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Religion and International Relations

Introduction

Religion (noun): the idea in and worship of your superhuman controlling vitality, especially a personal God or gods.

In modern times, religion is not only the perception and worship of a supernatural entity. It really is a way of life. Since delivery, children are indoctrinated into their parent's religion. Customs, practices and prices, both positive and negative are taught till they become common reality. Religion permeates into the lives of individuals completely and seamlessly.

Given its pervasive dynamics, it is unsurprising that faith affects relations between people and on a more substantial scale interactions between countries. This project analyses the effects of religion on the international level. Through case studies, it'll highlight the helpful as well as detrimental role of faith in maintaining calmness between countries. The article will not give attention to the various issues/ peace functions themselves, instead, it'll detail the religious background, the issues and proposed solutions.

Case Review 1: Jerusalem and the Israel - Palestine Conflict

Background to the Turmoil:

Jerusalem and other holy sites of the Middle - East are holy to the three major Abrahamic religions namely - Christianity, Judaism and Islam. Historically speaking, there have been multiple conflicts in the ownership of these locations. The most famous being The Holy Crusades.

In contemporary times, this has continued into the Israel - Palestine issue.

The root base of the conflict lie in the late 19th and early on 20th century. This period saw the go up of nationalist movements among Jews and also between Arabs. Both motions wished for a sovereign status because of their people, in the region. It had been also a period of large scale Jewish immigration in to the region. Jews were escaping the chaos brought on by the Russian Trend and later the Holocaust during WW2.

In 1920, Haj Amin al-Hussein emerged as the first choice for the Palestinian Arab Nationalist Motion. The man observed the Jewish Nationalist Movements and Jewish immigration as the primary enemies to his goal. This resulted in large range riots and assault between your two attributes. Sporadic bursts of violence continued till the start of WW2.

Post WW2 tensions arose due to the large scale immigration of Holocaust survivors. This is fuelled by the reviews that were coming out the Holocaust. The support led to Jews attacking on the Arabs as well as the British Administration.

In 1947, the British Mandate approached the US to provide a solution to the problems in Palestine. The US Special Committee on Palestine suggested a division of territory based on religion. The region was to be split into three parts. An unbiased Arab talk about and an Independent Jewish condition while Jerusalem and Bethlehem remained under UN control.

Jews were dissatisfied by the increased loss of Jerusalem but accepted the decision. Nonetheless it was vehemently opposed by the Arabs. This resulted in eruption of any Civil War in your community. Jews in your community were conscripted into an military. With British aid, they annexed territories to create modern day Israel.

The Issue:

In 1948, The Israeli Declaration of Self-reliance was agreed upon officially declaring the State of Israel as an unbiased nation. Since that time the spot has been under multiple wars and issues. The Arab nations encompassing Israel universally opposed its life. They trained armies and rebels to conquer the nation.

In 1967 during The Six Day Battle, Israel occupied areas of Palestine beyond its edges. Including the Western Lender and the Gaza Strip. Israelis have since started out settling in the region.

Despite multiple attempts at peace the standing issues of the issue cannot be resolved.

From 2005 onwards the Hamas company gained prominence in Palestine. The fighting lately occurred due to rocket episodes coming from both area of the Gaza remove.

The Standing up Issues:

Jerusalem

Jerusalem is the most major concern. Both sides lay claim ownership of the city. As stated previously Jerusalem is of great value to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam being an important and holy city for most of them. For Judaism specifically Jerusalem is the holiest city on the globe. It's the former located area of the Jewish temples on theTemple Mountand was the capital of the old Israelite kingdom. It also provides the Jewish holy site, The American Wall structure and the Mount of Olives. Hence the Israelis are unwilling to spend the the town. For Islam, Jerusalem is the website ofMohammad's Evening Journeyto heaven, and theal-Aqsa mosque. For Christians, Jerusalem is the location ofthe Crucifixion of Christand theChurch of the Holy Sepulchre.

Presently, Israel considers the complete Jerusalem within its sovereign region. Jerusalem also is its capital. No other country on the planet accepts this

Holy sites

Both attributes have matter over the treatment of their holy sites under the other's control. Historically these concerns are founded, as both attributes have prohibited worshippers while these were in control of the region. The treatment and possible vandalism of the websites under opposing guideline is a concern as well.

