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Relation between change management and psychological intelligence


Every business need to undergo changes in the comparative business environment, this may happen various ways in various organisations, a few of organisations may imposing the changes on workforces, such as redundant, salary review. Others may give attention to re-engineer or re-structure business design. However, change management is the essential skills for professionals and leader to adopt; it is vital approach to organisation to put into action.

( ) define change management as "The organized approach and program of knowledge, tools and resources to cope with change. Change management means determining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, strategies and technologies to cope with changes in exterior conditions and the business enterprise environment". There are different change management models been shared, such as Kanter's 10 commandments, Pettigrew 5 factors, Kotter's 8 failing and success factors.

Similarly, at the start level of change models, it is essential to create vision to improve then motivate employees to accept, act and attain the change. It is not easy as says. People have justification to resistant the changes, because the type of change, include the risk and doubt, which the majority of people do nothing like that, also differing people have the various preferences, some individuals prefer to stay where these are, these folks can be known as as "stableness oriented". Some people may resistance to change for mental reasons, for example, someone doesn't prefer to change job, because he/ she doesn't want someone else to inform them how to proceed.

SARA Model

Therefore, when the change is considering, people tend to go through some levels, people call it as "SARA" Model:

S- hcok

A- nger

R- ejection

A- cceptance

Shock: It really is nature for people to handle the shock, when it comes across the changes, bafflement or disorientation is indicator in this stage.

Anger: it expresses in various ways, employee may anger with oneself or others, in particular, people near to them, they have to show the feeling when the change happen.

Rejection: in a few case, at first, people would like to reject the change alternatively to simply accept it instantly. Within this level, the rejection not only show up on the action, likewise incorporate the denial of mental impact.

Acceptance: in the stage, people able to acknowledge the change and adopt it. In addition, it involved the negative approval, such as resign for work.

The key theory advocated by the change management theory is communication; it is significant to keep employees educated completely before the change happens, the managers should prepare themselves to cope with employee's response in the change process. It is not simply get people mutually and give purchases, the director need to keep an eye on employee's emotion in various levels of SARA model.

Emotion and Emotional Intelligence

Emotion is the power to drive the employee's activities in the company; additionally it is the primary travelling force behind inspiration. Manager's need to be alert to employee's emotion movements, have the ability to understand it, then control the feeling in certain level to keep the relationship, teamwork and work efficiency. The development of the reading and share thoughts along with management skills will improve inspiration for staff and boost the productivity for organisation.

In 1980's psychologists, evolutionary biologists, psychiatrists, researchers had identified a series of individuals capacities related to emotions. By 1983, a psychologist, Howard Gardner from Harvard college or university, who identified the "multiple intelligence", as ( ) said " it offers seven kind of intelligence, include two "personal types: knowing one's interior world and interpersonal adeptness. "

The term "emotional Cleverness" was introduced by two psychologists, John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey in 1990, they define the Emotional Cleverness as "the set of abilities that take into account how people's emotional perception and understanding differ in their reliability. More formally, emotional intelligence as the ability to perceive and exhibit emotion, assimilate sentiment in thought, understand and reason with sentiment, and regulate sentiment in the do it yourself as well as others". ( )

In compare, in 1995, Daniel Goleman published a book called "emotional intelligence: why it can matter than IQ", which became the best-seller internationally, ( ) claimed the emotional intellect as "the talents called here mental intelligence, which include self applied control, zeal and persistence, and the ability to encourage oneself. "

Theories of Emotional Intelligence

Mayer-Salovey potential model

In 1997, John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey proposed the Mayer-Salovey capacity model, it include four level. Show as below:

Perception and Manifestation of Emotion

Assimilating Feeling in Thought

Understanding and Analysing Emotion

Reflective Legislation of Emotion

Perception and Manifestation of Sentiment: the most basic level of psychological intelligence, it entail the conception and appraisal of sentiment. For instance, in the organisation, managers should able to identifying oneself and employee's feeling and interpret it, in order to maintain the synergy within the organisation.

Assimilating Sentiment in Thought: the next level of psychological intelligence, it is the capacity of feelings to enter cognitive thinking, use the emotion to communicate feelings. Corresponding to ( ) said the "emotions prioritize thinking", for example, sometimes, people have a tendency to respond to things psychologically, not rationally. It really is something supervisor should pay attention.

Understanding and Anglicising feeling: the 3rd level of mental brains, understand and reasoning about the emotion, for illustration, happy, anger, unhappy, fear. It's important for managers to discover the feelings, aware how employee unfold them and reason about them.

