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Reflection coaching

Reflection is described by Stenhouse 1975 p144 as 'a convenience of autonomous professional self-development through systematic self-study'. Discuss what sort of trainer utilises reflective practise to improve their coaching performance

Reflection is employed to improve coaching performance through a number of ways. Kidman (2001: 50) represents representation as "a particularly significant part of empowerment whereby instructors themselves take possession of their learning and decision making". The mentor is therefore very effective in increasing information which could be good for them. Dewey (1919: 3) explains representation as "making a subject over in the mind and offering it a serious and consecutive account". By analysing information repeatedly and seriously, in depth knowledge is gained from it. *(DANS)*Pollard (2002) feels that "'Reflective coaching is applied in cyclical or spiralling process, in which teachers monitor, evaluate and revise their own practice constantly. " By being dedicated in analysing oneself, analysing others can be done.

A slightly different idea of reflection is introduced by Schon. The idea of, 'representation in action'. Schon (1983; 50) "Athletes consider what they may be doing, sometimes even while doing it". Expanding upon this Schon highlights phrases like, 'Keep your wits about you' and 'considering on your feet'. Schons belief here's in game representation is natural and beneficial.

Gilbert and Trudel (2001) imagine Schons idea as a "individual type of representation". In addition they give a different type of reflection which they call "retrospective reflection-on-action" which is further referred to as "that which occurs beyond your action-present". Their idea is that coaches think about concerns among practise sessions which reflection "still occurs within the action-present, however, not in the midst of activity". So they strongly believe that reflection-on-action is totally dissimilar to reflection-in-action.

Gilbert and Trudel (2001) consider reflection to utilise "a conceptual construction to understand how coaches get on experience when learning to coach"

Ghaye and Lillyman (2000) bring forward the idea that the core of reflection is completed in a series of 'frames'.

  • Role framing - was the coaches role executed accurate?
  • Value framing - examining if there was value-positions present?
  • Temporal framing - was the order of activities correct?
  • Parallel process framing - could the outcome varied?
  • Problem framing - were problems seen effectively?

These frames provide a practical way of analysing sport practises. Reflective practise provides an efficient equipment for monitoring and evaluation of players.

Dewey (1916) who is considered seriously to be the 'creator' of representation, gives three qualities that are needed in order to participate in reflective practise. Open-mindedness, described as "an active desire to hear more attributes than one, to provide heed to facts from whatever source they come also to give full focus on alternative alternatives". Whole-heartedness, which has been "absorbed within an interest". Responsibility is also needed as repercussions are accepted therefore "securing integrity in one's beliefs". Dewey's' values have stood strong for eighty years but still provide modern instructors with a basic outlook on what's would have to be an efficient reflective coach.

Methods of using reflective practise

There are many ways in which reflective practise is put into action. By using a variety of methods coaches can increase from the basics and appearance more in detail with regards to the kind of information that is required.

Video analysis is one technique used in order to aid reflective practise. A trainer can record a session and therefore have exact information on what actions are taken. This allows for precise examination in which athletes can also see themselves and what they could improve on. McKernan was a company believer in training video recording to assist training: '. . . might use a training video recorder to snare teaching performance as research or 'data' to be analysed. Moreover, such a film becomes a crucial documentary for reflecting on practice. . . research can be undertaken by reactive methods such as observers, questionnaires, interviews, dialogue journals or through such non-reactive techniques as case studies, field notes, logs, diaries anecdotal information, document examination, shadow studies. ' McKernan (1996)(DANS)

Using other mentors is one way reflective practise can be more reliable and successful. Analysis quickness is increased as more instructors can observe and acknowledge similar issues that come up and whilst ideas may be divided, an overview of standard problems can be addressed easier. This view is backed up by Gould, Giannani, Krane, & Hodge (1990) "development of build knowledge that can be fostered through the realms of sensible

experience and conversation with other mentors. "

Using a cognitive based mostly style, reflection may take place through demo. Mentors need to reveal on how demonstrations of skills are executed and the trainer must ensure that whenever a learner is obtaining a demonstration that it is of enough quality for the athlete to learn and progress using reflection.


Coaching items and 'logs' are an extremely basic and fundamental way of reflecting on the performer. By making key observations during a practise and after, a trainer can identify the problem areas. The more experienced the coach the greater this basic method works well and less dependence on the more complex methods. This sort of reviews is usually

Benefits to using reflective practise

"by reflecting on practise a trainer may expose his or her perceptions and values to evaluation, creating a heightened sense of self applied awareness, which my business lead to a certain openness to new ideas" (Hellison and Templin 1991: 9) Reflective practise can increase capability in understanding and creativity. That is because of the personal improvement the coach must make themselves but are rewarded through these features. These traits could then be exceeded onto the learner and thus bridging a difference between mentor and learner. (BOOK)

(PDF)Anderson, Knowles and Gilbourne (2004) declare that "reflective practice is the latest topical strategic method that could help sports coaches explore their decisions and encounters, aiding them to make sense of the situation and directly impact the learning process. " That is clear that reflective practise can be used in order to help sports activities coaches. It is also considered one of the more modern uses of training in order to attain higher potential in a far more demanding results driven environment.

