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Radiologist Professions In Malaysia Health And Social Care and attention Essay

Careers in radiology are among the most numerous in remedies. Radiologists can opt to be general, providing a thorough service to all or any clinical specialties, or super specialist, becoming very skilled sole field. Most careers offer both elements, with general radiology and the opportunity to develop and continue a subspecialty interest. Radiologists could also choose to get just as much, or as little direct patient contact as they really want. Classes in fluoroscopy, ultrasound and interventional radiology require close contact with patients, retaining the drive that led many doctors to enter into medicine to begin with.

Radiology also provides many opportunities for research and teaching. The ongoing scientific development in modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and ultrasound, opens ever new areas to radiological interpretation. These speedily expanding fields carry great potential client for those with an academics interest.

This learning resource has been developed by Dr Rhidan Bramley and Dr Hans-Ulrich Laasch 2001

2. 0 WHAT'S MEDICINE?

Medicine is the knowledge and art (ars medicina) of restoration. It has a range of healthcare practices evolved to keep up and repair health by the reduction and treatment of health issues. Before scientific medication, healing arts were practised relative to alchemical treatments and ritual routines that developed out of religious and cultural practices. The word "Western remedies" was until recently used to refer to medical and science-based practices to distinguish it from "Eastern drugs" - which are typically based in traditional, anecdotal, or otherwise non-scientific routines.

Contemporary medicine can be applied health technology, biomedical research, and medical technology to identify and treat harm and disease, typically through medication, surgery, or some other form of remedy. The word remedies comes from the Latin ars medicina, signifying the fine art of recovery.

This explanation has been quoted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

3. 0 WHO IS A DOCTOR?

A doctor is a medical practitioner, he/she practices remedies. The main role of your physician is to revive and maintain individual health. This is done through studying any disease or damage, and applying a proper medical diagnosis and treatment to the patients.

There are extensive kinds of doctors. Family and basic practitioners are usually the first doctors that individuals will tackle when they aren't being well or suffering. These doctors treat common illness such as flu, fever, coughing, stomachache and so forth. If the condition is not common, they will refer patients to other doctors, called specialists. Specialists are experts in specific types of health problems.

For example, Gynaecologists interacting with the health of the feminine reproductive system (uterus, vagina, and ovaries). Internists give attention to problems with internal organs. Paediatricians look after children and babies. Surgeons perform functions, like fixing busted bone fragments or transplanting organs. Radiologists are medical professionals that utilize an array of imaging systems to analyze or treat diseases.

Most doctors are doctors of drugs (M. D. ). They treat all sorts of diseases and traumas. Some doctors are doctors of osteopathic medication (D. O. ). They focus on muscles and bones.

4. 0 WHO'S A RADIOLOGIST?

A radiologist is your physician who has customized training in obtaining and interpreting medical images, making her or him an imaging expert. These images are obtained by using x-rays (radiographs, CT, fluoroscopy), or radioactive chemicals (nuclear drugs), others by means of reasonable waves (ultrasound) or your body's natural magnetism (MRI).

Nearly all physicians take a look at patients, obtain medical histories, diagnose illnesses, or prescribe and administer treatment for people suffering from injury or disease. Relating to North american Medical Association statistics, 1. 2 percent of these physicians focus on radiology. A radiologist correlates medical image studies with other examinations and checks, recommends further examinations or treatments, and confers with referring medical doctors (the doctors who send patients to the radiology division or clinic for trials). Radiologists also treat diseases by means of radiation (radiation oncology or nuclear medicine) or minimally intrusive, image-guided surgery (interventional radiology).

Like other doctors, a radiologist will need to have graduated from an accredited medical university and has gained an MD degree. She or he have passed a licensing examination, performed each year of internship, and completed at least four years of graduate medical education (residency) in radiology. Upon completing a residency, these doctors may choose to get into a fellowship program and sub-specialize into one or more areas of radiology.

Radiologists are usually panel qualified, that is, took and transferred an examination and thus approved to apply in the field by either the American Board of Radiology (for a physician) or the American Osteopathic Table of Radiology (for an osteopathic doctor).

