Posted at 11.29.2018
Traditionally there were three types of analysis; evaluative for evaluating companies, summative to help illustrate individuals and formative to support learning. The first two, evaluative and summative are grouped along, and the third dismissed. (SQA 2011)
However, during the last few decades analysis has changed from psychometrics to a broader model of educational assessment (Gipps, 1994, web page 1). There is currently a wide variety of different kinds of assessment than there's previously been, included in these are; exams, examinations, coursework, sensible and oral assessment. Assessment is used to support the teaching and learning process and help teachers evaluate pupil's performance and attainment (Gipps, 1994, web page 3). It's been suggested by. . that there are two main purposes of analysis, to inform decisions about learning experiences and to record on what has been achieved (assessment of Learning webpage 15). Glaser (1990 cited in Gipps, 1994, webpage 10) will abide by this assertion and shows that "assessment must be used to get learning rather than just to indicate current or past accomplishment" Therefore, analysis not only allows the professor to evaluate the learning that is occurring, but also assess their own private teaching techniques.
Teaching and learning must be interaction therefore teachers got to know about their pupil's progress and problems and adapt their work to the meet their needs. Every pupil has different needs that may be unpredictable, therefore teachers must use a variety of techniques; observation, debate, activity and written school work and home work to meet up with the variety of different needs. (In the black pack)
Assessment should show the learner models of performance they can follow and also indicate the assistance, experience and forms of practise required by learners as they enhance their performance. (ibid, p. 480 cited in Gipps, 1994, web page 10). Therefore, assessments must be an array of strategies to examine cognitive aspects than simply subject material acquisition and retention and offer both students and teachers advice in order to use the knowledge to construct further action.
Learning involves the complete person, not just cognitive exercises; therefore the pupil needs to be determined to learn. If assessments are used correctly it can cause an exceptionally positive effect on learners as it allows pupils to be give attention to what they are said to be learning. It offers them with goals which can help increase their inspiration and self-confidence. Assessments are also not effective to advertise good learning and understanding when the emphasis is just simply on the class that the pupil will get, this ends in a competition rather that concentrating on personal improvement (Black Box page 18).
In Scotland the main physiques that are in charge of education are Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS), the Scottish Certification Power (SQA), and HM Inspectors of Education (HMIE). The SQA is responsible for the development, accreditation and documentation of requirements to ensure that they meet up with the needs of Scotland and its own people and embeds best practice in learning, examination and quality confidence in certification. The SQA is also in charge of assessment agreements that seek to ensure that candidates have an equal possibility to show they can achieve national requirements that are required for units and programs. The SQA, with support from LTS, provides professionals with advice, support and CPD on examination, criteria and quality assurance as explained on the LTS website (2011). The relationship also helps the development and delivery of National Assessment Resources 3 to 18; this allows teachers to gain a greater knowledge of their own judgements and with the focus on CPD, teachers can develop the abilities they need (LTS 2011). Furthermore, it is very important that teachers have access to a wide rage of reliable and valid information, on NAR, to ensure they may have information about analysis and best practice. HMIE inspects classes and other universities to get an perception into learner experiences and successes, and information on achievements and publishes records using quality indicators such as How Good has gone out School to create a quality framework (LTS 2011). The ultimate body that is responsible for education is the Scottish Federal who place the strategic policy direction and advice to Scottish Ministers on examination and requirements.
The development of a coherent diagnosis system, Assessment is designed for Learning, is a government concern in Scotland since 2001. Information is no more accumulated on all pupils through national assessments; they now keep an eye on national accomplishment through the Scottish Survey of Achievement sample survey. A new eyesight for Scottish Education has been developed by the Scottish Federal government, working with these three body, this is often a Curriculum for Quality (CfE). This new development aspires to ensure that teenagers of the 21st century develop the knowledge and skills for learning, life and work (LTS 2011).
Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS) produced the program Assessment is ideal for Learning (AifL) which has been a fundamental aspect in Scottish education and it is the platform in which Curriculum for Brilliance (CfE) included these methods to assessment. CfE says that assessment procedures are seen from the point of view of the learner, learners should be engaged in all aspects of evaluation therefore allowing them to achieve their goals and maximise their potential. (LTS 2011) LTS also works together with key partners to ensure that expectations and goals for another generation National Qualifications are regular with the worthiness, purpose and guidelines of CfE including breadth, level of challenge and program of learning (LTS 2011).
High quality learning and educating approaches will be a result of the CfE and the support of effective examination practices. Analysis of pupils progress and success throughout their education, up to the end of third time will be evaluated predicated on the teachers analysis of these knowledge and understanding, skills, traits and capabilities. All of these are identified within CfE experiences and outcomes. In addition to this, the next generation of National Qualifications from third year and throughout the senior stage will be aligned to Curriculum for Brilliance. (LTS 2011) Building the curriculum 5
Summative analysis is analysis that is used to record and measure individual's attainment. Analysis of learning can be either internal assessment or external examination, the SQA conducted this because they are an awarding body. Analysis becomes summative when the results are used to evaluate attainment against a particular standard or standards and must therefore be quality reassured (SQA 2011) The individual that marks the exam paper, particularly if pupils progress to standard levels and highers, is marking the pupil with a level based on how well they performance on the day of the exam, no account is considered regarding the individuals talents and weaknesses.
Prior to Curriculum for Brilliance, Scotland's national diagnosis system included the National Analysis 5 to 14 model which included assessments which were largely summative. The implementation of Curriculum for Brilliance calls for the Scottish Education System away from summative assessment and steps towards formative evaluation. Diagnosis becomes formative diagnosis when the data is really used to conform the teaching work to meet up with the needs of the learners. (dark box webpage2). Learners learn best when they understand what they are really learning and what is expected of these. There is a move away from national curriculum testing, league dining tables of school performance and goal environment, now the debate is that coaching and learning have to be interaction. Teachers must know about pupil's improvement and difficulties to be able to meet their needs (dark box page 1). Therefore, formative analysis considers progress and effort created by the pupils and not simply on their test credit score. CfE and AifL says a main concern in the Scottish educational system is providing and retaining a "high grade education" is (LTS 2011), this is suffered by using both formative (Evaluation for Learning) and summative (Evaluation of Learning) assessments accurately. Summative assessments should become a positive part if the training process, active participation in the trials process allows students to see that they can benefit from evaluating alternatively than be the subjects, therefore examining can enhance their learning. (Working inside black box webpage 15)
An summary of formative assessment is the fact that it could be used to monitoring learning to check whether learning is occurring, it can be used to identify or inform learning to see what's not being learnt and can develop learning to see what you can do to improve learning.
Formative assessment is utilized to identify future learning needs, spaces in learning and can also identify a person's support needs. Results from formative diagnosis are used to set learning goals and success standards, and to provide opinions to learners. Feedback should be immediate and constructive, and should provide information to learners on their next steps. To be effective, feedback needs to be given immediately so that learners can take account from it in their learning. This provides motivation, which is a crucial element in helping individuals to be successful learners. Delayed feedback can cease to obtain interpretation to the learner.
The need for formative assessment in effective learning has been pressured by the Assessment is perfect for Learning initiatives in colleges and additional and higher education institutions. Analysis for Learning has been identified by Dark colored and William as 'all those activities carried out by professors and/or by their students which provide information to be used as feedback to change the coaching and learning activities in which they are engaged'.
Formative assessment takes place during teaching and can be used essentially as feedback into the teaching and learning process. It really is not simply feedback on the results of any test that the pupil has completed, it takes into account such things as your time and effort that pupils have devote and the work and progress that they have made. The reviews that is directed at the pupils work depends on the pupil and not just the appropriate criteria. Different specific circumstances must be viewed if the assessment is to help learning and encourage the learner. (W. Harlen and M. James page 370) Formative analysis equips learners to become lifelong learners therefore is an integral element built into Curriculum for Superiority.
