One of it is unstable economic position of early being pregnant make teenage mothers to get wedded to economically secure husbands in order to acquire economical stability. However, their marriage fails off rapidly in their 20's and 30's. Relationship of teenage moms can fail for diminished susceptibility, lower determination to relationships, less opportunity and other reasons. Teenage mothers act as sole mom in their parenting life-time restricting their activities and monetary position (Coley and Chase-Landsdale, 1998).
Early parenthood gets in the way of their personal development such as lower subconscious behaviours. Throughout their teenage level, they encounter road blocks in setting own identity, producing self-sufficiency and independence of their parents to activate in internal activities such as going out with, education, peer connections, and career options. Adolescent moms need for these activities clashes using their parenthood tasks and obligations. These duties don't allocate time for regular teenage activities for adolescent mothers. These clashing phenomena between need and duties can be implicit as conflicting requirements. This conflicting wants leads to emotional distress which will be soon articulated throughout depressive symptomathology (Coley and Chase-Lansdale (1998).
In regard to health problems on mothers, early pregnancy may well be unsafe to the moms if pregnancy is not taken care of properly. Health flaws experienced by teenage mothers due to early pregnancy are health issues like anaemia, toxaemia and hypertension to the child bearer (Wellings et al, 1999).
Moving out from your home start a family by immature kids is a significant movement form dependence to unbiased life-style. When many analysts have found to show it causes negative effect to the child, parent and society, there are few gets to claim it has positive influences too. Few mothers who have joined motherhood during their adolescent time have said to understand motherhood as a potential client and accomplishment. These young moms lay claim to find Great personal satisfaction in motherhood though it involves many hard work, money, and tolerance in liberty (Rolfe, 2008). This content includes examples of women who became mothers before the era of 21 years old. These individuals were also from fragile financial neighbourhoods of England. Most participants were also from foster good care background. These details make the research reliable however total of 33 members are incredibly low sample shape. Compared to previous researches, which shows unwanted effects has a reliable amount of examples in their analysis.
Besides that review, young mothers portrayed their move to parenthood as a confident life-changing opportunity (Chase, Maxwell, Knight, and Aggleton, 2006).
This move is stated to has made their life more complete. Becoming mothers, have cause them to become quit negative behaviours such as substance abuse. This transition also educated young mothers not to repeat unsafe sex. For neglected teenagers who've become teenage mothers, this transition gave them maturity, theory and identification in their life, which they didn't, had previously. Most mothers detailed sense of take great pride in because these were in a position to be an improved mom than their own mom giving their children's what they lacked. The denials of young moms' parents, which will make them, find love thru their kids. This study has valid positive responses but not everything can be happy with feel passion for. To be able to provide treatment, one need money too. So they provide up education to work. Therefore, there are negative repercussions in the development of the young mom even they find satisfaction in their later part of life.
Similar research finding by Tyrer, Chase, Warwick and Aggleton (2005) revealed that father acquired positive thoughts towards their children and talks about move to parenthood made them to be more mature and sensible where they provide up on dangerous activities such as drugs and troublesome relationship. Inside the same token, to improve a family, teenagers need to give up his analysis to make money for the family.
Teenage pregnancy have only blissful bottom line in film like Juno. In reality teenagers aren't compatible for parenthood because they are also kid. From reviewing past researches and studies, it can be understood that triggers of teenage parenthood relies on the main factors such as poverty background, uneducated parents, sole father or mother and other unalterable factors. The effect of teenage parenthood, on the other hand, contributes trail for the reoccurrence of teenage parenthood. In a nutshell cause and effect of teenage parenthood links one to the other and equips to the increase of teenage parenthood event quantity. Steps should be studied to change the center factors piloting young's to teenage parenthood. Understanding among parents on the importance of attachment using their kids should be made because being attached with kids inhibits them from engaging in sexual behavior at young age. Chances must directed at young parent to continue their education by giving financial support so that poverty can be avoided as poverty plays an important role in this problem. Usually, every cause and aftereffect of motherhood has links to poverty. To summarize, everyone within the modern culture, must help small children to be on the safer keep track of. Showing them and their parents the causes, the drastic aftereffect of teenage parenthood and the role of parents to keep their children's in the safer way, can decrease teenage parenthood conditions.