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Recruitment and selection process of the junk food industry

This dissertation will discuss the recruitment and selection procedure for the fast food industry in London and research study about particular company. The practise of HRM in recruitment and selection process will also be discussed in this dissertation. In such a chapter the backdrop and motivation of the study is discussed combined with the aims and objective. Moreover the research questions and the structure of the dissertation are discussed in this chapter.

1. 2. Background and motivation

In days gone by two decades the way in which in which organization recruit people because of their business has changed into some other level. The practise of human resource management in recruiting people has made a substantial changed in the meals industry across Greater London. People's food habit and ass well as outdoor recreation has also changed. And then for changing those activities junk food played an extremely vital role in society. The competition among the competitors become extreme as this is an extremely profit oriented business. As the competition gets powerful and moves into higher value added work, strategic recruitment and selection is vital for organizations success.

The trend of fast food can be tracked from the early stage of the civilization and in UK from the beginning of the twentieth first century first food keeps growing as a lucrative business. Junk food gain popularity as people's life gets busy and subsequently more and more things added in their life. The chain fast food shop start arriving in UK from the late 60's and KFC was the first to introduce accompanied by Pizza Hut and Mc Donald's.

The practise of HRM in to the junk food industry was present from the beginning however in many cases in was written or not classified as a required step. But in modern times the junk food chains bring themselves under very strict rules and policies. Trained staff always brings more profit to the business. And also for the past decades the type of people interested in getting those job has changed significantly. Mostly students have emerged in these jobs as it gives them the versatility of working according to their school time table as well as can support their study while their working part time.

The main principal for any job is the right person for the right job. Organizations always give importance for its manpower as they are their representative and profit maker of the business. The operative manpower is equally important as managers doing work for the enterprise. All business organisations need different people to use different activities inside their organization which is equally important to select and recruit suitable applicant for the job. The practise of Human Resource Management in an organization is not possible if suitable prospect is not recruited in the business.

1. 3. HRM practise in the Travel Food industry in London

In late 1990s, the HRM was significantly recognised as an integral element of business success by academic researchers and business practitioners (Kalleberg and Moody, 1994; Paul and Anantharaman, 2003; Hislop, 2005). Different arguments and concepts were presented by these researchers particularly how HR practices could affect organisation performance; how monetary and social context shapes HR strategies and practices of organisations; the new organisational forms and relationships; and the importance of knowledge management and learning at work.

Every organization understands the necessity of HRM practise in selection and recruitment process. By doing so they prepared particular recruitment and selection plan based on the need of their own organization. Mc Donald's and SSP Ltd collaborated with different university to train up their manager according to their need. A lot of the big franchises are tied up with different universities to teach their staff in hospitality and Human Resource Management. If we consider the practise of HRM most food franchise company nowadays has made their own prospectus and procedures about recruiting people.

Selection and recruitment are two very interrelated process where one process ends another process starts. They are very important procedure of the business and different from one another.

3. 1 Bright Features

SSP is promoting itself as food and travel expert, so giving the perfect service to customer reaches the heart of SSP strategy. Because of this it is important for the company to keep cutomer satisfaction. To maintained client satisfaction employee job satisfaction is essential as dissatisfied worker may well not provide good service to the clients. One who is happy at work place is more likely to influence other in an optimistic manner to make other happy. Therefore, to raise the satisfaction of customer it is important that employees at different level working for SSP are satisfied. Both at management level as well as walk out were actual customer service is being delivered. Company have a good mix of employees of differing backgrounds which makes it even more competent to provide international quality service to its customers. Further, organisation also carry out research for understanding customer need during travelling, as it operates worldwide in 32 country to meet up with the demands of travelling customers. On the basis of customer demands of each location and information gathered through research, company have always tried to provide customers a good mix of food verity that meets their appetite.

1. 4. HRM practise in SSP UK Ltd (Camden Food)

The concept that folks will be the organisation's key way to obtain sustained competitive advantage is still an overriding theme in the research literature and a lever for Human Recourse practitioners Grattan, (2000); Pfeffer, (1994); Barney, (1995). It isn't surprising, therefore, that the hyperlink between HRM practices and employee and organisational performance has attracted considerable attention over the past decade both in the US Huselid, (1995); Pfeffer, (1998) and the united kingdom Guest, (1997); Wood and deMenzes, (1998).

1. 4. Aims and objective

The aim of this research is to help industry expert and employee to comprehend the importance of HRM in recruitment and selection process and the give a standard idea how effective HRM practise can change the recruitment process.