5. 0 WHAT DO RADIOLOGISTS DO?

Acting as a specialist consultant to your referring medical professional (the doctor who sent one to the radiology office or medical clinic for tests) by assisting him or her in selecting the proper evaluation, interpreting the resulting medical images, and in using test results in your good care.

Treating diseases through radiation (radiation oncology) or minimally invasive, image-guided surgery (interventional radiology).

Correlating medical image studies with other examinations and assessments.

Recommending further appropriate examinations or treatments when necessary, and conferring with referring health professionals.

Directing radiology technologists (personnel who operate the equipment) in the correct performance of quality examinations.

A radiologist, through considerable professional medical work and related research, could also specialize in a number of radiology subspecialties.

6. 0 GENERAL PATH TO PURSUE RADIOLOGIST FOR LOCAL STUDIES

Science Stream in Form 6

Apply medical in local university - 5 years

Housemanship - 2 years

Junior Medical Official (JMO) - 2 years

Apply for Master in Radiologist in USM, UM or UKM

Go for interview (minimumly six months JMO in radiology department)

Study grasp for 4 years. 1st and 3rd season received exam. 4th calendar year purely evaluation.

Radiologist in Malaysia

Radiologist in Malaysia

Get recommendation letter from brain of department

Go for interview

Study for FRCR from UK

Part A - to go 6 documents (no duration limitation and can retake as much times as you can)

Part B - after complete Part A then go for Part B

Fellowship Royal College Radiologist recognition

7. 0 WAY TO PROCEED FOR FELLOWSHIP ROYAL School RADIOLOGIST

8. 0 GENERAL PATH TO PURSUE RADIOLOGIST FOR OVERSEA STUDIES (UK)

Medical School

V

V

V

Radiology connection / elective

V

V

Pre-registration House Officer

V

V

V

Radiology task / audit

V

V

Senior House Officer in any Clinical Specialty

V

V

V

Further medical training

Minimum one year

V

V

Postgraduate degree (e. g. MRCP)

V

V

Specialist Registrar in Radiology

Year 1: Basic Sciences

Anatomy

Physics

Radiology technique

Exam FRCR 1

Radiation protection

V

Plain film radiography

Nuclear medicine

Contrast examinations

Mcq exam FRCR 2a

Ultrasound

Barium procedures

Clinical exam FRCR 2b

CT & MR

V

GI-radiology

Cross-sectional imaging

O&G radiology

Uroradiology

Paediatric radiology

General radiology

Mammography

Nuclear medicine

Vascular radiology

Trauma radiology

Neuroradiology

Oncological radiology

Antenatal diagnostic

Chest radiology

ENT / dental radiology

Non-vascular intervention

Musculoskeletal radiology

V

V

V

Year 6: Extended Subspecialty Training

V

Interventional radiology

Vascular radiology

V

Radionuclide imaging

Neuroradiology

V

V

CCST (Certificate of Completion of Specialist Training)

9. 0 Minimum amount REQUIREMENTS FOR MALAYSIAN STUDENTS SEEKING TO ENTER Grasp OF MEDICAL IN RADIOLOGY

To be able to apply for Grasp of Medical in Radiology, one must obtain MBBS in Amount of Medical College or university in Malaysia.

The bare minimum requirements for students to go after Medicine are at least a CGPA of 3. 00. However, the Ministry of Education Malaysia has the to amend the minimum qualification requirements whenever necessary.

Being MBBS honor holder and wishing to proceed to be a radiologist, one will need to have at least 6 months experience as Junior Medical Officer (JMO) in radiology team during his training. With this condition fulfilled, he/she can then request to seek recommendation from the section head. While using recommendation letter, he/she is able to apply and attend for interview.

Sample interview questions are as below:

Why choose a career in radiology?

Why have you decided to differ from your previous profession path?

How has your training so far prepared you for a job in radiology?

What do you really bring to radiology?

Why perhaps you have chosen this training design?

What branch of radiology are you interested in?

What will be the qualities of the good radiologist?

Have you got a good notion what a radiologist does?

Where do you think radiology is certainly going in the next 5 years?

