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Report on Adolescent


Adolescence is the time between the age groups of 12-18 years. It can be regarded as the transitional level from childhood to adulthood. The period of adolescents is most meticulously from the teenage years, though its physical, subconscious and ethnic expressions may begin early on and end later. The physical progress is distinct from puberty and cognitive development generally seen in adolescence as it can also extend in to the early twenties. The main reason for the adolescence time is to prepare children for the adult roles as it being the period of multiple transitions involving education, training, career and unemployment as well as transition in one living environment to some other living environment.

The end of adolescence and the start of adulthood varies from culture to culture as it could occur at different age ranges with respect to the person (chronologically and legitimately) being older enough for the world to entrust them with certain privileges and tasks. Thus the chronological era provides only a abrasive marker of adolescence. The adolescence era is referenced as enough time of both disorientation and finding as it is the transitional process, which brings up issues of independence and self-identity. Henceforth it is almost always accompanied by an increased self-reliance allowed by parents or legal guardians and less supervised when compared with preadolescence.



Name: Sayeda Hina Iqbal

Ethnic Source: Indian

Date of Delivery: 31st Oct 1998

Age: 15 years

Siblings: 3 (older sister-22, older brother 19, young brother 9)

How did I know this person: Introduced with a friend

Sayeda Hina Iqbal ideally called as Hina originates from an Indian history. Her family consists of her parents and her 3 other siblings, an older sister, a mature brother and a more youthful sibling. Hina's home environment is very friendly where in fact the whole family helps each other and doesn't impose their decision on anyone. Her family is very warm and inviting and have always supported one other on what one desires to do.

According to Diana Baumrind (1971, 1991) parenting can be grouped into 4 different styles:

  • Authoritarian- a restructive, punitive style.
  • Authoritative- encourages independence but nonetheless places limitations and controls on the actions.
  • Neglectful- parents are incredibly uninvolved in the adolescent's life.
  • Indulgent- parents are highly associated with their children but places few requirements or settings over them.

Looking at Hina, she has Authoritative parents as her parents encourage her to be unbiased but still have placed restrictions and control over her, which indeed will involve her parents to be always a part of her everyday life and its draw out someone who is well alert to her restrictions and boundaries as well as indie and comfortable.

  1. Developmental Information

Adolescence is the developmental level between child years and adulthood. There are lots of extreme physical changes that happen during adolescence. By far the most impactful changes are the height and weight. Teens go through "the adolescence expansion spurt"- an interval of rapid expansion changes in height and weight.

Looking at the subject i. e. Hina she has the standard physical development that most adolescents acquire. She has the elevation of 5 foot 2 inches and the average bodyweight which places in the average category i. e. the center portion of the Bell designed cure.

  1. Cognitive Development:
  1. At what level of Piaget's developmental theory was the subject functioning at? Justify by giving examples.

Cognitive development significantly boosts during adolescence as young adults begin to work with the formal operations to solve problems during this certain amount of their growth. Matching to Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory formal operation period is the stage during which people develop the ability to think abstractly, he asserted that children enter in this stage at the start of adolescence.

However research finds individual dissimilarities in cognitive abilities is not universal as some researchers suggest that cognitive development is more continuous, contrary of what Piaget suggested.

Observing Hina, she actually is comes under the formal operation skills of Piaget's cognitive development theory. The formal procedure stage of Piaget's cognitive developmental theory explains how the wondering ability of a teenager increases in this stage and they are able think logically and idealistically and also have the ability to use deductive reasoning and an understanding of abstract ideas.

While watching Hina, it was very clear that she was able to use abstract suggestions to understand the concepts being taught in mathematics and apply those concepts in order to resolve her maths equations. Through the observation, Hina was also able to think idealistically as she could think and allow a balance between what is right and incorrect. She was also able to argue to be able to make certain that her ideas were also given equal importance to when compared with others ideas. Being able to think idealistically also permit her to reflect upon what's possible and how can it be possible.

Being in the formal functional level, Hina was also able to reason out the quarrels she made and lower back them up with rational reasons in order for her problems to be solved, this helped her to resolve problems and also test alternatives.

  1. Explain areas of Vygotsky's development theory that was witnessed such as discussion with members of the family.

According to Vygotsky's Developmental theory, he believed that mental buildings and procedures can be traced to our interactions with others as these social interactions will be more than social affects on cognitive development as they create our cognitive framework and thinking functions.

Observing Hina's interactions with her family members, her family is very interactive. The discussion between Hina and her parents is basically about her college and studies where her parents show interest on what is going on in her college life. In addition they just like a keep a an eye on who will be the common friends that Hina hangs around with in and out of university. The discussion that Hina tell her siblings is more of fun related rather than serious connection. This discussion includes teasing each other, joking around and sometimes participating in pranks on each other.

  1. Social emotional Development
  1. Briefly discuss the psychological status of the person

Socio psychological development deals with the changes within an individual's marriage with other people, emotions and personality. The sociable psychological development is molded by unique mixture of genes, brain development, environment, experience with relatives and buddies, and community and culture.