Reflective Rules of Emotion: it's the highest degree of emotional cleverness, it require the management and rules of sentiment in oneself as well as others. Mangers should utilise these skills into office, manage the employee's feeling and inspire them to work well.

The Bar-On Theory

Unlike Mayer-Salovey capacity model seen the EQ as capabilities in different level, the Psychologist Reuven Bar-On ( ) seen the emotional cleverness as "selection of nonncognative capacities, competencies, and skills that affect one's ability to achieve coping with environment demands and pressures. " Bar-On identified five practical areas which are essential to emotional intelligence, show as pursuing:

( )

Intrapersonal Skills

Interpersonal skills

Adaptability Scales

Stress- Management Scales

General Mood





Intrapersonal skills include emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regards, self-actualization and freedom.

Interpersonal skills, there are social relationships, sociable responsibility and empathy.

Adaptability scales cover problem resolving, reality testing and versatility.

Stress-management scales require stress tolerance and impulse control.

General mood, contentment and optimism are two keys.

Bar-On ( ) is convinced that if people proceed through appropriate training, psychological intelligence ability can be improved upon, furthermore, he thinks that EQ along with IQ, create the general cleverness of human beings. Bar-On developed the first way of measuring emotional intelligence, called "Emotional Quotient Inventory". Individual with high EQ will meet the environment needs, which Bar-On (1997) talks about "Psychological Quotient Inventory (EQi) related to the to succeed rather than success itself".

Daniel Goleman emotional intelligence model

Daniel Goleman is a psychologist and journalist, he previously published a booklet called "Working with Emotional Intelligence", and the e book became the best seller on both Atlantic. In the reserve, he created popular psychological intellect model as below:

Knowing One's Emotions

Management Emotions

Motivating Oneself

Recognizing Emotions in Others

Handling Relationship

Knowing One's Emotions: it concerning self- awareness, which means recognising emotion. It is the key for professionals to aware employee's feelings; additionally it is cover the capability to monitor the motion of feeling.

Managing Feelings: It's the ability to managing emotions in appropriate way as process of self consciousness building. In addition, it means to give sympathy to someone or oneself when somebody in problems, and mange to remove stress, gloom and irritability.

Motivating Oneself: Organising thoughts in the service of goal is very important to self-motivation and creativity. Matching to ( ) it help "delaying gratification and stifling impulsiveness, and being able to perform well in various works and enter the "flow" express. "

Recognising feelings in others: it is the basic social skills, such as empathy. People who have empathic awareness are used to position other's needs and wishes.

Handling Relationships: it require the skills in managing romantic relationship and emotions, additionally it is the ability to connect to others effectively and well.

EQ is included how to deal, understand, understand and deal with the emotions, it is supporting specific in their romance. In particular, for the manager to have mental intellect competencies, because managers need to engage with employees to attain arranged goals, they cannot work exclusively.

Managers with higher EQ are more likely to be in flow and happy, they able to keep the positive mood, aware the negative mood, have better public life, and better marriage with subordinates. Because, higher EQ managers are able to motivate others through effective teamwork, encourage subordinate to attain the pleasurable goals.

Manger with lower EQ tend express their feels and feelings in incorrect way, they face trouble reading your body terms, and low sensitivity about their yet others feelings and feeling. Mangers with lower EQ whose tend to use authority to set-up the length between themselves and subordinates, which is unfavourable for the organisation.

Transformational leadership seen as ( ) "the capability to create significant change. " It really is relevant in the context of change management. As said ( ) "transformational market leaders able to deal with changes in organisation's strategy, culture, as well as employee's motivation". Transformational market leaders provide more liberty to employees, they focus on the intangible factor, for example the eyesight, value, building sound relationships, somewhat than handling the employee by rules, bonuses, power. Moreover, the emotional cleverness plays a crucial role in the transformational management. You will discover four characteristics for transformational innovator when they take up emotional intellect.

The transformational innovator able to give a eye-sight which desired in the future, it's the vision significantly better and appropriate than other ones. Through the use of emotional intelligence capability, leaders talk to employees in the way that the down sides of change can be resolved and your time and effort of change will probably be worth.

Transformational leadership steps employee more encouraged, employees given possibility to control, transformational market leaders able to motivate employees give attention to their own objective and goals, also define the restrictions within it which employee can accomplish it in the relative degree of independence.

Transformational leadership shift the employee's concerns from the low hierarchy of needs (physical needs, safety needs )to higher hierarchy of needs(self-esteem and self-actualization), which means the transformational head not only meet up with the lower need through better salary, better working place, these leaders with emotional intellect also pay attention to employee's frame of mind in terms of personal progress and development.