Should there be 24hr / 7day weekly radiology?

Name 2 good and 2 bad aspects about yourself?

Who should radiologists coach?

Does radiology need research?

Do you trust radiographers having an extended role?

(usually asked by way of a radiographer)

10. 0 TRAINING AND WORKING TO BE A RADIOLOGIST

Before one become radiologist, one have to attend 4 many years of training after obtain his/her degree in medical. The first 2 years is to attend housemanship in Malaysia. The next 24 months is to are Junior Medical Official (JMO) in local medical center.

To sign up for housemanship in Malaysia, they are the requirements and techniques.

10. 1 Application for Provisional Registration

Applicants need to post the following documents:

Form 4 of the Medical Action 1971 for Provisional Enrollment application form;

2 passport size images;

A Certified backup of Basic Medical Degree

A Certified backup of your transcript encompassing the results of entire training period

A Certified copy of 'Bonafide Pupil Qualification' - Applicable and then graduates from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh

A Certified backup of Identity Cards or passport;

A Certified copy of birth license;

A Certified copy of SPM/MCE or similar;

A RM20 processing charge by money/postal order payable for the Registrar Medical Practitioner

Apart from the documents above, the next documents have to be submitted:

Local graduates:

The original Dean's letter

Overseas graduates:

For graduates from Indian companies - A Certified copy of Bonafide Learner and Rotating Internship;

For graduates from Indonesian companies - A Certified copy of Sarjana Kedokteran and Ijazah Kedokteran;

10. 2 Request for Full Sign up For DOCTORS Undergoing Housemanship In Malaysia

The program should be submitted through a healthcare facility where the candidate has gone through the housemanship training;

The pursuing documents must be submitted:

Form 6 of the Medical Function 1971 to be completed by a healthcare facility;

Form 9 of the Medical Take action 1971 to be completed by the applicant (medical official);

Appendix A form to be completed by the applicant (medical officer);

Form A have to be completed by the respective discipline supervisors where in fact the housemanship was conducted (including expansion letters, if applicable);

Certified true duplicate of the initial basic medical level;

Depending on the position of the documentation, the Council will issue either an acknowledgement or query notice within one weeks of the receipt of the application form;

Every program must be sent within one month following the practioner finish their housemanship.

10. 3 Full Registration For DOCTORS Undergoing Housemanship Overseas

For Malaysians - application can be posted right to the Council;

For Non-Malaysians - The application form need to be submitted through possible employer;

The Council's Evaluation Committee which satisfies monthly will deliberate ALL program.

The application submitted need to be completed with the next documents (preferably type-written):

Form 9 of the Medical Function for full enrollment application;

Curriculum Vitae Form (CV);

2 passport sized photographs

A Certified duplicate of Basic Medical Degree;

A Certified backup of transcript encompassing the whole training period;

A Certified backup of 'Bonafide University student License' - Appropriate and then graduates from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh;

A Certified backup of Postgraduate Medical Level, if applicable;

A Certified copies of certificates/verification characters of housemanship

A Certified certificates/letters from a healthcare facility or particular Council which confirms the disciplines and the length of each posting the applicant got undergone during the housemanship training;

A Certified duplicate/ies of Letter/Testimonials of previous medical experience (For individuals who had practised overseas after completing housemanship);

A Certified duplicate of Full Sign up License with the Medical Council he's currently documented;

An Original License or Notice of Good Standing from the Medical Council he is currently authorized. (Take note : Any 'Notice of Good Ranking' obtained from an establishment or an individual will not be entertained. )

A Certified copy of Identity Credit card or passport;

A RM100 handling payment by money/postal order payable for the Registrar PHYSICIAN;

10. 4 Application for Brief Registration

Application should be produced through a specialist listed with the Malaysian Medical Council with valid and current Annual Practising Certificate who shall be the guarantor; The guarantor shall supervise the practice of the physician whom the Short term Practising License is issued to;

All applications must be along with a set of documents mentioned below: Application will be deliberated by the Evaluation Committee;

Application form for Temporary Practising Certificate (to be type written)

Curriculum Vitae of the applicant (to be type written)

A Certified true duplicate of basic medical degree.