Observing Hina, it proved that she was seeking for more self-reliance. She could make decisions but at exactly the same time she was still holding out to receive the confirmation from her parents. This hang on made her frustrated as she wasn't able to execute a certain task minus the permission granted by her parents. During the observation, it was apparent that Hina wished to try new what to get new encounters and take risks but credited to her not completely having control of her self-reliance she was restrained from carrying it out. She also used the duty of her decisions, activities and repercussions.

It was also very notable that Hina's self-esteem was affected by her friends as she was able to do new things and have new experiences while being around her friends however, not when she was on her behalf own or in her home environment. It had been also very obvious that she acquired intense spirits swings and they were very unstable, she was very hypersensitive to others thoughts and tends to misread cosmetic expressions and body gestures which brings about her getting angry very easily. She is very self-conscious about her physical appearance and compares herself with her peers.

  1. What do you observe with regards to Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory of Development

According to Urie Bronfenbrenner human development is relat6ed to the complete ecological system. The ecological theory gets the 5 systems which discusses the contextual mother nature of the person's life and offers an ever-growing variety of options and resources of growth.

The microsystem is closest to the child as it has the direct effect on the child's development. It offers family, school, spiritual corporations, neighbourhoods and peers. Observing Hina she possessed stable microsystem due to her having steady romantic relationships with her family and peers

The mesosystem which consist of the interactions between the child's parents and teachers also the relationship between the child's parents and his/her peers. Hina was inspired by the mesosystem as there wasn't much connections between her parents and her peers which inspired her development as her parents asked her to be with the right group.

The exosysytem consist of links between a social setting where the individual doesn't have an active role and the individual's immediate framework for example, issues between two parents can affect the child's development. There wasn't such a situation in Hina's circumstance she could interact perfectly with both her parents.

The macrosystem identifies the culture a person comes from. A kid, his or her parent, his or her school, and his or her parent's workplace are part of a huge cultural context. Being the outermost layer of the individual's environment, it affects affect throughout the connections of all other levels. The macrosystem influences what, how, when and where we perform our relations. Hina has been damaged by this level anticipated to her culture which does indeed affect her relationships and relationships in a not so great way.

Lastly comes the chronosystem encompasses the dimension of time as it pertains to a child's environment. Elements within this technique can be either external, such as the timing of the parent's death, or internal, like the physiological changes that happen with the maturity of a child. This does influence the child's relationships depending on internal or external effects. Taking a look at Hina she didn't have any affects out of this system as she experienced none of the elements mentioned previously.

  1. Influences from family and friends

Hina's relatives and buddies does affect her in both positive ways as well as negative ways. Her parents being authoritative give her the self-reliance and liberty she requires but it addittionally reminds her to remain within her limitations which does impact her as she is aware what's right and what's wrong and also allows her to take up the duty of her own actions and decisions. Whereas regarding her friends, they make an effort to boost up her self-esteem as they encourage her to move for new activities but at the same time it lessens her self-confidence as she tries to compare herself with her peers and doesn't see her own potential and capacity.

Hina does not have any eating disorders and smoking patterns however she does sleep a great deal sometimes more than 12 time a day. Her interests are to read books, pay attention to music, watch television set and execute a lot of shopping. She doesn't prefer to indulge herself in activities which require her to be productive, she seems to try to escape from such activities rather than leave her safe place and take action outside of her comfort and ease.

  1. Summary

Hina is a standard teenager who may have her ups and downs. She is going through the same process that any teen would proceed through at this stage of adolescence. She has her physical changes taking place which is making her appearance change. She actually is also heading thorough cognitive development and therefore she is in a position to think abstractly, essentially and logically. Her cognitive development also allows her to think hypothetically. She is also going through the psychological development due to which her emotions are all over the area and therefore she has sudden mood swings and is unable to control her moods such as anger. Going right through the psychological development at this time is making Hina seek more freedom than she already does and therefore this seeking of independence sometimes brings about issues between her and her parents as she is convinced that her parents don't seem to be to understand her, credited to which she appears to distant herself from her family and spends additional time with her peers. This has both results on her development as well as negative effects. The positive effects are that she is able to face new experience and show responsibility on her behalf actions. It gives her the self-reliance that she looks for from her parents but at the same time when she actually is unable to acquire that independence in her home environment she gets upset and argues with her parents leading to conflicts.

All these exact things are incredibly common through the adolescence period as teenagers are trying to seek self-identity, be self-employed and also do things independently without asking for permission of their parents or guardians. They want to be the one in charge of their lives and feel the leader of the lives. Young adults usually feel that their parents are interfering in their lives whereas all they want to do is guide their adolescent children in the right path.


  • Bronfenbrenner's Ecological System Theory

http://www. floridahealth. gov/alternatesites/cms-kids/providers/early_steps/training/documents/bronfenbrenners_ecological. pdf

  • Ecological systems theory

http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ecological_systems_theory

  • Formal Operational periods of Cognitive Development

http://mindset. about. com/od/piagetstheory/p/formaloperation. htm

  • John W. Santrock. (2012). Child Development- thirteen release. United States of America: McGraw Hill Companies
  • Piaget's Periods of Cognitive Development

http://mindset. about. com/od/piagetstheory/a/keyconcepts. htm

  • Stages of Children Development

http://thebccp. org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/34_phases_of_adolescence. pdf

  • Friendly and Mental changes in Adolescents

http://raisingchildren. net. au/articles/social_and_emotional_development_teenagers. html

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