Posted at 01.02.2019
"Fayol's management functions, Mintzberg's jobs and Katz's skills remain important for the modern day director. " Discuss
There is prolonged debate regarding the relevance in the present day work area of the views of some of the older management theorists eg, Fayol (1841 - 1925), Mintzberg (1939-) and Katz (1926-). Since these theories were produced there have been vast changes in markets, communication systems, automation and technology. This has led some modern commentators to question whether their theories have any real value and software in the 21st century. The management functions, functions and skills that were outlined by the three management theorists above as a necessity within management have been referred to as being the "three distinctive categories to assist the job description of professionals. " However to totally appreciate and form an view on whether Fayol's functions, Mintzberg's assignments and Katz's skills stay important and highly relevant to part of the modern day administrator, one must first specify what management is and identify the requirements of a modern supervisor. Management is thought as "The process of coordinating and integrating work activities in order that they are completed successfully and effectively with and through other people. " However what's required of a modern day manger is far less clearly defined when compared to a century before, with wide modifications in the scale and characteristics of the venture as well as a range of internal and external factors that will impact on the business.
Henri Fayol is considered by many to be the founding dad of management theory. Fayol was employed to develop and put into action a management theory within the mining company where he worked. Fayol noticed that nothing of the managers had received any standard or role specific training for his or her positions. Together with the increasing importance on the role of the manger and the changing character of the business world, one common group of functions and principles that may be acknowledged by all and universally adopted was a necessity. This led to the introduction of Fayol's 14 key points of management, released in 1915. Of increased importance were the 5 functions of management produced by Fayol that focussed on the relationship between employees and their superiors (management). These 5 functions were: planning (foresight), organising, commanding, co-ordinating and controlling. Through planning Fayol hoped to incorporate the "unity, continuity, flexibility and perfection" of the company towards one common purpose. Fayol considered likely to be the most challenging of the 5 functions as it required the participation of the entire organisation, on all levels. In addition, organisations sought to ensure a more efficient running of the day-to-day activities of the business through structuring resources, both individuals and material, for more effective creation within the work place. Through commanding, Fayol desired to optimise the go back from employees within the business. Effective managers would display "personal integrity and communicate plainly" with staff, ensuring their complete knowledge of staff creates "unity, energy, initiative and devotion and eliminates incompetence. " The co-ordination of organisations inspired synergy - the harmonising of employees and the company as a whole. Fayol actively marketed weekly meetings for managers and mind of departments to go over issues of common interest in that way maximising the flow of communication (both upwards and downwards) within organisations. Finally, by managing feedback and discovering weaknesses within the company Fayol searched for continual improvement and constant development of varied aspects of the business from both employees and management. Although Fayol's work related to the early part of the 20th century, his theories remain of general program but do have their limits considering the technological innovations since his fatality in 1925.
Henry Mintzberg searched for to revise and expand on Fayol's theories of management functions, doing this in 1973 when he released his conclusions in the 'The Aspect of Managerial Work'. In this article, Mintzberg set up 3 types of management functions with 10 interrelated subcategories that he assumed all managers should stick to for effective management within the work place. Mintzberg's 3 types of managerial activities were; interpersonal roles, information processing tasks and decision making roles. Within these 3 activities, Mintzberg evidently defined the tasks that professionals could play and the potential of every managerial role in optimising managerial performance. Interpersonal roles concentrate on expert and positional status. In this particular managerial activity, Mintzberg identified 3 specific associated roles: figurehead, liaison and head. The informational control role, relates to the consumption, interpretation and succeeding dissemination of information. Mintzberg presumed that professionals should actively shop around and understand the workings of the organisation (screen) as well as pass on external information to users of the company (disseminator) and vice versa; announcing inside information to outsiders (spokesperson). Mintzberg's third managerial activity is decisional tasks. This involves managerial positions that want decisions to be produced and making alternatives that significantly impact the company. Mintzberg figured managers should seek change (businessman), signify the organisation (negotiator), supervise on the allocation of resources within the organisation (reference allocator) and become responsible for corrective and disciplinary action when disturbances arose (disturbance handler). These basic managerial requirements stay as vital in the current commercial environment as these were when Mintzberg mentioned them almost 40 years ago. Through revisiting Fayol's contribution from what a manager's work should be, Mintzberg could make develop, enhance and modernise Fayol's ideas for request to newer commercial scenarios and the changing nature of the business world in the 1970s.
Robert Katz asked the question 'what makes a good director?' after learning management theorists prior to his time, especially, Fayol. He figured it was a necessity for an effective manager to show and boost three important skills. These skills were technological, human being and conceptual. He found that the value of such skills depended after how big is the company and the magnitude of reliance that was positioned on managerial responsibility. The to begin these elements, technological skills, required a comprehensive understanding and aptitude for a specialised activity, notably one concerning "methods, processes, procedures, or techniques". The human skill pertains to the ability of an manager to connect, encourage and understand fellow personnel. Katz believed a successful director would be very sensitive to the needs of those around them having the ability to evaluate potential reactions and results and then make an informed decision on the correct course of action to carry out. Katz divided individuals skills into two categories, command ability within the machine and capacity within interpersonal human relationships. The 3rd and last skill that Katz presumed essential to a successful director was conceptual. Conceptual skill designed that the manager could observe the company all together and comprehend the particular one decision would impact the business, both internally and externally, with the effect on the industry as a whole.