A Certified true duplicate of post graduate degree(s)

A Certified true copy of full sign up certificate from Medical Council or Medical Licensing Authority of the united states of practice.

Current and original Notice of Good Ranking from Medical Council or Medical Licensing Expert of the united states of practice.

A Certified true duplicate of testimonials of working experience from Head of Department/ supervisor concerned;

A Certified true copy of Passport (in A4 size newspaper).

A Certified true copy of Medical Indemnity.

The guarantor will be notified in writing on the Analysis Committee's decision; Please make sure that your application is submitted at least 6 (six) weeks previous thus far of commencing practice as the Analysis Committee sits only one time a month.

Application must be tendered in 12 (TWELVE) copies.

(Word: Only one set must be authorized true backup in original form). The processing fee for each request is RM50 (Fifty Ringgit), payable by means of Postal /Money Order to The Registrar of DOCTORS.

Note:

Unless branded in either Bahasa Malaysia or British, documents in virtually any other languages need to be translated by a relevant authority into either Bahasa Malaysia or British;

Please download relevant form and a checklist of documents you must definitely provide for the application to be refined;

When we receive the application we will check your entire documents and other information that you send. We may individually check some documents at their source

It is emphasized that satisfaction of the conditions for registration does not mean automatic authorization for registration. Each request will be looked at alone merits.

Application and relevant documents to be published to:

The Secretary,

Malaysian Medical Council

Level 2, Block E1, Parcel E, Precinct 1,

Federal Federal government Administrative Centre

62590 Putrajaya.

Application methods above taken from Malaysian Medical Council website, which is http://www. mmc. gov. my/v1/

10. 5 FIELD OF RADIOLOGY

Breast imaging

The subspecialty of radiology devoted to the diagnostic imaging and identification of breasts diseases and conditions. This consists of mammography, breasts ultrasound, breast MRI, and breast types of procedures such as breast biopsy.

Cardiovascular Radiology

The subspecialty of radiology devoted to the diagnostic imaging and examination of diseases of the center and arteries (including the arteries and veins, and the lymphatics). This includes x-rays, CT (computed tomography or Feline), ultrasound and MRI.

Chest Radiology

The subspecialty of radiology devoted to diagnostic imaging and prognosis of diseases of the breasts, especially the center and lungs. This consists of x-rays, CT (computed tomography or Kitty), Ultrasound, MRI and upper body strategies, such as lung biopsy and drainage of smooth from the chest.

Emergency Radiology

The subspecialty of radiology specialized in the diagnostic imaging and analysis of trauma and non-traumatic crisis conditions. This includes x-rays, CT (computed tomography or Kitten), Ultrasound and MRI.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Radiology

The subspecialty of radiology devoted to the diagnostic imaging and diagnosis of the gastrointestinal (GI), or digestive tract (the intestines and stomach) and stomach. This includes fluoroscopy, x-rays, CT (computed tomography or Kitten), Ultrasound, MRI, and GI methods such as biopsy, smooth and abscess drainage.

Genitourinary Radiology

The subspecialty of radiology devoted to the identification and treatment of the organs of the reproductive and urinary tracts. This consists of x-rays, CT (computed tomography or Kitten), MRI and steps such as biopsy, kidney natural stone removal, and uterine fibroid removal.

Head and Neck Radiology

The subspecialty of radiology devoted to the diagnostic imaging and identification of diseases of the head and neck. This includes x-rays, CT (computed tomography or Kitty), Ultrasound and MRI.

Musculoskeletal Radiology

The subspecialty of radiology devoted to the diagnostic imaging and diagnosis of the muscles and the skeleton. This consists of x-rays, CT (computed tomography or Kitty), Ultrasound and MRI.

Neuroradiology

The subspecialty of radiology specialized in the diagnostic imaging and prognosis of the brain and nerves, brain, neck and vertebrae. This consists of x-rays, CT (computed tomography or Kitty), Ultrasound and MRI.