Clarke argues that "formative assessment includes four basic elements, these are the knowing of the importance of children's high personal- esteem, posting learning goals with pupils, effective questions, self- and peer evaluation and effective responses. " (Clarke S (2005) web page 5)
If teachers hold the sufficient background knowledge about their pupils existing ideas and skills, and are able to recognise the idea come to in development and the steps needed to take, this can be argued to be formative assessment (W. Harlen and M. Wayne page 369) Sadler furthers this to dispute that "if improvement in learning is to occur, students need to come quickly to hold a thought of quality roughly similar compared to that help by the educator. " (W. Harlen and M. Adam page 369)
"If children don't learn how we educateperhaps we ought to teach just how they learn" (Eppig, 1981) (Clarke S (2005) webpage 5). This permits both the professor and the pupils gain opinions about current understanding and skill improvement that therefore allows them to select the way onward.
Assessment of learning is measured against national benchmarks to provide people with valuable qualifications that meet their educational and training needs. Therefore, assessments must be good, reliable and valid. Validity and reliability in assessment are incredibly strongly linked and in many cases are inter-dependent. Although validity and consistency are distinct entities, they can be considered mutually as jointly they determine the overall quality of assessment. A valid examination is the one which measures whatever its purpose is to evaluate, and a reliable diagnosis is one where in fact the same results are gained time after time. This portion of this assignment will focus on reliability of analysis. Reliability can be involved with accuracy with which the test actions the skill or attainment it is wanted to measure (Gipps, web page 67).
Reliability in analysis is a way of measuring the amount of persistence that the pupil's respond to an evaluation is judged. Assessment decisions for each specific learner's performance must be regular for each pupil that participates in the same examination task for the examination to be reliable. Therefore, techniques must be put in to destination to ensure this. The SQA website says that "Assessment decisions are reliable when they are; created by valid assessments that are produced under conditions of diagnosis that are constantly applied, consistent across the range of assessors making use of the assessment in several situations, contexts and with different applicants. They are also reliable when they are considered based on clearly defined specifications of performance, the authenticated work of prospects is being assessed and they're consistent as time passes. " (SQA 2011)
Summative assessment may use standard ways of assessing reliability of the test, included in these are supplying the same test a couple of days aside, using different kinds of the "same" test to compare performance of a similar population, or only using one test but dividing it into half arbitrarily so that the performance of both halves can be compared. However this type of reliability does not show stability as time passes or across kinds of lab tests, it only highlights steady response behaviour. It has been argued that there are errors in tests that have to be dealt with, such as variations arising within the measurement technique, changes in the specific sample of duties, changes in the average person pupil from day to day and also changes in the individual's quickness of work. Therefore governing bodies have create standards, they are; inter-marker reliability, ensuring inter-marker reliability, stability over time, trustworthiness when features change therefore making sure stability (ciea, 2011)
Reliability in formative assessment is used to see teaching in the situations in which it is collected. Therefore there is always quick reviews for the professor, who usually has opportunities to use observations of the response to 1 involvement as information to make the next one. Pryor & Torrance (1996, p. 214) give types of this process doing his thing and claim that through this quick loop of feedback and adjustment between professor and learner, the information without a doubt acquires greater dependability.
Curriculum for Brilliance requires teachers to gather information about each pupils results, information from interior assessments are being used to evaluate a pupils successes from 3- 15. The information collected is then used to provide opinions to pupils, other professors and parents. Therefore the results from assessments are essential for making options and decisions, about specific pupils learning. For learning benefits to be fulfilled, a number of information must be obtained; this research is therefore reliable as it steps what it was designed to. Therefore, teachers have significantly more responsibility as more emphasis is on the educators' professional judgement.
