Posted at 10.02.2018
Organizations have to go through significant and distressing changes to be able to endure in the vibrant and competitive business environment. Leadership plays a essential role in the execution of organizational change.
This study will discuss how leaders would effectively put into practice such tactical changes with specific solutions, theories and varieties of leadership.
The publisher will relate with appropriate organizational examples and incorporate educational frameworks & models of leadership.
Although many folks have tried to determine leadership there is no single definition that could capture the substance of leadership. Daft recommended that "Command is an affect relationship among market leaders and followers, who plan real changes that reveal their distributed purposes" (Daft 2008, p. 4).
Yukl explained that "Command is the procedure of influencing others to comprehend and agree about what needs to be achieved and how to get it done, and the procedure of facilitating specific and collective efforts to accomplish shared targets" (Yukl 2006, p. 26). Both Daft & Yukl gave similar view details and spoke about the power of a head to influence enthusiasts in order to achieve a shared objective.
For some people, management is a characteristic or ability, for others it is an art or behavior whereas still for others management is a romantic relationship. It is therefore evident that people have a wide range of perspective on leadership (Northhouse, 2009).
Therefore it is used into author's consideration that command is the capability to influence followers to boost performance in series to achieve a shared goal. For a leader to be able to achieve the objective he/she should possess the winning attitude and right skills.
Dawson (2003, p. 11) mentioned that "there can never be a widespread theory for organizational change, as change includes a movement to some future declare that comprises a context and time that remains unknown". Whereas Matcheva (2010) described that "organizational change identifies the fundamental and extensive reorientation in the way the organization performs. "
Organizational change might occur due to many internal and exterior environmental factors. The exterior factors will contain political, economical, public and scientific stimuli while internal factors will be factors such as organization's management policies and styles, systems, procedures and employee attitudes. (Buono, 2009)
Perry (2006) argued that change is unavoidable and for that reason should be prepared for and form part of the normal procedure for management. Burke (2011, p. 1) offered a new view mentioning "Organizations change on a regular basis every day. The change that occurs in organizations is generally unplanned and steady. "
Change is a challenging area and has influenced many organizations. Organizations have to undergo such significant change in order to make it through in the strong and competitive business environment. The change must be aligned according to organizational culture, ideals, people and actions to encourage the desired results. Therefore individual leadership plays an integral role in making change successful.
Such transformation is difficult and will definitely result in level of resistance and resentment by employees. The social and psychological fear of change and having less technical knowledge will influence the change process. Therefore Market leaders should be equipped with skills that would enable effective strategic change.
David (2004) also emphasized how control could help beat resistance to change. He reveals that "In order for TOP NOTCH Organizations to make it through, management must understand that change is unavoidable and that they themselves are in charge of overcoming employee resistance through sensible management and change-oriented leadership" (David, 2004).
Globalization, technological changes, knowledge management and cross boundary collaboration are the four major pushes impacting organizational change. Change could appear either in the external environment or macro environment. Organizations are in need of innovative and creative visionaries who understand how to make decisions in such changes Tappin (2009).
An effective change leader should have a sense of goal and a eyesight, ability to control people through challenging situations, ability to take accountability and responsibility and motivate visitors to achieve respective goals. Once people have confidence in leaders, the excitement will drive them to accomplish targets.
Therefore it is visible that there surely is a strong romance between management and change. Authority plays a significant role in minimizing resistance to improve as well as ensuring smooth execution of change.
The most challenging aspect of a company is leading and controlling change. With the business enterprise environment being subject to fast paced financial and interpersonal change modern businesses need to adapt and be versatile to survive. The primary task in leading change is to manage recruiting.
As stated by Kotter (1999, p. 19) "More change demands more leadership. . . " Kotter emphasized the need of a innovator to manage change. Nilakant & Ramanarayan (2006) also described the value of management during each period of change, mainly the execution stage.
Kotter (1999, p. 7) identified one of the most common errors of organizational failures during change as its lack of ability to make a powerful guiding coalition. He stressed on the value of strong brand command during change.
Kotter discovered a 8 level change process which comprise of
Establishing a feeling of urgency.
Creating a guiding coalition.
Developing a perspective and strategy.
Communicating the change vision.
Empowering broad centered action.
Generating short term wins.
Consolidating benefits and produce more change.
Anchoring new solutions in the culture.
(Kotter, 1996, p. 21)
In order to check out the aforementioned steps, an initiative needs to be taken which demands authority. From the above approach market leaders can act as a big change agent minimizing resistance to change.
Tappin (2009) mentioned that a innovator must develop the next characteristics in order to manage change.