Pediatric Radiology

The subspecialty of radiology devoted to the diagnostic imaging and prognosis of diseases of children. This includes x-rays, CT (computed tomography or Kitty), Ultrasound, MRI and steps such as fluoroscopy, biopsy and drainage of fluid or abscess collections.

Interventional Radiology

The subspecialty of radiology specialized in the imaging, analysis and treatment of patients utilizing minimally intrusive interventional techniques. This includes imaging and treatment of the arteries (such as angiography, angioplasty and stent placement), biopsy procedures, line and pipe location, uterine fibroid removal, substance and abscess drainage, These can be performed with x-rays, fluoroscopy, CT (computed tomography or CAT), Ultrasound or MRI.

Nuclear Radiology

The subspecialty of radiology devoted to the imaging, analysis and treatment of patients with trace doses of radioactive material. This includes imaging of the heart, the skeletal system, & most organs in the torso (for example the thyroid and parathyroid glands, liver organ, spleen, kidneys, lungs, etc). It also includes the treating various conditions in the body like a hyperactive thyroid gland and thyroid tumors. The imaging modalities add a gamma imaging, Dog or cat, and Dog or cat/CT.

Radiation Oncology

The subspecialty of radiology specialized in the treating cancer with rays. Rays may be shipped from another x-ray source or may be injected into the body.

10. 6 Conditions USED IN SERVICES/RANGE OF FACILITIES

Services / facilities

Description

Plain X-rays

Refers to plain radiographs such as Breasts X-rays, spine x-rays

Fluoroscopic Services

Includes gastrointestinal barium studies such as barium food, enema, Barium swallow; study of the lower limb veins

Ultrasound

Basic identifies ordinary ultrasound (grey level) while duplex or Doppler ultrasound identifies ultrasound which includes those able to image vessels and blood vessels flow/

Mammography

Plain identifies basic mammography. Other facilities to perform types of procedures under mammographic guidance include ductography (imaging of the ducts of the breasts), Stereotaxic service (which enables needle biopsy strategies using computerized aid), hookwire localization with compression plate method is the localization of an lesion that can't be noticed with the hands using the two 2 view perforated compression dish technique.

CT Scan

This refers to computerized axial tomography. This amounts from the essential non-spiral, spiral to multislice systems. Multislice scanners are the latest in the market. The Electron Beam CT (EBCT) can be an ultra fast scanner whose forte is CT check out of the center for coronary artery calcification and CT Angiography of the center. The most recent Multislice fast scanners are now with the capacity of CT of the coronary arteries as well.

The "abilities" of the scanners vary according to type. Special scans include those with the capacity of CT Check out for coronary Artery calcification, Special CT examination of the blood vessels (CT Angiography), CT Perfusion and quantitative CT Densitometry (for bone density quantification)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Refers to imaging using magnetic areas. Again, there will vary types and they may be an open up magnet, a long lasting magnet of a superconducting magnet. Additional special features are sometimes due to additional software and hardware. Included in these are kinematic MR for bones, Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA), Contrast Enhanced MRA, Diffusion, Perfusion techniques, Functional MRI and spectroscopy.

Angiogram

The research of blood vessels under special fluoroscopic advice and it is usually using digital subtraction techniques.

Interventional Facilities

Ranges from the basic to special interventional procedures that require further training. They include neurointervention, peripheral vascular involvement, chemoembolisation, RF ablation, Ethanol Ablation, Vertebroplasty, Uterine fibroid embolisation.

Bone densitometry

Refers to the way of measuring of bone relative density and this can done either by X-ray (Dual Energy Bone densitometry - DEXA), ultrasound or quantitative CT.

10. 7 Cases OF SCANNING IMAGES

11. 0 WHERE TO STUDY RADIOLOGIST IN MALAYSIA UNIVERSITY

University Malaya

Address: School of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA

Tel : +603-7967 7022/3273

Fax : +603-7956 0027

Email :

International Undergraduate Enquiries :

Postgraduate Enquiries :

Universiti Sains Malaysia

Address: Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang Malaysia

Tel : +604-653 3888

Fax : +604-658 9666

Emel :

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Address: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi Selangor, Malaysia

Tel : +603 8921 5555

Fax : +603 8921 5555

E-mail :

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