The purpose of this study is to provide an obvious understanding what exactly are the HRM practises used by the employer to select and recruit employee at the moment.

Also suggest employer the way the selection and recruitment process can be made far better.

The primary research question are listed as below

1. What procedures are being used in recruiting and selecting employee on the market and how the practise of HRM is ensured for the reason that process? The dissertation will attempt to find out different process of selecting and recruitment process undertaken by different player on the market. The key reason why these methods are preferred?

2. How selection and recruitment process can be more effective and how it can contribute performance of the employee.

1. 5. Limitation of the study

Limitation in virtually any study is no unusual matter. Every research encountered by limitation. The analysis is undertaken in a small sample group from the hospitality industry and junk food industry. There are plenty of organizations on the market and many more way of selecting and hiring people. This is a significant limitation of the analysis as the finding only concentrates a specific organization. A more substantial sample size would supply the chance to go through more data as well as the application of both personal and HR functions. It can be possible to investigate variety of types of organizational practise if the sample size is larger. It would be better to investigate more than two organizations recruitment and selection process, but due to time constraint this may not be performed. The researcher selected two group of people one pass through the selection process and get recruited and the other group who's looking for job or attempted but failed to pass the recruitment process. Some data were confidential enough not to pass to the researcher. As this issue of the dissertation covers a very wide area, researcher tried to cover as many areas as is possible.

1. 6. Contribution of the study

The analysis of the study reveals the aims and objective of the study. On the list of contributions will be the literature for the researchers in future with regards to the HRM practice for the other industry. Analyzing the function of modern human resource management is another contribution in the perspective of academic study.

Secondly, HR manager of travel food industry and even more specifically SSP UK Ltd can evaluate their existing recruitment and training program. The study can help understand the typical recruitment and selection procedure and therefore compare it with the own recruitment and selection procedure.

1. 7. Research structure

This study will observe a certain structure. The structure followed is given below

Chapter 1: The introduction part will discuss the goal of the study as well as the aim and objective of the study. It will also briefly discuss the motivation and background of the study. A brief description about the industry and also the history of the industry.

Chapter 2: The literature review part will discuss the HRM practise in recruitment and selection process. It will also discuss the related theory about selection and recruitment process. The part will consist this is of recruitment and selection and the process of respective ones. This part will relate the theoretical analysis and also states the finding of different scholar in this field.

Chapter 3: In chapter three general research methodologies are described. It also discuss the technique that this research use to complete the study. The data collection method and the difference between secondary data and primary data are also discussed. The limitations of the data collections are discussed at the end of the research.

Chapter 4: Findings of the study and data are discussed in this chapter. Data are gathered from different sources for the study each source has been described with the method used.

Chapter 5: At the end of the dissertation an intensive indication and conclusion of the current research have been drawn. Other important part of this chapter is to spell it out the contribution and benefit for this dissertation. Based on the study results some advice have been given followed by limitations of the current study, and future research.

2. Literature review 3250

2. 1. Introduction

The relevant literature overview of this study is discussed in this chapter. The prior chapter has been discussed about introduction of the analysis which discussed the motivation and background, the aims and objective of the analysis as well as the structure of the analysis. The chapter starts with a short discussion about HRM and the role of HRM in recruitment and selection. The relevant theory about recruitment and selection are discussed accompanied by their process. The factors influencing the recruitment and selection process are also discussed. The historical work of previous researcher are also discussed and used as a guideline for even more research.

2. 2. The role of HRM

The key characteristic of the HRM approach is the involvement of the non-public function at a strategic level. The increased globalisation of busyness world and a very competitive market has triggered the emergence pf human resource management. Personnel management is the part of an organization which can be involved with people at work and their relationship with the enterprise. Personnel management aims to achieve both efficiency and justice. It seeks to provide fair conditions and conditions of employment, and satisfying help those employed (Cole, 2002).

The modern human resource management has emerged from traditional personal management. Human resource management is defined as a strategic and coherent method of the management of your organization's most effective assets - individuals working there who individually and collectively donate to the achievement of its objectives (Armstrong 2006). It's the people who always represent the business before the public, so the management of individuals inside the business is very important. And it is the trained and skilled staffs that generate the profit and give the organization an improved position on the market. Organizations nowadays even compete about their employees that who has the better staff. They even hire independent organization to judge the service between different companies and based on that report they enhance their service and organization.

The synergy is achieved when the approaches are practiced altogether. When practices are implemented together and synergistically then it is named ''bundles''. The idea of ''bundling'' has defined strict definition but finds its roots in the idea of internal fit developed in the strategic human resource management literature (Bowen and Ostroff, 2004). The business can deliver better service if all part of their business offers an excellent service and thus the organization all together performs better.