A vision, and also communicate it with their organizations
An orientation to serving
An entrepreneurial mind-set
A determination to constant innovation
A global mindset
Ease and self confidence with technology
Know-how in systems thinking (a broad view of the inter-relationship of an organization's parts, rather than small view that is focused using one part or event. )
A sense of ethics and gratitude of spirituality in the workplace
A commitment to constant learning, personal and professional development
Tappin explained characteristics that he believes should be there in a big change leader. An in-depth evaluation need to be used order to recognize the most effective approach a innovator could follow when managing change.
As the characteristics of a change innovator have been laid down above. It is appropriate to carry out a thorough evaluation on leadership styles and solutions and so identify which style or strategy is greatly suited.
There have been many studies conducted to evaluate and identify different types of management styles. Goleman (2011) recognized six authority styles. They may be Coercive, Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, Pacesetting and Instruction. He argued that leaders who have four or even more styles especially Authoritative, Democratic, Affiliative and Training styles can drive a better business performance and maintain a good environment delivering greater results.
According to Northouse (2009) the primary study on styles of control was conducted by Lewinn, Lippitt and White (1939). The primary styles of leadership they recognized are Authoritative, Democratic and Lassiez-faire. Northouse (2009) mentioned that a innovator may screen a combination of the styles and perform each one of these styles in confirmed circumstance.
This style is also called the Autocratic model. Matching to Goleman (2011) coercive type market leaders expect immediate compliance from its fans. These types of leaders are incredibly competent in do it yourself control, initiating and obtaining results. The above style is most effective in turmoil situation where quick change is required as well as situations with problem employees. But the coercive model may have a negative effect on the employees therefore should be used with extreme care and attention. It may impact the morale and feelings of the followers and may negatively affect employee motivation.
In almost all cases, autocratic control style helps improve organizational efficiency and donate to the bottom line in the short-term. This improvement is however a quick fix, approaching at the cost of erosion of any company's underlying property and laying the foundation for permanent damage in the foreseeable future (Nayab, 2010).
Therefore this is considered as minimal effective style of all management styles since it has a negative impact on the overall climate of the organization.
In 2007 Martha Stewart one handedly turnaround her ailing Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia. In her we find a substantial amount of controversy but she continues to prosper with her corporation and is effectively dished up by her autocratic style of authority as well. But critics say that she wouldn't reach the verge of bankruptcy and would have achieved more if she had not used her autocratic style (Nayab, 2010)
This example shows that Martha was not able to reach her full potential and become successful with her autocratic style during the turnaround because of its aggressive characteristics.
An authoritative leader is someone who courses people towards a perspective and follow organizational goals and strategies. This is a more flexible strategy where in fact the followers are permitted to be impressive, experiment and take computed risk that may give the follower a sense of belonging and involvement to the business (Goleman, 2011). This style of leadership is most effective when change is required in a fresh perspective or clear direction is necessary.
His research signifies that is the very best style of management. But a head who is dealing with experts who are more experienced will see it difficult to use this style. The team members may sense that the first choice is wanting to dominate.
Northouse(2009) also provided a similar take on authoritative design of leadership. He pointed out that "Authoritarian control is used to provide direction, establish goals, and composition work". He identified advantages and disadvantages of using such style for management. The positives are that there is a person to give direction and clarity to employee's work that may bring about production and efficiency enabling achievements of goals in a shorter period. On the other hand this style will hamper personality and can create dependence on the leader which will result in subordinates losing interest and becoming dissatisfied with the work.
Both of the viewpoints above can be related to Mc Gregor's Theory X. The assumptions he made can be applied for the fans of authoritarian leaders. He made three assumptions that are as follows.
The average person dislikes work and will avoid it if possible.
Because people dislike work, they have to be directed, and sometimes threatened with punishment or reminded of rewards to make sure they are work.
The person with average skills prefers to be aimed, wants to avoid responsibility, has little ambition, and wants security more than choice.
The authoritarian leader must provide course to its supporters and control them. Therefore they'll be in charge and take up responsibility to control the group.
Considering these three creators ideas the authoritative style of leadership will be a suited design of leadership in taking care of change because during change the whole company needs to be given proper route and their needs to be you to definitely take responsibility and take effort by creating a vision to manage change.
The CEO of Microsoft Expenses Gates is considered an authoritative innovator who was in a position to successfully move Microsoft in the course he saw the industry moving. He's considered as a head with a eye-sight who aligned Microsoft recover perspective (Authoritative Leaders, 2006)
CEO of DELL Michael Dell discovered the requirement of change in their customer services office and executed a unique strategy of his own to keep and gratify its large customer platform, unlike others he introduced a strategy where customer questions are directed to a real human voice not really a voice email system. In an environment where in fact the tendency is towards voicemail systems Michael Dell launched such something (Franklin, 1998)
This in reality displays his control and perspective in understanding the task his people do by any means levels as well as his understanding the necessity for change according to the trend.