"Indeed, to maximise learning, critical reflection is the center difference between whether a person repeats the same experience time and time again or learns from the experience so that the average person is cognitively or affectively evolved" (Boyde and Fales, 1983). (PDF) Through the use of reflective practise Boyde and Fales claim that there is a high potential for learning and developing skills rather than simply repeating an event with no eventual gain. They believe that reflection is vital to the as without it there would be no chance a person would know if improvement took place or not.

"in case a coach needs the chance to understand the consequences, both positive and negative, of the decisions made during a training session, they are simply better in a position to rationalise their decisions when under great pressure" (Kidman, 2001). (PDF) Kidman here links back to you this within Schons 'refelction in action'. This is necessary in high tempo surroundings and is essential in gaining a much better decision making process. Whilst reflection is important before and during training or match environments, only 'representation in action' can gain quick and frequently needed information to make decisions.

"reflection is considered to have a strong role in assisting to bridge the space between education and knowledge that is produced through practice" (Ghaye & Ghaye, 1998). (PDF) Making mentors acknowledge their achievements can be done via reflection as it is a conscious and energetic way of fortifying the positives and negatives of individual and group practise.

Troubles in using reflective practise

Whilst there exists lots of research to fortify the idea that reflective training is a useful practise, there are certainly issues that need responding to and restrictions which obviously show it isn't a full facts method even when applied properly.

Crum (1995) "If a practitioner keeps a 'training-of-the-physical' view of instruction and believes his or her role is merely to improve fitness and adopt a technical/utilitarian methodology, then becoming a coach who demonstrates in depth won't be paramount". Whilst reflective practise has its place, it could seem that it's limited. Some areas such as public negotiation and mentality may be difficult to boost through reflection practise however in many conditions that reflective practise can be used these are vital skills. Participating in in high tempo and contact athletics require both of these skills in abundance and attaining it through the individual is the most reasonable approach but if reflective practise is utilized then the instructor is providing the information and techniques which aren't transferable to individuals in these areas.

"As many instructors will testify, written representation, usually in the form of

'logs', are frequently sanitised to deliver what is regarded to be necessary knowledge, thus being corralled into conformity (Chesterfield, Jones, & Mitchell, 2007), possibly stifling trainer imagination. "(PDF) Whilst Hellison and Templin have confidence in reflection in starting creativity, the basic form of an 'log' could be evidence that reflection does indeed hinder imagination. Conformity is compliance using what already exists, if instructors comply to current practises such as 'logs' then there is absolutely no space for new practises to be introduced and made up.

(PDF)Johns (1995) argued that "reflective practice is profoundly difficult, and it is therefore essential to have a detailed model that manuals and supports instructors. " Reflection does require many skills and outside the house ideas to be useful. There is a specific amount of complexity that is included with reflecting before, after and during classes. Gibbs six-staged cyclical model for example is a sophisticated calculated formula designed to give detailed evaluation and evaluation. Whilst this could be beneficial it is merely useful to mentors with previous experience or high capacity levels. In order an over-all overall practise representation can be difficult.

"Trust is a vital part of an reflective conversation and, matching to Maister, Green, & Galford (2002), trust is a two-way romance where people can be honest and value each others openness. Without a real trusting romantic relationship with significant others (e. g. a teacher, mentor, supervisor, coach) personal reflections may stay 'safe' and predictable and the real issues may go unresolved. "(PDF) Cultural dynamic in virtually any relationship is extremely important. The relationship between mentor and athlete is as available to flux as almost every other romance. Trust is vitally important and is available to change to high and low levels. If trust is destroyed then instructor performance or athlete conformity could drop. Reflection here is then a problem if not enough trust is multiply and responsibility land onto other folks to provide strength in connecting and creativity in avoiding participating in the 'safe' option which could potentially break trust.


To summarize, I think that reflection is an extremely useful practise for coaches to undertake in developing sportsmen. Reflection may take place before, after and during which makes it very versatile and versatile to a variety of environments. The coach does however desire a certain level of ability to be able to reflect properly and constructively. Depth is paramount and a mentor analysing an even too high above them will have difficulty using representation.

I personally believe that the most practical method of representation is video research. I think this because it gives a precise recollection of technical display and because of modern technology is offered by a wide range of levels. It really is, however, important that a coach doesn't rely on one method such as video analysis. During a competition or quick based environment it may well not be possible to utilize this method and for that reason a variety of reflective methods should be learnt and applied by coaches. This will make them more rounded and adaptable to their environment.

One thing that I came across intriguing was the amount of reflection that the trainer must placed on themselves. This 'self applied representation' is vital as if this isn't carried out mentors methods may stagnate or accurate evaluation and therefore feedback for the athlete can't be achieved thus making the practise inadequate.

coach needs adaptable refelective ability, depending on the athletes, age group, gender, capacity etc. . . . .

To summarize. . . . . . . areas and defines refelction very evidently ". . . . . . . . . . . "

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