If a business implement couple of powerful work practise in their workplace that will not make a large difference as they are still without a great many other part of organization skills. Suppose the organization implement team work as their powerful achievement but the total team performance will depend not only using one colleague but the performance of most colleagues. Different associates can have different issue with organization which might affect their performance so that also change lives on the collective performance of the team work. Employment motivation is also an essential fact in case of team work.

In 1998, British Workforce Relation survey (WERS) conduct a survey among the list of employer in Britain and found that there are a few number of key human resourse management practise among British organisations which includes careful recruitment and selection, performance appraisal, training and team working. The survey also found some proof the integration of human resource management practise and survey(Cully et al. 1999).

There are two different side of the survey which is obvious through data, the practice of human resource management in British organization is widespread however the level of strategic integration of these practises is quit low. Cully et al found is his research that only 15 percent of the role of training in 265 workplaces had most the human resource management set up. Studies of high performance work systems also have shown an identical pattern; relatively common adoption of individual practices but little proof widespread integration (Appelbaum et al. , 2000).

2. 3. Recruitment

There are few definitions available of recruitment. Recruitment involves actions and activities taken by a business in order to recognize and attract individuals to the organization who have features to help the organization realize its strategic objective. Breaugh gave the following definition of recruitment "Employee recruitment involves those organisational activities that 1) influence the number and /or the types of job seekers who apply for a position and /or 2)affect whether employment offer is accepted". Edwin Flipo states that "recruitment is the process of searching for potential candidate and stimulating them to use for the job. "(Edwin Flipo, 2001)

Recruitment includes the set of activities undertaken by the organisation for the principal purpose of identifying an appealing band of applicant, attracting them into its employee ranks, and retaining them at least for small amount of time. (Taylor & Collins, 2000).

Recruitment involves actions and activities taken by an organisation in order to identify and attract individuals to the organisation who are able to help the organisations achieve their target and goal. Recruitment has emerged as arguably the most significant human resource management functions for organisational survival and success. Many organisations have increased their budget for recruitment.

2. 3. 1. Principal of recruitment process

There are number of important characteristic in recruitment definitions. Firstly the process involves specific actions and activities that are undertaken to accomplish particular outcome. Secondly in indicates that the purpose of those activities are to generate a pool of candidate to improve their interest towards organisations and eventually to accept employment offer in the organisation. The third important characteristic is the fact it the quantity of individuals attracted towards the procedure might have the capabilities to be hired but it depends on the choice process where in fact the overqualified and under qualified people will be excluded from the procedure. Fourthly the recruitment is the procedure where any post hire process are not discussed because recruitment is the process to influence candidate to apply for the advertise jobs and accept the job offer.

2. 3. 2. Purpose and importance of recruitment

There are some purpose and importance of recruitment which required to be clearly defined in virtually any research. The importance can described as follows

1. Determine today's and the near future requirements of the organisation on conjunction with its personnel -planning and job analysis activities.

2. To keep the cost minimum and also attracting maximum candidate.

3. As selection process is determined by recruitment process it's the job of the recruitment process to improve the success rate of selection process by reducing the under qualified or overqualified job applicant.

4. It is also the recruitment process where in fact the it is given priority that the recruited candidate stays inside the organisation for maximum number of year.

5. Organisations legal and social obligation about the ratio of recruited people whether ethnic, local or gender in its workforce is also served through recruitment.

6. Recruitment is the first step where the potential job people are identified.

7. By practising the daily job the potency of different recruiting techniques and sources of all types of job applicants are explored.

2. 3. 3. Recruitment process

In recruitment process identifying and attracting qualified applicant is the main aspect. You will discover five interrelated steps about recruitment process. They are-

Planning

Strategic development

Searching

Screening

Evaluation and control

2. 3. 1. Planning

Planning is the first stage of the recruitment process. It involves about the vacancy and the work surrounded by that role. Planning also gave an clear idea about range of candidate and the kind of candidate trying to get the job. An important area of the planning is to attract more people than the organisation needed so that they can choose the best prospect and also attracting the kind of candidate similar to the advertisement.

2. 3. 2. Strategic development

After deciding just how many people will be required and what qualification required the management concentrate in the strategic development. Different companies have different view about strategic development. The very first thing is to decide in strategic development is to choose whether to recruit someone with past experience or whether to recruit someone with fresh knowledge and invest towards the near future training of that employee. After deciding the eligibility of the employee the organisations look different medium to market the work and which labour market they would like to target. Each one of these activities are inside the strategic development of recruitment.