Transformational leaders inspire employees to do more than others, which encourage them to go beyond the self- pursuits to contribute the organisation. Mental intelligence transformational leaders able to create the awareness of importance of changes, therefore when the employees admire their market leaders, they have advanced of rely upon transformational leaders, they can be positive and self-confidence about the changes confronted, it leads to willing add the organisation beyond the self-interest.

As ( ) found that "a leader with high EQ works more effectively than a innovator with high cognitive capability, market leaders with high EQ know and understand the secrets of the heart and soul, they have developed what called an educated heart, a feeling of personal and communal responsibility. " Therefore, Leaders with higher psychological cleverness performance better in certain skills, three main significant skills brought up below:

Self-awareness: it permit managers to accurate understand their durability and weakness, self applied consciousness is also related to impulse control and tolerance stress. High EQ managers should in a position to cope with the difficult and challenging situation.

Care Employee: it involves making the ease environment, and making staff relax. It is help manager control impulse in regards to to anger and more feelings, and make employee happy while they work, as a result to increase better teamwork and efficiency.

Relationship building skills: it is potential to build the relationship with people around which entail outside and inside the organisation. In addition, it require impulse control and stress tolerance skills, which is the key to in social managers, it is similar concept as above mentioned "Daniel Goleman mental intellect model".

Critics of Emotional Intelligence

Goleman (1995) remarks that "if we check out sets factors of emotional intelligence - persistence, ambiance, optimism and so forth. We can predict important life outcomes". The best way to interpret the state is that people with more psychological intelligence traits are likely to be success in the life span or workplace. The various characteristics such as empathy determination, assertive, tolerance, optimistic, sociability, focus on details, extroversion and so forth, donate to success. However, Barrick and Mount (1991) completed research of 24. 000 staff, they found top three personality trait which related to emotional intelligence features which mentioned above. They found altruism and modesty weren't related to job success, and extroversion, it are the good sense and warmth were not anticipate the success for lawyers, teachers, although it is work in sales people. In addition, some of the group of traits may discord, for instance people with higher demand to goals may have low in cooperation, furthermore, it is not necessary means that company to recruit staff with higher psychological cleverness can be success, because when HR department prepare the job information, according to ( )" qualities such as "people skills", initiative, and "persuasiveness" come in 67% of job information. ". So, Goleman's claim regarding emotional intelligence is appear like overblown, people who have higher emotional intelligence can't be predicted the near future success.

Secondly, Goleman (1998) boasts that "Outstanding leaders' emotional competencies constitute to 85% to 100% of the competencies important for success". It not essential true, because leader not only need to have emotional intelligence, they are also look for possibility to permit them to lead effectively, and the success leaders always looking for better way to improve their performance. However, as ( ) pointed out "clearly, you can find link between an individual's ability to manage and generate feelings and leadership". In other palm ( ) discuss that "the top of individualized account as an element of transformational management and identify charisma as an element of command. " This means that individual concern and charisma also the important factor for success command.


Overall, in the first part article, they have clear analysis the relationship between change management and psychological intelligence, the company need to cope with changes on a regular basis, they have to choose appropriate strategy, composition, procedures to control change, the statement also speak about the change management models, such as Kanter's 10 commandments, Pettigrew 5 factors, Kotter's 8 failure and success factors, and SARA model.

At the next part, it concentrate on how managers connect undergoing changing process, the way to aware and screen employee's emotion, the conception of psychological brains has been launched, the different classification also been pressured. Moreover, the ideas of emotional brains also been outlined, it supply the clear picture for managers in what scope as well as how to utilise the mental intelligence.

The third part of the survey, has critical evaluation the partnership among emotional intelligence, personal relationship, transformational leadership, command skills. It's the way to examine the emotional intelligence in other perspectives. The benefit and disadvantage aspect of the emotional intelligence with regards to transformational command, and the skills need for emotional intelligence professionals.

At the last part, the critics of mental cleverness has been arise, the argument been made about the say of Daniel Goleman. First state about the "variable of emotional intelligence can forecast the key life outcome". The statement has provided the samples and other author's research to argue the thesis. As final result, the emotional intellect has overstated, people with higher emotional brains can not anticipate the near future success. The second lay claim said the "Outstanding market leaders' emotional competencies constitute to 85% to 100% of the competencies important for success". It's the only significant factor related to leader's success, it is among the many among important factors.


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