Affiliative style of leadership is a more human being friendly style. It's a style which really helps to create harmony and build emotional bonds. People come first always. Communication is known as a key component. This style is best suited to motivate people during difficult situations. Even though there are certain advantages of by using style regular use of the style will likewise have its disadvantages. When employees are over praised they might lose focus and may lead to poor performance. Over reliance on this model may lead the company to are unsuccessful (Goleman 2009).
Kotter (1999, p. 37) mentioned "Communication of ideas helps people see the dependence on and the reasoning of change". Therefore regarding to his results the affiliative style could certainly be a suitable style of leadership to adopt during change scheduled to it focusing on communication as an integral element.
The democratic design of leadership provides the followers to participate and express their opinion. The leader builds trust, esteem and commitment from the employees. Communication cooperation and team management performs an important role. The leader will pay attention to employee's ideas and concerns thus learning how to keep carefully the nature of the employees high (Goleman2010).
This style will continue to work best when the first choice itself is uncertain about the road to be taken. The drawback of such a method is that the leader will be obtaining endless opinions leading to difficulty of earning a proper decision.
Northouse(2009) also gave a similar take on democratic design of control. He said that democratic leaders always try to treat its subordinates quite. This leader will not to be managing rather they will listen and obtain support from all subordinates. That is a collective strategy of leadership where in fact the leader will be talking to subordinates.
The democratic leadership style resembles the assumptions of Mc Gregor's Theory Y. Which can be as follows
People like work
People are self motivated
People accept and seek responsibility.
Since people are fully with the capacity of doing their work alone theory Y stresses that folks needn't be manipulated by their leaders as they are self encouraged.
Kotter(2009, p. 38) in addition has mentioned the importance of involvement and participation to overcome level of resistance to improve. The democratic style specializes in participation and participation which will help overcome resistance to change. Therefore could be looked at as a good style of leadership to manage change.
Anne Mulcahy, CEO of Xerox also used a democratic design of command. She led Xerox through a significant transformation. In the duty of lowering costs quickly, she used the data of employees and prompted them to provide their opinion. Mutually they were in a position to achieve this task. (Helliriegel, Jackson and Slocum, 2008, p. 509)
This style focuses on developing people for future years. The leader establish high specifications and expect employees to check out them. The first choice demands for excellence, therefore employees will believe that they are really being extended beyond their capacity. This is suitable when quick email address details are needed from a determined and proficient team, but provides a standard negative impact on organizational local climate (Goleman 2010).
Since change in a firm is a long-term effect the tempo setting innovator may have a poor effect. They do more injury than good when a business needs long-term results (Chynoweth 2008).
The 8th CEO of Basic Electric Jack port Welch strongly assumed in leading by example. He was a prolonged and demanding professional and demonstrated characteristics of your pace setting innovator. He turned the company from $12 billion into a $500 billion market capitalization. He was renowned for his human process to operate a vehicle change having respect for each individual in the process of change (Tempo Setting Command, 2006)
"Personal success simply brings achievement. Supporting others succeed confers genuine achievement. Love for "success through others" -the common aspiration of the specialist, counselor and mentor is a way to obtain synergy and a hallmark of command" (Goldsmith & Lyons, 2006. p. 1).
These types of market leaders train new leaders for the future. The market leaders help employees to learn and develop their skills even if it might take time and not achieve organizational goals. This style is minimal used by leaders for the reason that leaders not having time to go through teaching employees in an extremely pressurized competitive business environment. The style will work best where the employees are willing to improve their performance and build permanent advantages (Goleman, 2010).
Other than Authoritarian and Democratic style of leadership Northouse determined the Lassiez-faire style which does not resemble the characteristics of the above six styles.
Northouse (2009, p44) described that "The Lassiez-faire head is a nominal innovator who partcipates in minimal affect". This style has no regards to either Theory X or Theory Y. The command responsibilities are distributed by all. This mainly relies on good team work and good interpersonal relationship skills also can be useful in businesses where strategies are essential. Unlike the autocratic method this form of leadership can be highly motivational as folks have control over their working life. (Northouse 2009).
This style is suited for less critical regions of change where followers are specialists who have the capability and independent. But it is arguable whether change could be successful with such a hands-off design of leadership.
Gucci CEO Robert Polet uses the lassiez-faire style but within the construction so that he doesn't lose control (Gitman & Daniel, 2009). He may have opted to choose the above strategy due to the drawbacks of the authority style
There are many types of leadership qualities, traits and qualities; these varies from individual to individual. E. g. Expenses Gates is well known for his intelligence and to be a visionary, whereas Oprah Winfrey is identified by the planet as an extremely influential head and an outstanding communicator.
