As our body is constantly exposed to changes in its external environment, it is important that it maintains a constant inner environment in order to survive. This process is what's known as homeostasis. This rules of your body's internal environment is vital to keep the systems in the body operational. As explained by World Reserve Online, these reactions in the body with regards to the changes in the external environment are induced with what are known as homeostatic reflexes. (World Booklet Online, 2014) Among the key factors which the body must control is that of the quantity of drinking water which is in the skin cells of your body. The quantity of drinking water that you ingest must be well balanced against the quantity of drinking water that is excreted from the body, and the quantity of sodium in the torso must be retained at a certain amount in order to maintain homeostasis.
The way that homeostasis regulates the quantity of water and sodium in the body through purification in the kidneys. The hormone of which does this is named Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH). This is where the stressed system starts off to interrelate with the excretory, endocrine and anxious systems. Osmoreceptors on the hypothalamus identify the concentration of normal water within the blood and then send concept to the pituitary gland, which really is a part of endocrine system. (APBI, 2014) The pituitary gland then either encourages the discharge of ADH or diminishes the release of the hormone. This hormone then moves towards kidney which influences the amount of water that the kidney then absorbs (appendix 1) because the hormone gets to its aim for it alters the tubules of the kidney to become pretty much permeable to normal water with regards to the needs that the body has at the time. (Frey, Atkins and Longe, 2014) If there is a high focus of ADH in the body, this makes the tubules more permeable to water. This means that there is certainly more water let into the bloodstream. Therefore there is a low focus of the hormone ADH it makes the tubules less permeable to water which then decreases the quantity of water in the bloodstream. (Biology Online, 2000) This inflatable water which is then not reabsorbed back to the blood stream is then excreted from your body via urine.
The stressed system is very helpful to homeostasis as it regulates and regulates how the body reacts to situations. If the deviation occurs in the torso this functions as a stimulus to a receptor. This then sends nerve impulses to the brain. This then functions as an effector so that the body acts in such a way that a response occurs that assists your body in adapting to come back to a well balanced, constant environment. (Penn Medicine, 2001) The part of the brain that does this is named the hypothalamus. This is the primary control center of the mind, which is the area of the brain that regulates endocrine glands (such as the pituitary gland). (Penn Drugs, 2001) The nervous system comprises of both peripheral and central systems. The peripheral nervous system includes sensory receptors. These are what are triggered by the stimulus (the change in the inner or external environment). This then is sent to a sensory neuron which then connects to the sensory receptors in the central anxious system, which then functions the signal and then transmits a message back to an effector body organ. That is done through a motor neuron. (Penn Medication, 2001) The procedure which these systems work is named negative reviews (appendix 2).
During exercise especially the body must work significantly hard in order to retain a well-balanced and regulated environment to keep body systems functional. As your body temperature rises during exercise, one of the ways that homeostasis tries to cool the body down to a normal heat is through stimulating sweat glands to release perspiration. This then stimulates your body into feeling as if it needs to take more water, but ingesting too much drinking water during or after exercise will not necessarily replace the electrolytes lost through perspiration and dilutes the sodium, nutrition and ions which has already been in the blood, which then brings about hyponatremia (or low sodium levels in the torso). (Frey, Atkins and Longe, 2012) Hyponatremia triggers the cells in the torso to swell. This is because sodium helps your body maintain a standard blood circulation pressure, regulates your body's fluid balance and supports the work of the nerves and muscles in the body.
Interrelationships between the endocrine, stressed the excretory systems are extremely important in homeostasis which is one of these. This is important specifically to hyponatremia because the kidney allows for filtration and reabsorption of water and salts within the body, which as aforementioned is managed by the antidiuretic hormone which is produced by the pituitary gland. That is largely done in within the Loop of Henle where almost all of the reabsorption of water occurs, which in turn permits the active carry of salts to go and become reabsorbed into the body and for that reason regulates the quantity of salt or sodium that is in the bloodstream as well.
As the sodium/sodium level becomes low during hyponatremia, extra water enters the cells of the body since there is an imbalance in the amount of water concentration between the substance that is outside and inside of the skin cells which then causes water to enter in the cells when it is unnecessary (this is commonly known as fluid overload), which in turn causes the aforementioned puffiness. (Allaby, 2014) That is especially dangerous because this may lead to swelling of the brain, which is confined by the skull of course, if expands can cause major neurological destruction or fatality. (Frey, Atkins and Longe, 2012) In a few extreme cases, the bloating of the mind may force down on the spine which prevents breathing and can potentially be fatal. (Allaby, 2014) Hyponatremia could also lead to symptoms such as slurred talk, coughing up bloodstream, and muscular cramps, but also seizures and lack of awareness or comas. (Allaby, 2014)
Throughout days gone by there hasn't been any understanding of the debilitating health issues of hyponatremia, or even much acknowledgement of how life-threatening it actually is when a person consumes too much normal water, especially during exercise. During World Warfare II when many soldiers fought on the Kokoda Trail there simply had not been enough water being transported around with the military to allow them to be afflicted by such ailments as hyponatremia or drinking water imbalance due to enjoying too much water.
In the near future it's important that there are steps taken in order to avoid reoccurrences of these life intimidating conditions, specifically on the Kokoda Trail. This can be done in many ways of which aren't limited to the training of trek leaders on the trail, medics, and folks that are walking to trek, as well as making certain there are precautionary measures considered and the quick treatment of hyponatremia is taken into consideration when planning these travels. (Rothwell, 2008) Misinformation about the amount of water that is necessary for adequate hydration when doing extra amounts of exercise is one of the key causes of this problem.
In regards to the Kokoda Record there's a common interpretation that whenever walking the trail, the person doing the exercise should drink as much normal water as their stomachs could tolerate. It was not until more recently that doctors in this area have been aware of hyponatremia, and may completely treat people who experienced this condition. Specifically in the Kokoda Trail, there was an instance when a 43 time old, toned men collapsed and got a seizure through the third day of the trek credited to severe hyponatremia which stemmed from drinking too much normal water whilst training. (Rothwell, 2008) At that time that this took place, there is not adequate knowledge of how life-threatening hyponatremia was or even it existed. The man then had to be airlifted by a helicopter to the nearest medical center in order to be efficiently diagnosed and cured for hyponatremia. (Rothwell, 2008)
In order to be cared for for his condition, the man had to be injected and cured with saline alternatives of different concentrations over a period of seven. 5 days. (Rothwell, 2008) In the foreseeable future, the progression of antidiuretic drugs like 'Samsca' tablets of which are approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration could decrease the amount of conditions of hyponatremia as well as lowering the severe nature of the conditions of hyponatremia on the Kokoda Trail. Samsca tablets are specifically directed at dealing with hyponatremia related to congestive heart failure and liver cirrhosi but may potentially evolve to be used in such situations as hyponatremia which is due to drinking excessive levels of water whilst working out. (Facts on Data file, 2009) This drug works by eliminating extra body normal water in the urine and therefore increasing the amount of sodium within the bloodstream. (Facts on File, 2009)
In conclusion, water and salt legislation in the body is one of the most important aspects of homeostasis and is an important subject that individuals have to be educated about because of the dire implications that can come up from this particular type of homeostasis disruption. This is specifically important because conditions that occur from deviations in normal water and salt regulation such as hyponatremia often happen from circumstances that the average person would be at the mercy of, and yet many people are not aware of these problems.