Validity is a way of measuring the accuracy of your diagnosis, it asks the question, is the assessment actually doing what it is supposed to be doing? Each assessment should be designed to allow candidates to create the evidence showing they have the mandatory knowledge, understanding and skills for the qualification they are targeting. An examination is valid when it is fit for goal, allows candidates to produce sufficient evidence of performance that may be measured from the standards described in the certification, allows candidates to produce sufficient evidence of the knowledge, understanding and skills that must satisfy specifications of the qualification and allows all assessors to make reliable evaluation decisions for many prospects (SQA 2011).
As mentioned previously, validity and reliability are interdependent. If an evaluation produces inconsistent results then the results cannot provide valid information about a pupil's achievement. Alternatively, highly regular results do definitely not show high validity, since the test may be incorrect for the competence being evaluated. For instance, the results of any maths test relating routine computations may have a higher degree of validity for indicating arithmetical skills but a low degree of validity for indicating problem-solving capabilities.
During my first coaching placement I pointed out that within the mathematic division formative evaluation techniques were motivated, including the traffic light system, but weren't perfectly developed. Therefore, after some observation and discussion with the category professors it was discovered that (test thing) and peer- and self- examination were almost never used within the classroom therefore i decided to investigate how effective pupils found the Evaluation for Learning approach of (test thing) and peer- and home- diagnosis to help them using their learning and own knowledge of the topic.
To investigate peer- and self- evaluation I firstly asked each pupil to complete a questionnaire that could give me an insight into what their knowledge was of the topic of fractions. The questionnaire consisted of six sections; the teacher advised me that the class can complete the first three areas but would struggle with the final three, thus allowing me to plan lessons on the ultimate three areas. However, the pupils' previous knowledge was not what I or the category teacher had expected; because of this, after i became aware that pupils were fighting the questionnaire I should have ended the category. Instead I told those to answer as many questions as they could and once the majority of pupils experienced completed the questionnaire to the best of their potential I asked them to swap their worksheet with their partner and we went over and talked about the answers as a course. Each section possessed red; amber and green down the medial side of the paper to allow pupils to peer assess each other at each section and also state an overall red, amber or green for the questionnaire all together. I then asked pupils to check out their worksheet and personal determine their work to see if indeed they agreed with the draw their partner provided them and then asked them to improve their palm for red, amber or inexperienced. My eyes were truly opened up in this first lessons and I discovered a very valuable and valid point, it is not safe to presume preceding knowledge.
After seeing the class educator, I was suggested that for the purpose of this action research I will plan lessons to cover four of the six areas in the questionnaire. This would direct result is a shorter questionnaire by the end of the study.
The next lessons I went right back to the basics, this lesson got the form of the discussion at the beginning of the time, two short worksheets for every pupils to complete, peer marking and peer analysis and then self diagnosis. Then i asked pupils if the consider themselves red, amber or inexperienced for every single worksheet and questioned pupils as to why they considered themselves, for example, amber and not red or green. Throughout the lesson I got down notes, particularly when pupils were peer and personal assessing one another. Pupils were very enthusiastic when they designated each others work, in case mistakes were made I mentioned that pupils would ask and consult with their partner the way to get the right answer, therefore allowing understanding to occur with he pupils who make clear the answer to their partner to gain understanding through the reason to their spouse.
Lesson Three needed an identical form, however I started the course with a note from that which was learned and discussed the prior day. A talk then occurred about what we would be learning today, accompanied by an example which i asked pupils to tell me how to handle this problem. Then i asked pupils to duplicate down a note for future guide, and I issued them a worksheet that experienced questions on today's lesson, quantity of a fraction and also questions on yesterday's lessons, simplifying fractions and finding equal fractions, to allow me to check for understanding. As the class completed this worksheet I walked around the class and viewed pupils work. Then i asked pupils to swap jotters so they can peer evaluate each others work, once all the answers had been reviewed I asked pupils to swap again and check to see if they decided with the red amber or green that their spouse experienced given them. It was then taken to my attention that certain pupil thought that they must be inexperienced but their partner designated them amber. This caused a good discussion about different perspectives and opinions on acceptable levels of work, one pupils marked them amber because they had not completed the worksheet, whereas the other pupil presumed that as they only acquired two wrong of the total amount they did, they should be marked renewable.