As outlined by Northouse (2007) some of the positive authority attributes are, trust deserving, positive, dynamic, genuine, encouraging, motivational, builds self-assurance and intelligent. However there's also some negative characteristics that leaders bring with them that happen to be asocial, egocentric, loner, dictatorial and ruthless. One or more of these qualities are usually very commonly observed in every specific although they would differ from person to person.
Leadership traits will be the qualities that individuals often associate with market leaders. As indicated by Shead (2007) the five most significant leadership traits are, honest, forwards looking, competent, motivating and intelligent.
Both Northouse and Shead stated the importance of credibility as a key attribute to command. When Toyota needed to recall vehicles due to defective brakes Jim Lentz, CEO of Toyota completed the situation really well by being clear and genuine. He was fearless enough to handle a live interview. His quick response helped lessen the damage designed to Toyotas reputation.
Therefore it is apparent that market leaders should be equipped with the required skills and competencies to take care of change.
Bass & Riggio (2006, p. 3) explained transformational leaders as "those who induce and inspire followers to both achieve extraordinary outcomes and along the way, develop their own leadership capacity". Transformational leaders act inspire and motivate people, encourages creativity and stimulate fans, pays individual focus on its followers to be remembered as successful (Bass & Riggio 2006).
Hacker & Roberts (2004, p. 3) "Transformational command is the complete and integrated leadership capacities required of individuals, organizations or organizations to produce transformation as evidenced by step efficient improvement.
The two claims above have a typical thinking which suggests that the first choice ought to be the transformer and has to become the initiator.
Hacker & Roberts offered a broader view focusing on the individual as wel the business. Whereas Bass & Riggio provided a far more specific view such as how leaders could be transformational as an individual.
To be successful at transformational command there are a few components which were submit by Bass and Riggio (2006). They point out four components that describe the transformation head and leaders are strongly necessary to have these components in order to be successful transformation market leaders. The components put forward by Bass and Riggio (2006) are;
Idealized Effect: Leaders should work as role models; they can be counted to do the right thing demonstrating high requirements of moral and moral do.
Inspirational determination: Market leaders must behave with techniques that inspire and motivate fans. Team nature should arouse while displaying excitement and optimism.
Intellectual stimulation: Stimulate follower's initiatives to be innovative and creative, by questioning assumptions, reframing problems and approaching old situations in new ways.
Individualized awareness: Leaders should focus on each individual follower's need to attain and grow when you are a coach and coach to them. The first choice also boosts communication between the fans and also must be considered a careful listener.
Through idealized impact, individualized factor, intellectual excitement and inspirational drive, transformational leaders are likely to promote performance beyond objectives and achieve great changes within individuals and organizations.
The above four components are apparent in Sam Walton the creator of Wal-Mart. He confirmed his appreciation and therefore inspired his associates and spoke to his customers by visiting every one of the Wall-Mart stores around the country. His approach empowered to minimized resistance to change in Wall-marts culture of constant change (Bergdahl, 2006).
Charisma could be considered a key element in transformational market leaders. Bass & Riggio (2006, p. 5) "Transformational authority has much in common with charismatic management, but charisma is only part of transformational authority. "
Steve Jobs is also considered a transformational leader. His eyesight, charisma and communication skills are part of his success (Krietner, 2007, p. 453). His eyesight enabled him to put his company in the changing world market by launching cutting edge products like iMac, iPad and iPhone.
The global competitive business environment has transformed dramatically over the past. As a result the necessity for competitive authority to take care of change is clear. One of the most difficult obligations of leadership is leading change. This review reveals certain innovator skills and talents essential for successful organizational change.
Leaders who exercise attributes like a vision, good social skills, communicational skills, motivational skills and supportive team skills are more effective in driving a car change because they are the main element elements by which successful results can be achieved.
There are a lot of quarrels for and against each one of the leadership styles and approaches. Corresponding to author's observation the lassiez-faire style, coercive style and pace setting style may considered least effective whereas affiliative, instruction, democratic style and transformational approach could be looked at the most effective.
There is not a exact model of leadership that might be used; alternatively there are multiple models which have their place depending on the demands of the business. The first choice should manage to identifying the most practical method appropriate in a given situation considering the individual leader and organizational environment.
Different styles of leadership will suite different kinds of change. There is no solid rule a certain kind of leadership is simply perfect for confirmed change situation. The leadership style will depend on the organization, specific skill levels and frame of mind of follower's. Therefore authoritative style and democratic style could be suggested in general as the author thinks it's the most appropriate since it powers determination, communication as well as route.