2. 3. 3. Searching

The searching process starts after the planning and strategic development. If the first two processes run well in searching process the organisation should receive many application because at this time the medium is activated as the HR manager gives green signal about vacancy inside the organisation. All of the application must be screened and after careful screening the candidates who passed should called for interview and the applicants did not pass should sent letter explaining the reason of failure. Another important requirements about searching process is to pass the proper massage through the proper channel. And it is the duty of searching option that maximum attention gets from the prospect by preventing the undesirables.

2. 3. 4. Screening

The selection process begins after a carefully scrutinizing the candidate at the recruitment process. However good the attraction process it is probable that you will see more prospects than positions to be filled and often the truth there that there will candidates than can be realistically taken on to the next stage of more time consuming selection processes such as interviewing and testing. The reason behind screening inside the recruitment process is the fact selection process starts only after candidates are short listed for the next stage.

2. 3. 4. Resources of recruitment

There are two types how recruitment are processed within an organisation. They are really internal recruitment and external recruitment.

2. 3. 4. 1. Internal recruitment

The features of internal recruitment are that: financial costs associated with recruiting can be saved by internal recruiting. It will save training costs and time as the employee will have insight knowledge of the organization (Wanous, 1992). There are some tools organisation uses for internal recruitment.

Promotions and transfers

Promotions and transfers are extremely important role for internal recruitment. Promotions have very positive role inside the organisations as they encourage colleague, built moral attributes among employee. Through this process organisations can build employee by their need so when those employees are serving for a long period for the business they feel because of their organisation.

Employee referrals

When a worker is doing work for an organisation for a long period they know the necessity of the organisation and sometime they refer employees according the need of the organisation. This way organisation can sometime get high skilled employee but in a very minimum cost. Another positive side about employee reference is through this employer are fulfilling their social obligation and establishing goodwill.

Former employees

Another source of internal recruitment is former employee. Former employees sometimes go back to the organisation for better career growth and also sometime after in another job they can compare which is better this way they can differentiate which employee is way better.

2. 3. 4. 2. External recruitment

External recruitment makes can be done interview a wide a range of prospect and chose from that selection. Sometimes employer need to pump some fresh blood of their organisation to get some good home based business ideas and to put some energy inside the organisation. But sometimes company finish up with huge cost for hiring external employees nonetheless they aren't as qualified as their curriculum vita says.

Advertisement

The most popular approach to job recruitment is the advertisement through different medium. Employers describe the job responsibilities and requirement of the job followed by how to apply and by which date they need to apply. Typically the most popular medium of advertisement will be the newspaper, company website and different jobsite which post job from different company. A lot of people apply through this medium and sometimes company also promote themselves through these advertisements.

Professional and trade association

Professional association for trade and technical bodied are extremely mixed up in field of recruitment and selection. They offer employer with people according to their need and the ones professionals are trained with international standard. Like for accountant and technical jobs are always preferred by the professional bodies. Nowadays there are some websites like linked where network among different professional people.

Walk in store

Another popular method among the list of employee or ob seeker for different store and food shops are known as walk in store. Company advertise before the stores or there is a particular place where companies hired. In Europe and other western countries where the chain stores are established they managed to recruit people from their own recruitment centre. In this process mostly entry level and unskilled employees are hired. Employer sometime announces open day recruitment for recruiting people. Through open day recruitment organisation

External Forces

Unemployment Rate

Labour Market

Political - Legal

Image

Recruitment

Internal Forces

Recruitment Policy

HR Planning

Size of the Firm

2. 4. Selection

Selection is the process where employer chooses from a pool of candidate who is best well suited for the organisation. From the beginning of the selection process till the end choosing the right candidate is really the only objective and also to do that there will vary test that employer choose to differentiate one of the candidate. Selection is a process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify those with a larger likelihood of successful in a job. (Stone, 1999)

Selection is an extremely constructive process by which right prospects comes out.

2. 4. 1. Preliminary interview

The first rung on the ladder of the selection process is the preliminary interview process which comprises the topic to scrutiny the prospect based on their application and also eliminates the unqualified candidate. For HR managers scrutiny is the procedure to eliminate prospect based on the information provided on the application. Preliminary interview is another available step for selection. Preliminary interview helps get that information which is not in the available in the application form. It can be held formally or informally, over the telephone or in a coffee shop. It can help HR manager to get a concept how many applicants can make it through the next stage and eventually will move forward.