When deducing whether Fayol's functions, Mintzberg's jobs and Katz's skills are still relevant to modern day managers, one must first build the qualities and skills a successful modern manager must possess. An internationally review conducted by the Galen Consulting Group in 2007 figured managers must have 7 "behaviors" to ensure that they would be effective with the fellow workers, enabling a harmonious environment that could still remain beneficial. Entitled "The Seven Behaviors of IMPRESSIVE Mangers (2007)" the review collated results of past studies like the Google effort and research by the business enterprise Insider (date). It is notable these "Seven practices" can be followed back again to Fayol's functions or the next revision by Mintzberg or Katz.
The results of the review concluded that the principal skill or habit that's needed is of an effective modern day manager is to be a 'good mentor'. Therefore a modern manager must definitely provide feedback, both negative and positive and give advice for employees, specifying where they have got either made a mistake or completed a task to a higher standard. Secondly it is essential to own regular communication with employees, both formal and informal and preferably over a one to one basis to go over answers to problems and the employee's performance more than a certain period. With one-on-one chats, constructive opinions is essential to ensure the employee isn't intimidated and seems comfortable to approach the supervisor with any questions or issues in the foreseeable future. The ability to motivate personnel within the company will most likely promote a harmonious and conducive environment, guaranteeing greater output and a larger chance of keeping staff. This is inferred in Katz's individuals skill aspect, where professionals are anticipated to connect well with staff. Similarly, the capability to 'mentor' a worker or staff member is an crucial aspect of Katz's conceptual skill. That is an example of how Katz's skills theories are still relevant to modern successful professionals.
Ali: You are employing the 2007 Galen Group as the authoritative source for your conclusions. It if is that important, condition above "the authoritative Galen study". Be more general in conclusion: eg Communication and opinions are now widely acknowledged in the modern place of work to be vital in promoting specific contributions, attaining synergy and improving teamwork which assists in interacting with corporate goals.
The second habit that is required of a successful modern manager is the ability to empower the employees (delegation of responsibility?) working with the manager also to involve all in team exercises. By involving all within the place of work and not discriminating from worker to worker a manager can achieve a positive, friendly environment, thus making sure greater efficiency. Empowering and supplying freedom to employees, the next habit of a successful manager of today, ties in the Mintzberg's social jobs of management. More, specifically it explains the role of the leader and liaison, who are in charge of staffing and training as well as maintaining communication within the company. This shows the interpersonal role of Mintzberg's theory continues to be highly relevant to the jobs of successful managers of today.
For a director to be highly successful they need to first gain the value of their employees. This remains as true today as it was when Fayol was writing. This is achieved in a number of ways, e. g. placing an example for fellow personnel to check out By getting to know employees both on a specialist level and becoming acquainted with their lives beyond the workplace employees will feel comfortable talking with the superiors. This can also relieve the transition for new employees who will quickly become integrated to the group within the work place. Attaining the admiration of employees is quicker obtained by promoting their professions and hobbies. This habit of a highly successful director can be followed back to Katz's human skill which describes the "ability to utilize, understand and inspire others". This demonstrates that the human being skill component of Katz's skills of management is still relevant today.
Through being successful and results-orientated professionals will optimise results with an increased rate of efficiency. By concentrating on attaining specific results and prioritising work to employees this goal is more possible and relates to the fourth habit that is a necessity for modern-day managers; being productive and being results orientated. This habit can be traced back again to all three theorists and their hypotheses. Fayol's fourth function; co-ordinating, searched for to "unify and harmonise" the team behind a goal. This is visible today in organisational objective statements, corporate goals and team targets which can be aligned to these higher-level objectives. Present day team managers concentrate the team on a specific goal. Similarly, Fayol's fifth function, commanding, is also an important ability of professionals who instruct employees and assign jobs under their leadership. Finally, Mintzberg's decisional tasks stay important in being results orientated as professionals are called after to make important decisions that will influence results and benefits for the company. Successful modern managers demonstrate concentrate on attaining results within available resources and in so doing reveal the continuing importance and relevance of Mintzberg and Fayol's broad theories.
The ability to truly have a clear eye-sight and technique for any circumstances the company may face is key to learning to be a successful administrator. Through preparing organisational mission affirmation, corporate strategies and goals and team focuses on, this ensures synergy throughout the company. All constituent parts of the company understand their specific jobs, how these give food to into achieving goals and just why they are important. This means that the organisation continues on concentrate on even in unfortunate circumstances e. g. The Global Financial Crisis and means that the team will still stay effective and reliable. The continued importance of corporate eyesight has been demonstrated in the recent global financial turmoil. This behavior or skill of the manager is related to both the planning and organising functions of Fayol. Through drawing up ideas of action that that coalesce "unity, continuity, versatility" the look function of Fayol's '5 functions of management' is still important for modern managers. Similarly through the organising function, managers use "capital, staff and recycleables" to steer the organisation as outlined by Fayol. Thus both company and planning function are shown to continue to be important to professionals of today.
The final habit of a successful manager is to have a sound knowledge of technical skills and be able to give practical advice to employees by working side-by-side with them. In the same way it's important to comprehend the obstacles of working also to comprehend the down sides and the stress of the position, thus having the ability to relate with employees it times of difficulty. This final behavior of successful professionals can be tracked back to Katz's specialized skill. Katz assumed an "understanding of and proficiency in a specific kind of activity" was essential and managers should be experienced in a "specialised skill" and therefore having the ability to help employees. Katz's specialized skills theory is proven to still be relevant to contemporary professionals.
As the earth enters more modern civilization, organizations also morph into more technical and competitive framework. Thus, such situation can be more difficult for today's managers in maintaining the viability of current organizations. Regarding to people issues, it's important to comprehend comprehensive on manager's work.