For this option, you might want to explore nineteenth-century ideological viewpoints of ideas such as family, gender, category and religion. It would be valuable to add some brief talk of other modern-day text messages. One possible approach would be to consider the following questions. Just how do the novels reflect their differing historical contexts? What facts can be found for authorial purpose, and how can differing prose techniques discussed on the DVD-ROM, including narrative tone, intertextuality and focalisation, help us establish authorial intent?
You will dsicover it helpful to revise the material in Activity 1. 3 in the Study Guide as a starting place.
What were the viewpoints of nineteenth-century ideological viewpoints of concepts such as family, gender, school and religion
Children's Literature is forever formed by shifting ideologies; this in the nineteenth hundred years displayed the ideals and worth of any diadiac contemporary society, ruled predominantly by the chapel. Enforcing spiritual viewpoints on the idealistic family life, gender functions were obligatory in respectability, and a woman's place was within the home.
The nineteenth hundred years was an exceedingly turbulent time, with its staunch Victorian values, child labour, course limitations, industrialism and colonialism. Much of children's literature developing through this period echoed the needs of the world and was as Kimberley Reynolds implies 'used quite consciously as a form of cultural control'. ()
Two relatively very diverse novels Louisa May Alcott's "Little Women" (1868) and Robert Louis Stephenson's "Treasure Island" (1881), emerged in this period.
Both consciously gender directed; it is usually to be determined what lengths they follow the tendency of the writing at the time. By investigating the nineteenth hundred years ideological viewpoints, comparative contemporary texts and historical contexts it might be driven if the authors apparent intent is indeed a way of communal control, or if it shows a new movement in the liberation of writing for the children's publisher, and their visitors.
Novels in this early age, echoed the principles of modern culture, and were used to create 'model' children instructing on manners, religious doctrine, and morals. Issues echoed in one of the favorite evangelical texts of that time period, Mary Martha Sherwood's THE ANNALS of the Fairchild Family (1818), promoting that children had to be disciplined or be condemded to heavenly punishment, a renowned severe e book, its child character types are beaten, starved and incarcerated in the pursuit of puritan idealism (Grenby, 2009).
Children's literature in the first fifty percent of the century, experienced two key moves, the extremely didactic, and dream adventure structured entertainment, shown predominantly in the cheaply produced feeling texts, such as the cent dreadful and dime novels. Significantly Stephenson loved this popular sensational fiction (Kim Reynolds Disc), a fact that transposed into his own writings. We see these movements merge in the Victorian era, and from the 1860's emerges the Golden Years of children's literature( Grenby, 2009), when literature contained dream, realism, fun and excitement, often reported to be epitomized in Lewis Carrols 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' (1865). Children's books commenced to fulfil a need that had not been dealt with in the didactic literature, and also to coerce through entertainment, we see social control disguised in a entertaining storyline.
Sited during and beyond the North american Civil conflict, Alcott's Little Women depicts the storyline of four sisters and how they expand up into women. Begrudgingly written to order, designed for girls, she creates in her journal "she never liked young girls, nor knew many, except my sisters; but our queer works and experiences may show interesting though I suspect it' (Alcott 1975, pviii). Alcott herself was very unconventional for her time, in a culture where her only recourse was to marry and seem a home, she continued to be a spinster, reinforced her family, and acquired strong beliefs on equality. Her book although unquestionably predicated on her own life, on the surface showed none of them of the flexibility she herself achieved. The sole concession she apparently made for the March young ladies was to permit Joe whom she based on herself, to strive for the freedom in her writing and her life. Fantasy and adventure literature were the then market favorite and the domesticity of Little Women brought realism in literature, and centered on the realities and education of every day life.
Contrastingly Treasure Island adopted the style of the sensational reviews of the Penny Dreadfuls, and maintained the custom of earlier novels such as the well imitated Defoe's " Robinson Crusoe"(), and the similar Ballantyne's "Coral island "(). Unlike Alcott, Stephenson's book was originally for family entertainment not profit. Embodied in the period of the Uk Empire, Treasure Island with gentleman's morals and English compatriotism conveys public education more via playful entertainment, embodying the overly busy adventure tale that pulls the audience as a child into the swashbuckler relationship, of pirates and buried treasure.
In opposition Little Women apparently, is extremely instructional, and consultant of women authors of the time, following Yonges's "The Daisy Chain"(), which has similarities to the Little Women narrative. Marmee steers girls towards womanhood, marriage and conformity, she considers no other course in life for her children, as she says "To be treasured and chosen by way of a good man is the best and sweetest thing which can occur to a woman" (Alcott p. 95).
She could be see as representing the patriarchal establishment that suppresses all of them, as she stifles any rebellion from her women, 'Marmee is the model little female' (Fetterley, cited in Montgomery 2009). Quietly quelling Joes unrealistic ambition to become article writer, when she writes her sensation story, " much to the disquiet of her mom, who was always just a little stressed when 'genius got to burning'"( Alcott p258). Also abruptly stemming any notions of Meg complaining of her matrimony 'Be careful, careful, never to wake his anger against yourself, for calmness and happiness rely upon his esteem' (Alcott, 269). The overtly suppression of women with the book makes it difficult reading today, but it been successful in its time as it achieved the needs of its readers, carrying on today as the novel has never been out of printing.
Possibly as operating covertly throughout the e book, there seems to be noticeable undercurrent of rebellion. As Judith Fetterley ( cited in Montgomery 2009), says the war can be an evident metaphor for the inner conflict within Alcott, and so in the storyplot itself. Even the ever before instructional marmee has a clandestine rebellious undercurrent, admitting her daily anger and its own suppression by her hubby ' I am furious practically every day of my life, Jo; but I've learned not to show it'(Alcott, p78), but not altogether happy with her life, she remains to guide her daughters to the same. The theme of rebellious public instruction is apparent but well hidden.