The next lesson the pupils were booked into the I. C. T collection, ideally I'd have preferred to complete my lessons and then take them down nevertheless they have a fortnightly slot machine which i was struggling to swap. I did not use my formative examination methods here as they were completing focus on the My Maths request on the computer systems.
Lesson 5 occurred back the classroom and we relocated onto another section. The lesson needed similar form to the prior school room lessons, however this time I needed a basic for the pupils to complete first. I then discussed examples at the whiteboard and asked pupils to replicate down a note. As they do this I distributed a worksheet and asked those to complete it. Peer evaluation and self evaluation occurred again in the form of peer marking.
The final lesson got the same form as the first; I asked pupils to complete another questionnaire and gave them approximately 20 minutes to complete it. Then i done the formative examination research by requesting pupils to peer symbol and therefore peer examine each others work, marking each section red, amber or renewable and a standard red, amber or green. I then experienced a debate with the pupils if indeed they found it useful or beneficial to mark each others work, the results of the will be mentioned in the next section. Finally I asked pupils to place a remark on the bottom of their worksheet about whatever they have sensed during the last few lessons that we took.
The research results are shown on the desks presented on Appendix ?? each graph shows the results from both questionnaires.
Continued representation on personal development is an essential part of Curriculum for Quality therefore this section will concentrate on my very own professional development, with regards to I. T. E benchmarks, from undertaking this assignment.
My understanding of summative and formative assessment within the Scottish Education System has increased greatly (1. 1. 1). This is developed through the research I completed in section one, and also within the classroom environment when I was on placement. My knowledge and understanding of Curriculum for Quality (1. 1. 2) was also increased through my research. Also, during my action research I completed my research with a first year class, this allowed me to utilize the class tutor to recognize which level the pupils were working at, match their needs and plan lessons accordingly. In addition to this, when planning lessons I recognise and developed lesson progression (1. 1. 3), I had been therefore in a position to develop lessons and justify them.
As mentioned in section 2, I had formed to improve my initial lessons plans because of this if the first questionnaire to match the needs of the pupils (2. 1. 1). This challenged my planning skills greatly and also my communication skills. The first lesson I needed with this class I struggled to keep pupils motivated and sustain interest, therefore I analysed my performance and asked the class teacher for feedback. Because of this I improved and designed my lessons; this allowed me to greatly develop my communication and planning skills (2. 1. 2).
With respect to my action research, section 2. 3 "Pupil Evaluation" is the probably the most crucial section of the I. T. E Benchmarks. Not only was my knowledge and understanding about how exactly to apply effective analysis techniques increased but my observation skills and questioning skills have been developed (2. 3. 1). Pupils were also eager to complete their work as these were aware that their partner would be marking it, therefore specific attainment was increased.
Results of the original questionnaire (analysis) were used to judge pupil's performance, plan lessons and for that reason improve coaching and standards of attainment (2. 3. 2). The results of both questionnaires and the records that I made when peer diagnosis and self examination occurred in the class needed to be evaluated. This information was then used to research whether pupils possessed met the learning objectives set for them; this is a crucial part of this assignment to ensure that pupil attainment was increased and assessments successful. The assessment and results between the first and the second questionnaire was used to encourage and show pupils how they were able to improve their learning and understanding of this issue of fractions (2. 3. 2)
This task has provided the necessity to research and evaluate relevant educational literature which has led to me achieving a widened knowledge of the Scottish educational system and the changes that are happening at the moment (2. 4. 1) especially in relation to Curriculum for Superiority.