Proposed Alternatives:

The most internationally accepted solution is a Two Express one. Since the conflict is spiritual in aspect, it proposes splitting the region based on faith. With Palestine being comprised of the West Loan provider and Gaza Remove while Israel consists of all of those other region. This might ensure that demographically Israel will have a Jewish bulk with a significant Arab minority. While Palestine will provide an Arab bulk with a little Jewish minority.

Jerusalem would serve as the capital of both nations. With the Arab part under the control of Palestine and the Jewish part under the control of Israel.

Israel has portrayed concerns regarding safety to the plan. As the spot has been under multiple terrorist episodes, it thinks that creating a border so near to Palestine would raise the risk to its citizens.

Case Analysis 2: Islamic Terrorism

Islamic terrorism consists of terrorist serves done by people in the name of Islam

Ideology:

The term Jihad features a dominant role in militant Islam. Jihad basically means "struggle" or "resistance". Predicated on framework and writing. This may have multiple interpretations. Peaceful interpretations include "struggling to check out just how of God". However Jihad also has a armed forces sense, it calls for the defence and development of the Islamic express. Defensive Jihad is known as an obligation of utmost importance for those Muslims, while expansionist Jihad is optional.

The ideology of Islamic terrorists insists they are initiating a protective Jihad up against the West. Terrorists assume that the Western population and its procedures are actively anti - Islamic. So they insist that their actions are in defence of these religion.

The terrorists explain what they imagine is a continuing conflict between Christianity and Islam. A warfare that started from the Crusades. By framing the fight as protective, they seem to be a victim alternatively than an aggressor, and give struggle the highest religious main concern for all those good Muslims.

Many of the violent terrorist groupings use jihad to fight Western countries and Israel. Most militant Islamists oppose Israel's living.

Another major facet of terrorist ideology is the belief that Muslims have deviated from true Islam and must go back to "genuine Islam" as originally practiced during the time ofMuhammad.

"Pure Islam" can only just be reached through the use of a literal and strict interpretation of theQur'an and Muhammad's commands. The original sources should be interpreted singularly and Muslims simply should not follow the interpretations of Islamic scholars. Interpretation of the Quran from a historical, contextual point of view is problem.

In addition militants, scholars, and market leaders oppose Western population for what they see as immoralsecularism. Terrorists declare that free conversation has led to the proliferation ofpornography, immorality, secularism, homosexuality, feminism etc. ideas and concepts that they oppose.

Conflicts:

Due to their ideology, Islamic Terrorism has been in multiple conflicts across the world. Furthermore, Islam has had traditional rivalries with many religions. Including Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism etc. further increasing the issue.

Some of the many conflict areas are:

Country

Main religious communities involved

Type of conflict

Afghanistan

Extreme, radical Fundamentalist Muslim terrorist communities & non-Muslims

The traditional base of the Taliban and Al Qaeda. It was liberated by the joint military effort. However the Taliban is growing again and preventing continues.

Iraq

Kurds, Shiite Muslims, Sunni Muslims, traditional western armed forces

By mid-2006, a small scale civil battle, generally between Shiite and Sunni Muslims started out. Presently, the country is in another civil conflict against the ISIL

Kashmir

Hindus & Muslims

Kashmir has been a contested region since the creation of India and Pakistan.

Kurdistan

Christians, Muslims

Periodic assaults on Christians occur

Middle East

Jews, Muslims, & Christians

Israel is definitely a target of religious conflict. Thus Midsection East remains as a volatile zone

Pakistan

Sunni & Shi'ite Muslims

Mutual episodes, and periodic strikes by Taliban.

Somalia

Wahhabi and Sufi Muslims

Sufi Muslims modest version of Islam are struggling supporters of the Wahhabi tradition of Islam.

Thailand

Buddhists & Muslims

Muslim rebels have been attacking southern Thailand.

Solutions:

As such there is no homogeneous solution for Islamic terrorism. The locations and grievances of every conflict are extremely varied and can't be uniformly addressed. The terrorists also enjoy support because of the economic and public conditions of these regions. However universal solutions to addresses parts of this issue can be found such as:

  • Establishment of humanitarian centres to help people socially.
  • Mobilisation of spiritual market leaders to publicly oppose these actions and remove the militant support foundation.