The interview processes will vary in several countries. In UK they may be more structured type. In UK they said that the more information you get in regards to a person the reliable the person and a lot more valid and reliable your judgment is. Tixier in a survey in EU (but excluding France) Sweden, Switzerland and Austria found that structured interview were favoured in the united kingdom, Scandinavia, Germany and Austria. This contrasted with Italy, Portugal, Luxembourg and Switzerland where unstructured were preferred (Tixer, 1996)

2. 4. 2. Selection test

The essential criterion in choosing supplementary method is that they have to provide information that is directly related to performance on the job. This will be the guiding principal both in choosing off-the-shelf tests and in designing exercises tailor-made for a specific workplace. In their overview of what they call personal testing, Murphy and Davidshofer (2001) stress that greater results are obtained the more closely a test, such as work sample test, resembles things that are in fact done in the job concerned. A related issue that prospect can easily see the point of a test that requires them to take action they know will be done on the job.

Psychological testing

The term psychological tests are also called psychometric test. They may be developed to guage people based on their different capability. These are professionally developed and checked for reliability and validity. They may be administered and scored in a standardized manner. The results found from these tests can be compared to norms for relevant population.

The standardised administration of tests means all applicants answer the same questions in the same condition and objective scoring means that the scores aren't open to individual interpretation as is the case with interview responses.

Intelligence test

Intelligence test is the most widely practised test in the choice process. The ranges of skills cover are verbal, arithmetical and diagrammatical reasoning. Selection team use intelligence test among the first tool to guage an applicant.

Ability test

Ability test tend to be more specific test designed for individual to show their ability towards a particular test. How well an individual can perform in employment can be tested through this. You will discover two type of ability test the first is attainment ensure that you the other is aptitude test. Attainment test assess skills and knowledge that contain been acquired through experience and learning, and aptitude test measure individuals potential to build up ability. Work sample test or school exams are types of attainment test and the use of the would not require the special training.

Where as aptitude test measure whether a applicant be capable of learn something if training is provided. More often than not aptitude test run when the candidate has no previous experience. It gives the indication that how successfully a person might engage in a specialized activities. There is different type of aptitude test for those sector of the organization.

Test of interest

The relationship between interests and motivation and successful performance is not a straightforward one. Because of this these test aren't used for selection (Smith and Robertson1993). But interest test can be used in career guidance and counselling. It gives an idea about the likings and disliking of the employee and present a hint sometimes why employee want to change their career.

Personality questionnaire

Personality questionnaire has been used in preference to personality test. When measuring the personality test there is absolutely no right or wrong answer rather than they may be indication of habitual performance meaning that they reflect stable traits that will tend to be revealed in typical behaviour. Personality test is vital in case of job application. A person can prosper in the whole test but may flunk as they have got lack of motivation. It shows the maturity, interpersonal skill and behaviour in terms of difficult situation.

2. 4. 3. Work sample test

When recruiter asks a prospect to perform a task that is related to the work or a factor which is part of the job is recognized as work sample test. A recruiter may ask the employee to execute a lecture or to teach a topic to an organization of people as part of work sample test if the interview is approximately university lecturer.

2. 4. 4. Assessment centres

An assessment centre is a way rather than place, even though some employer, particularly large organization may have premises focused on assessment, especially if they utilize them for both selection and development purposes. (Woodruffe, 2000) Inside a assessment centre lots of people are assessed at exactly the same time by a number of assessor judging their numerical skill, interpersonal skill and how they coup with the colleague. This gives the chance to the employer to compare collection of range of information and observation and analysis the candidate.

The task contained in an assessment centre test is work simulation where applicant were given a genuine life task usually performed in job. A predicated on their performance it is simpler for a recruiter to tell apart the actual candidate. Group exercise is another tool found in assessment centre. Different employer use different customized tests or exercises.

2. 4. 5. Interview

The next step of the procedure is interview. This is the most important part of the selection process. An interviewer matches the performance of previous results taken from different test and compares them with resume and asks question if they feel. Interview is a oral examination of the candidate. Employer try to get more info about candidate through interview and they also discuss about the role featured and about the company.

There are different kind of interview by which employer can judge a candidate. Among them typically the most popular are formal interview where employer will fixed a period in the office and a panel of interviewer or a person taking the interview. Interviews time are incredibly structured and sometimes it is unstructured giving the interviewer the chance to discuss himself and interact based on his conversation.

When choosing managerial or supervisory position a panel of interviewer take the interview and use different technique to judge the mentality of the candidate. Interviews are also arranged in a dinner table at some restaurant or over the phone. All these interviews are one reason that is to learn if the candidate would work enough for the positioning he is requested.

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