Alcott's father greatly admired John Bunyan's pilgrims improvement, and she uses this firmly in her publication, adding her own version to the preface 'For little tripping maids may follow God Over the ways which saintly ft have trod' (preface). Overtly motivating girls to check out god perhaps, yet interpretations could be covertly admonishing female stereotypes and even encouraging women in to the clergy.
Stephenson denies that his TI is intended for anything apart from entertainment, Its diadiac content can almost be observed as unintentional, shown in Stephenson's own introduction to the 'hesitant purchaser' how every child should enjoy this experience. (Stephenson, 1981, preface)
More so than instruct within his novel, unlike Alcott, he produces a traditional quest of any novel, providing us a arriving of age storyline that guides males to understand the adult world. Its historical context reveals somewhat the man Jim Hawkins is modeled to be. THE PHYSICIAN, Squire and Captain Smollet, are portrayed as the role models steadfast honorable and trustworthy English gentlemen, later in opposition to their respectability their individuals are became flawed, in sight of ability and greed. Victorian modern culture dictates that Jim grow to be an British Gentleman to carry on the empire, although this is only permitted within his acquisition of money. The underclass are portrayed by the mutinous seamen, and Long John Metallic the enigmatic dad figure. An opposing and alluring role model, perhaps an aspect of Stephenson's rebellious nature against contemporary society.
As Billy Bones terrorizes and enthralls the Admiral Benbow clientele, dr Livsley represents Victorian gentile contemporary society in his distaste of him, the underclass, "I've only 1 thing to state to you, sir if you retain on enjoying rum, the entire world will soon be quit of an extremely dirty scoundrel!"( ). Long John Sterling silver holds the same ability, yet can be an enigma of that time period, educated, keeping a bank-account, deceiving the physician, and so contemporary society as a whole ' but I will say this, John Silver suits me ' (). It is through Sterling silver, Jim is instructed on the duplicity of people, shown in Silvers moral ambiguity, a pirate and a gentleman, he embodies what Victorian modern culture worries most.
By using Jim Hawkins as the as the first person narrator, Stephenson allows the reader to activate in worries and enthusiasm of a young boy, finding the occasions through his eyes, we see how amoral the planet can be, Instructing children in the problems of problem. We also have value for Jims decisions and activities, and discover him in a more adult manner, allowing him to increase. Although throughout the reserve the prose is placed for children, When Doctor Livesly needs narrative, we see the clouded brains of the adult, and how they could be inept and uncompromising. Showing perhaps its interpersonal instruction is to inform, and empower the child, to start to see the world as it truly is. In opposition to this, in Little Woman, through its third person omniscient narrative, We realize all the character types personalities, thoughts and emotions intimately, and also have understanding of future happenings, echoed in TI, when the more aged Jim narrates. Alcott gives personal references and foreshadows the girls future lives, throughout and we always continue to view them as children, instructed regularly by parents, or moral occurrences.
Alcott and Stephenson, used their novels to portray a world in which they saw the child of their own time, in a way it would be accepted not only by their young visitors, but by the morals, and dogma that their world included.
Their literature Little Female and Treasure Island were Instructional, but broke from the unbending format of earlier children's literature in that they provided their readers the ability to interpret and judge.
Although Little Women, is seen as giving a kind of social instruction, on the other hand it is debated if Treasure Island is really regarded as a socially instructive novel. Maixner (cited in Haslam 2009) state governments 'So definately not being an improving or moral copy writer was Stephenson that in his fiction the joys of children are outside the world totally' Arguing against Loxley means there is a subtext within the swashbuckling romance promoting personal colonialist gain (cited in Haslam 2009 ). This can be see somewhat in Stephensons final lines 'Oxen and wain-ropes wouldn't normally bring me back to that accursed island' still haunted by his excursion, Jim now is aware of the darker, and lawless area of human characteristics, wanting no more of the treasure, he is kept with the perception in to the instability and mistrust of the civilized world. Concluding his book with the words of the pirate ''Bits of eight! pieces of eight!', could show perhaps for some reason the danger of the pirate remains, and the futility of desire and pursing prosperity will bring out the most severe in all.
As children read for pleasure, it could very well be only as men and women we look to see subliminal meanings to children's literature, and this is shown well in treasure island where and Little women, where the context varies in critiscm.
It raises the question, are all children's books diadaic?, simply because the creators own ideals and morals are attracted after in their writings. A question that may be equally put on Alcotts Little Women, just as answer her critiscm s, she says she 'possessed no intent of writing a conscious subversion associated with an instructional e book', yet her book has been viewed as a betrayal of Alcott's own ideals, shown vividly in Joe's matrimony, which Alcott was cajoled into '"Jo" must have remained a literary spinster '( Alcott, xxiii ).
However interpretations also reveal covertly the e book offered its young readers the ability to see a way beyond the acceptance of traditional life. , showed in Beth's death perhaps as Fetterly expresses Alcott's own covert suggestion that complete transformation to the perfect 'little woman' is indeed to die. Or possibly a metaphor that the old traditions of womanhood are dying out, to be replaced by the Joe's, in their self-employed lives. (reader 2)
, 'You must take my place Jo, and become everything to father and mother when I'm ended up '( Alcott p402)
Both authors claim innocence in incorporating any subliminal instructional information within their texts, and indeed this might well have been their purpose. However as it is presumed that any novel is essentially diadiac. . Quotation.
Both Stephenson and Alcott used their own life experiences and objectives of society to make their novels, which alone gave them diadiac content, however subliminal or unintentional. Little Women and Treasure Island include a form of cultural control, nonetheless they show the required control of the writer, not implicitly that of culture.