Case Analysis 3: The Tibet - China Conflict

Background:

The Tibet - China issue is a historical and geopolitical controversy. Both sides state sovereignty of the Tibetan Plateau. Tibetans insist they have basically been a historically unbiased nation, and believe the Chinese occupation to be illegal. While the Chinese language declare that Tibet was an integral part of Chinese administration until it was annexed by the English Raj to act as a buffer between India and China and after the Raj withdrew, the China could actually regain their place in 1951.

The conflict also has an cultural and religious area. The ethnic aspect originates from the fact that the Tibetans of the Tibetan Plateau are a minority to the Han Chinese language most China, Subsequently most Tibetans are Buddhists, while religion is prohibited in Communist nations like China. The Chinese language government has a history of persecuting religions, especially those that have widespread acceptance like Buddhism has in China. Common persecution and the exile of the Dalai Lama have only fuelled the clash.

Present Day Scenario:

Tibet didn't take part in international organisations like Category of Countries in the early 20th Century. As such it struggles to provide sufficient information because of its sovereignty and self-reliance. China maintains an exceptionally strict position and prevents external intervention.

However there have been known circumstances of genocide against Tibetans and Buddhists in particular. Also development and expansion in the region seems to influence and benefit only the Han China immigrants.

Solutions:

The most accepted solution appears to be to provide Tibet with an increase of autonomy and freedom while keeping it under Chinese language rule. This would ensure a finish to religious persecution while also allowing more inclusive development in your community.

Scholars also concur that the Dalai Lama must be permitted to go back from exile and become an active part of the serenity process. The Dalai Lama has a great affect in the Tibetan region and can reassure and appease hardliners.

Case Study 4: Role of Christianity in Nazism and the Holocaust

During his climb to electricity, Hitler realised the politics significance of Christianity and Religious Churches. To the effect, the Nazi party started the advertising of "Positive Christianity". Positive Christianity differed from Christianity in many ways. Modern day historians concur that despite his cases, Hitler was anti - Christianity. He used "Positive Christianity" to justify his actions and his electricity.

Throughout his guideline, Hitler called the Nazi cause as Religious. At the same time, he utilised the historical rivalry and hatred between Christians and Jews. To justify this, "Positive Christianity" openly rejected any Jewish engagement in the Holy Bible. It:

  • Rejected the Jewish-written parts of the Bible(including the complete Old Testament)
  • Claimed Christ was Aryan and not Jewish
  • Opposed the lifetime of the Catholic Church
  • Promoted nationwide unity, and wanted to put all Protestant Churches under a single national Positive Religious Church
  • It emphasised Christ as a "positive" preacher and warrior against institutionalized Judaism

Hitler also used Christianity in his justification for the Holocaust. Saying he is continuing Christ's work by eliminating other races.

Religion as a Peacemaker

Historically, religion has been a cause of issue. However religion can be the cause of tranquility. Most religions on the planet advocate peace. The use of violence is advised only as a last course in defence. Even the idea of Jihad in Islam is employed mainly for defending the Islamist region.

Religion can be used to eliminate the very reason behind conflict itself, instead of merely preventing the fighting while the issues remain unaddressed. This is also true under the following conditions.

  • religion is a substantial contributor to the conflict
  • religious market leaders on both attributes want peace

Religious leaders are of particular importance in this approach as they are trusted and reputed by their areas. This enables them to:

  • A leverage against those opposing peace
  • Generate local, nationwide and international support for peace
  • Ensure assurances are kept at a local level
  • Emphasise on the maintenance of morality and mankind in peace

Conflicts can be attended to by:

  • Interfaith dialogue and interaction to handle issues
  • Proposing a remedy that can talk about the religious and cultural needs of both attributes as a go with to diplomatic discussions e. g. alternatives proposed for the Israel - Palestine conflict
  • Establishment of religious peacekeeping centres in strife torn locations like Iraq etc.

By this technique you'll be able to mobilise faith into a peaceful make that can end wars that are not only spiritual in mother nature but of other roots as well.

References

Beginner's Guide to the Israeli Palestinian Conflict (a video on YouTube) "A Brief History of the Arab-Israeli Discord"by Jeremy Pressman

BBC News reviews on the Israel Palestinian Conflict

ReligiousTolerance. org

Conflict Over Tibet: Central Triggers and Possible Solutions By Dustin Stokes

"Religion and the Holocaust" by Richard E Smith "The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity" by Richard Steigmann-Gall

Religious Efforts to Peacemaking: When Religious beliefs Brings Serenity, Not War

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